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Full text of "History, gazetteer and directory of the County of Devon including the City of Exeter, and comprising a general survey of the County and separate historical, statistical and topographical descriptions of all the hundreds, unions, parishes, townships, chapelries, towns, ports, villages - hamlets"

HISTOBY, 
GAZETTEER AND DIRECTORY 



OF THE COUNTY OF 



DEVON 



INCLUDING 



THE CITY OF EXETER, , 

AND COMPEISING A 

d^eneral ^urtjep of t\^t Count? 

AND SEPARATE 

HISTORICAL, STATISTICAL AND TOPOGRAPHICAL DESCRIPTIONS 

OF ALL THE 

HUNDREDS, UNIONS, PARISHES, TOWNSHIPS, CHAPELRIES, TOWNS, PORTS, VILLAGES & HAMLETS; 

THE DIOCESE OF EXETER; 
THE SEATS OF THE NOBILITY AND GENTEY; 

MAGISTRATES AND PUBLIC OFFICERS; 

AND A CHEAT VARIETY OF 

ARCH^OLOGICAL, ARCHITECTURAL, AGRICULTURAL, BIOGRAPHICAL, 
BOTANICAL, GEOLOGICAL, AND OTHER INFORMATION. 

SECOND EDITION. 




BY WILLIAM WHITE, 

AUTHOR OF SIMILAR 'WORKS FOR 

HAMFfcHiRF, Leicestershire, Rutland, Lincolnshire, Norfolk, Suffolk, Essex, and other counties. 



PFdCE— CLOTH, 065.; HALF-BOUND, 405. 



SHEFFIELD : 
WILLIAM WHITE, 18 & 20 BANK STREET. 

LONDON: SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, & CO. 
1878-9. 

ENTERED AT ST'ATIONERS' HALL, 



IV9 



LOSDOS : PBIKTED BY 

grOTTISWOODB AND CO., KEW-STIIEET SQUARB 

AND PARLIAMENT STREET 



P K E F A C E. 



The Editor, in issuing the Second Edition of * White's History, Gazetteer and Directory 
OF THE County of Devon,' has to acknowledge the kindness shown by the Nobility, Clergy and 
Gentry of the County, In revising the articles on the places of their residence, in sending replies 
to the Schedules of Queries submitted to them, and in correcting Authors' Proofs. His thanks 
are specially due to the writers of the County Scientific Essays, some of whom have written similar 
papers in White's Histories and Gazetteers of other Counties, viz. : Townshend M. Hall, Esq., 
F.G.S., of Pilton, on * Geology ',, (page 58), and 'Mines and Mining' (page 75); James Britten, 
Esq., F.L.S., of the British Museum, on 'Botany' (page 54); and N. A. Humphreys, Esq., of 
Somerset House, London, on 'Vital Statistics' (page 78). He is also indebted to Chas. Worthy, 
Esq., late H.M. 82nd Regiment, Author of ' Devonshire Parishes * and other works, for his assistance 
in revising the general History and Description of the County and of the City of Exeter. 

The Editor has also to express his obligations to his numerous patrons, who, from their 
knowledge of the value of the First Edition of 'White's Devonshire,' have had sufficient faith 
to believe that the present one would, at any rate, be equal to its predecessor. He believes that 
the increase of the size of the work (a greater increase than he had anticipated), the valuable 
articles upon scientific subjects already referred to, the improved classification and arrangement of 
the Hundreds, Parishes, &c., the carefully compiled Indexes, the Streets Directory of Exeter (a 
new feature), and the Trades Directory at the close of the book (another new feature), will more 
than answer their expectations. 

As he hopes at some future time to publish a Third Edition, he will be happy to receive any 
suggestions which may occur to those who peruse the present work ; and as every possible care baa 
been taken to avoid errors (even at the expense of delay), he trusts that the volume will be found 
as free from inaccuracies as is compatible with the vast amount of information and the great variety 
of subjects comprised within its pages* 



U)^ U>^aXAI. 



December 1878. 



INDEX OF PLACES. 



COKTAINlXa, IN ALPHABKTICAL ORDER, THE NAMES OF ALL THE HUNDREDS, PARISHES, TOWNS, TOWNSHIPS, VILLAGES, 

AND HAMLETS IN DEVONSHIRE. 



N.B. The post town is appended to each place. 



Abbey, Axmlnster, 116 

Abbots Bickington, Braudis Corner, 99 

Abbotsham, Bideford and "Westward 

Ho! 99 
Abbot's Hill, Beaford, 143 
Abbotskerswell, Newton Abbot, 100 
Addiscott, Okehampton, 727 
Aish, Ivy bridge, 717 
Alfardisworthy, Holsworthy, 172 
Allaleigh, Totnes, 240 
AUer, Newton Abbot, 100 
AUer (North), South Molton, 720 
Allington (East), Totnes, 308 
Allington (South), Kings bridge, 214 
Alphington, Exeter, 100 
Alphington, Ottery St. Mary, 585 
Alscott, Barnstaple and Bideford, 101 
Alston (Beer), Roborough, 144 
Alswere (or Alswear), S. Molton, 538 
Alverdiscott, Barnstaple and Bideford, 

101 
Alvington (West), Kingsbridge, 840 
Aldington, Bideford, 102 
Annemouth, Kingsbridge, 778 
Annery Kiln, Torrington, 550 
Anstey (East), Dulverton, 309 
Anstey (West), Tiverton, 841 
Anstey's Cove, Torquay, 686 
Appledore, Wellington, 204 
Appledore, East and West, 102 
Aptor, Newton Abbot, 502 
Aptor, Totnes, 539 
Arlington, Barnstaple, 104 

Ash, Axminster, 555 

Ash, Tiverton, 462 
Ash, Totnes, 734 

Ash, Bideford, 595 

Ash, Dartmouth, 733 

Ash (King's), Chulmleigh, 1 1 2 

Ash burton, 104 

Ashbury, Exbourne, 110 

Ashcombe, Dawlish, 110 

Ashculm, Wellington (Somerset), 471 

Ashford, Barnstaple,. Ill 

Ashford, Kingsbridge &Ivybridge,l 14 

Ashford (West), Barnstaple, 471 

Ashill, CuUompton, 829 

Ashley, Tiverton, 779 

Ash Mill, South Molton, 160 

Ashprington, Totnes, 111 

Ashreigny, Chulmleigh, 112 

Ashton (Higher and Lower), Newton 
Abbot, 112 

Ashwater, Lifton, 113 

Ashwell, Teignmoath and Chudleigh, 
162, 531 

Atherington, Barnstaple, 114 



Aveton Grifford, Kingsbridge and Ivy 

bridge, 114 
Avon Wick, Ugborough, 572, 831 
Awliscombe (or Awlescombe), Hon- 

iton, 115 
Axminster, 116 
Axminster Hundred, 87 
Axminster Town, Axminster, 116 
Axmouth, Axminster, 121 
Aylesbeare, Ottery St. Mary, 122 
Ayshford, Wellington, 204 
Babbicombe, Torquay, 686, 689 
Bagtor, Newton Abbot, 500 
Bampton, Tiverton, 123 
Bampton Hundred, 87 
Banbury, Exeter, 174 
Bantham, Kingsbridge, 778 
Barbrook, Barnstaple, 534 
Barnstaple, 125 

Barrowhill, Wellington (Somerset) 471 
Barton, Torquay, 686 
Batson, Kingsbridge, 536 
Bawcombe, Kingsbridge, 840 
Beacon, Honiton, 529 
Beacon Hill, South Molton, 682 
Beaford, 143 

Beam, Great Torrington, 456 
Beara, Lifton, 524 
Bearscombe, Mounts, R.S.O. 201 
Beaworthy, Exbourne, 143 
Beccott, Barnsbxple, 104 
Becky Falls, Moretonhampstead, 537 
Bedford, Tavistock, 763 
Beer, Axminster, 700 
Beer, Exeter, 189 
Beer Alston, Eoborough, 144 
Beerferris (or Bereferrers), Robo- 
rough, 144 
Beerhall, Axminster, 116 
Beertown, Roborough, 144 
Beesands, Kingsbridge, 736 
Beesou, Kingsbridge, 736 
Bellamarsh, Chudleigh 517 
Belston (or Belstone),Okehampton,145 
Ben-Twitchen, South Molton, 574 
Berrynarbor, Ilfracombe, 146 
Berry Pomeroy, Totnes, 147 
Bicaton, Totnes, 191 
Bickerton, Kingsbridge, 736 
Bickham, Exeter, 605 
Bickington, Fremington, 451 
Bickington, Newton Abbot, 148 
Bickington (Abbots), Brandis Cornerj 

99 
Bickington (High), Chulmleigh, 473 
Bickleigh Plymouth, 149 
Bickleigh, Tiverton, 148 



j Bicton, Budleigh Salterton, 149 
Biddacott, South Molton, 213 
Bideford, 150 
Bidlake, Bridestowe, 179 
Bigbury, Aveton Gilford, 158 
Billacott, Launceston, 576 
Bilsford, Bideford, 197 
Bish Mill, South Molton, 160 
Bishop's Clist, Exeter, 728 
Bishop's Mill, South Molton, 160 
Bishop's Morchard, 159 
Bishop's Nympton, South Molton, 160 
Bishop's Tawton, Barnstaple, 161 
Bishop's Teignton, Teignmouih, 162 
Bittadon, Barnstaple, 163 
Bittaford, Ivy bridge, 831 
Blackawton (or Blackauton), Totnes, 

163 
Blackborough, CuUompton, 165 
Blackbury, Ottery St. Mary, 229 
Black Dog, Exeter, 189 
Black Dog (Higher and Lower), Pud- 

dingtoa, 837 
Blackdown, Ashburton, 849 
Blackdown Hill, Kingsbridge, 527 
Blackpool, Dartmouth, 733 
Blackslade, Ashburton, 849 
Black Torrington, Highampton, 165 
Black Torrington Hundred, 87 
Blagdon, Paignton, 590 
Bodley, Barnstaple, 595 
Bolbury, Kingsbridge, 536 
Bolesbridge, Launceston, 576 
Bolham, Tiverton, 779 
Bondleigh, North Tawton, 166 
Boode, Barnstaple, 176 
Boohay, Brixham, 181 
Bolestone, Totnes, 163 
Borough Farm, Barnstaple, 102 
Borough Island, Aveton Gilford, 158 
Bosom Zeal, Totnes, 301 
Bovey (Little), Newton Abbot, 166 
Bovey (North), Moretonhampstead,571 
Bovey Tracey (or South Bovev), New- 
ton Abbot, 166 
Bovi Sand, Plymouth, 670 
Bow, Exeter, 168 
Bowood (or Bowd), Ottery St. Mary, 

466 
Boyton (part of), Launceston, 572 
Bradfield, CuUompton, 829 
Bradford (or Bradford Dabernon), 

Brandis Corner, 169 
Bradiford, Barnst.aple, 598 
Bradninch, CuUompton, 170 
Bradstone, Tavistock, 172 
Brad well Mill, Ilfracombe, 843 



Index of" Places. 



Brad worthy, Hols worthy, 172 
Brampford Speke, Exoter, 173 
Brandis Corner, 170 
Hranscumbe, Sidmouth, 174 
Bratton Clovi^lly, h^xoter, 174 
Bratton Fleming, Barnstaple, 175 
Braunton, Barnstaple, 176 
Braunton Hundred, 88 
Bray (High), South Molton, 474 
Bray (High), South Molton, 720 
Brayford, South Molton, 209, 474 
Bremridgo, South Molton, 720 
Brendon, Barnstaple & Lynton, 178 
Brent Mill, Ivy bridge, 717 
Brent (South), Ivybridge, 717 
Brent Tor (or Brentor), Lew Down 

and Bridestowo, 179 
Brentor (North), Bridestow, 520 
BridestoAve (or Bridestow), 179 
Bridford, Exeter, 180 
Bridgend, Ivybridge, 567, 679 
Bridgerule (E. & W.), Holsvvorthy, 181 
Bridgetown, Launceston, 840 
Bridgetown, Totnes, 147, 819 
Brightley, Okehampton, 580 
Brightley, South Molton, 213 
Brimley (Higher), Newton Abbot, 499 
Brimley (Lower), Newton Abbot, 166 
Brisworthy, Horrabridge, 542 
Brithembottom, Tiverton, 462 
Brixliam (Upper & Lower), 181 
Brixton, Plympton, 188 
Broadclyst (or Clist), Exeter, 189 
Broadhembury, Honiton, 191 
Broadhempston, Totnes, 191 
Broad Nymet, Bow, 192 
Broadwood-Kelly, "Winkleigb, 192 
Broadwood Widger (or Wiger), Lif- 

ton, 193 
Brockscombe, Exeter, 174 
Brooking, Totnes, 254 
Brownston, Modbury, 546 
Brushford, Wemb worthy, 194 
Buekerel 3,Honiton, 194 
Buckfast, Buckfastleigh, 194 
Buckfastleigh, 194 
Buckland, Kingsbridge, 778 
Buckland-Brewer, Bideford, 197 
Buckland (East), South Molton, 309 
Buckland (Egg), Plymouth, 313 
Bu.ckland Filleigh, Highampton, 198 
Buckland-in-the- Moor, Ashburton, 200 
Buckland Monachorum, Horrabridge, 

199 
Buckland (North), Barnstaple, 453 
Buckland-Tout-Saints (or All Saints'), 

Mounts, E.S.O., 201 
Buckland (West), South Molton, 842 
Bucknoll, Honiton, 573 
Bucks Cross, Bideford, 858 
Bucks Mill, Bideford, 595 
Budeaux (St.), Plymouth, 683 
Budlake, Exeter, 189 
Budleigh (E.), Budleigh Salterton,310 
Bndleigh (East) Hundred, 90 
Budleigh Salterton, Exmouth, 201 
Budleigh (W.-st) Hundred, 97 
Bigford, Dartmouth, 733 
Bulkworthy, Brandis Corner, 203 
Bullen (High), Torrington, 685 
Bullworthy, Barnstaple, 101 
Bundleigh, North Tawton, 166 
Burlescombe, "Wellington (Somerset), 

204 



Burraton (Higher and Lower), Exeter, 
189 

Burr Island, Aveton Gifford, 158 

Burrington, Chulmleigh, 205 

Burrow, Exeter, 174 

Burrow, Ottery St. Mary, 466 

Burrows, "Winkleigh, 551 

Burstone, Bow, 862 

Butterloigh, Cullompton, 205 

Butterleigh (East), Cullompton, 250 

Bystoek, Ottery St. Mary, 229 

Cadbury, Tiverton, 206 

Cadeleigh, Tiverton, 206 

Cadhay, Ottery St. Mary, 585 

Calverleigh, Tiverton, 207 

Campscott, Ilfracombe, 492 

Cannon Fee, Crediton, 242 

Canon Teign, Dunsford, 215 

Capton, Totnes, 301 

Carswell, Honiton, 191 

Carswell (Abbots), Newton Abbot, 100 

Carswell (King's), Newton Abbot, 515 

Castleford, Newton Abbot, 502 

Castle Hill, South Molton, 450 

Caton, Modbury, 546 

Cator, Ashburton, 849 

Chaddlehanger, Tavistock, 520 

Chagford, Exeter, 207 

Challaborough, Aveton Gifford, 680 

Challaeombe, Barnstaple, 209 

Chapeltown, Barnstaple, 764 

Chappie, Chagford, 454 

Charford, Ivybridge, 717 

Charles, Plymouth, 608, 611 

Charles, South Molton, 209 

Charleton (East and West), Kings- 
bridge, 210 

Chasty, Holsworthy, 479 

Chawleigh, Chulmleigh, 210 

Chederleigh, Tiverton, 148 

Cheglinch, Ilfracombe, 843 

Cheldon, Chulmleigh, 211 

Chelson Meadow, Plymouth, 666, 670 

Chelston, Torquay, 228 

Chelsworthy, Holsworthy, 479 

Cheristow, Bideford, 467 

Cheriton, Barnstaple & Lynton, 178 

Cheriton, Exeter, 596 

Cheritcn Bishop (or South Cheriton), 
Dunsford, 211 

Cheriton Cross, Dunsford, 211 

Cheriton Fitzpaine, Crediton, 212 

Cherryford, Barnstaple, 540 

Cheston, Ivybridge, 831 

Chettiscombe, Tiverton, 779 

Cheverstone, Exeter, 508 

Chevithorne, Tiverton, 779 

Chicecott, Okehampton, 580 

Chieflowman, Tiverton, 462 

Chilla (East& West), Highampton, 1 65 

Chillaton, Tavistock, 545 

Chillington, Kingsbridge, 736, 737 

Chilsworthy, Holsworthy, 479 

Chittleham Holt, South Molton, 213 

-Chittlehampton, South Molton, 213 

Chivelstone, Kingsbridge, 214 

Chivenor, Barnstaple, 471 

Cholwell, Levi' Down, 541 

Christow, Dunsford, 215 

Chudleigh, Newton Abbot, 216 

Chudleigh Knighton, Newton Abbot, 
472 

Chulmleigh, 218 

Church Hill, Exeter, 189 



Churchill, Barnstaple, 311 

Churchinford, Honiton, 221 

Church Stanton (or Staunton), Honi- 
ton, 220 

Churchstow, Kingsbridge, 221 

Churscombe, Totnes, 539 

Churston Ferrers, Brixham, 222 

Clanaborough (or Clannaborough), 
Bow, 223 

Clapworthy Mill, South Molton, 720 

Clare Quarter, Tiverton, 779 

Clawton, Holsworthy, 223 

Clayhanger (or Cley hanger), Bampton, 
224 

Clayhidon (or Clayhedon), Welling- 
ton (Somerset), 224 

Clifft, Bideford, 838 

Clifton, Barnstaple, 311 

Clist (Bishop's), Exeter, 728 

Clist (Broad), Exeter, 189 

Clist Champernowne, Topsham, 226 

Clist Fomison, Exeter, 728 

Clist Honiton, Exeter, 225 

Clist Hydon (or Clysthydon), Exeter, 
226 

Clist St. George, Topsham, 226 

Clist St. Lawrence, Whimple, 227 

Clist St. Mary, Exeter, 227 

Clist Satchfield (or Satchville), Exeter," 
448, 728 

Cliston Hundred, 88 

Clovelly (or Clovelleigh), Bidefrd. 227 

Clyst (see Clist) 

Cobbaton, Barnstaple, 750 

Cobdon, Exeter, 846 

Cockington, Torquay, 228 

Cockwood, Dawlish, 229, 264 

Coffinswell, Newton Abbot, 229 

Cofford, Exeter, 508 

Cofton, Dawlish, 229, 265 

Colaton Haleigh, Ottery St. Mary, 229 

Colcombe, Axminster, 232 

Cold East, Newton Abbot, 499 

Coldridge, Wemb worthy, 231 

Colebrook, Plympton St. Mary, 665 

Colebrooke, Cullompton, 250 

Colebrooke, Exeter, 230 

Coleford, Exeter, 230 

Coleridge, Wembworthy, 231 

Coleridge Hundred, 89 

Colestocks, Honiton, 449 

Collaton, Honiton, 191 

Collaton, Kingsbridge, 536 

Collaton, Torquay, 688 

Collaton-Kirkham, Paignton, 590 

Collaven, Bridestowe, 716 

Collumpton, 250 

Colscot, Brandis Corner, 844 

Colyford, Axminster, 231 

Colyton, Axminster, 231 

Colyton Hundred, 89 

Colyton Kaleigh, Ottery St. Mary, 229 

Comb Eawleigh, Honiton, 236 

Combe Ball, Bridestowe, 179 

Combe, Kingsbridge, 536 

Combe (East), Barnstaple, 764 

Combe Fishacre, Newton Abbot, 502 

Combe-in-Teign-Head, Teignmouth, 
233 

Combe Martin, Barnstaple, 234 

Combe (Owl's) Honiton, 115 

Combe (or Coombe) Pafford, Torquay, 
686 

Combe Pyne, Axminster, 235 



Index of 3?laces. 



Combe Kaleigh, Iloniton, 236 

Combe (West), Barnstaple, 764 

Combmartin, Barnstaple, 234 

Comelake, Ottery St. Mary, 585 

Compton, Totnes, 539 

Compton Gifford, Plymouth, 236 

Compton Pool, Totnes, 539 

Cookbury, Brandis Corner, 238 

Cookworthy (High), Lifton, 524 

Coomb Pyne (or Coompyne), Axmin- 
ster, 235 

Coombe, Kingsbridge, 536 

Coombe, Plympton, 188 

Coombe, Teignmouth, 162 

Coombe Fishacre, Nowton Abbot, 502 

Coplestone, Exeter and Crediton, 230, 
242 

Cornborough, Kingsbridge, 736 

Cornwood, Ivybridge, 239 

Comworthy, Totnes, 240 

Corscombe, Honiton, 449 

Coryton, Lew Down, 240 

Cotleigh, Honiton, 241 

Cotley, Exeter, 307 

Cott, Highampton, 702 

Cotton, Tiverton, 250 

Coiintesbiiry (or Countisbury) Barn- 
staple & Lynton, 241 
•Countess Weir (or Wear), Exeter, 
242, 792 

Cove, Tiverton, 779 

Cowick, Exeter, 320, 335 

Cowley, Exeter, 173 

Craddock, Cullompton, 829 

Craze-Loman, Tiverton, 779 

Creacombe, Ermington, 476 

Creacombe, Witheridge, 242 

Crediton, 242 

Crediton Hundred, 89 

Crockerntor, 39 

Crockernwell, Dunsford & Chagford, 
211, 305 

Croscombe, Sampford Courtenay, 695 

Cross, Ivybridge, 239 

Croyde, Barnstaple, 453 

Cruwys-Morchard, Tiverton, 249 

Cudlipptown, Tavistock, 753 

Cullompton (or Cullumpton), 250 

Culmdavey, Wellington (Somerset), 47 1 

Culmstock, Wellington (Somerset), 253 

Daccombe, Newton Abbot, 229 

Daignton, Newton Abbot, 502 

Dalwood, Honiton, 254 

Damage, Ilfracombe, 492 

Darracott, Barnstaple, 453 

Dartington, Totnes, 254 

Dartmoor Forest, 49 

Dartmoor Forest Quarter, 531 

Dartmouth, 255 

David's (St.), Exeter, 320 

Dawlish, 264 

Dawlish Water, Dawlish, 265 

Dean, Ilfracombe, 843 

Dean Church Town,Buckfastleigii, 268 

Dean Prior, Buckfastleigh, 268 

Dean Town, Buckfastleigh, 268 

Denbury, Newton Abbot, 269 

Denworthy, Holsworthy, 172 

Derriton, Holsworthy, 677 

Devonport History, 269, 600; Direc- 
tory, 278 

Dexbeer, Holsworthy, 594 

Dinaton, Ivybridge, 239 

Dipperton, Lew Down, 541 



Diptford, Ugborough, 301 
Dishcombe, Okehampton, 727 
Dittisham, Totnes, 301 
Doccombe, Moretonhampstead, 552 
Dodbrooke, Totnes, 302, 512 
Doddiscombsleigh, Exeter, 303 
Dodscott, Torrington, 685 
Dolton, Eggesford Station, 303 
Dotton (or Doniton), Ottery St. Mary, 

304 
Dowland, Dolton, 304 
Dowlton, Eggesford Station, 303 
Down (East), Barnstaple, 311 
Down (East), Totnes, 163 
Down St. Mary, Bow, 304 
Downthomas, Plymouth, 838 
Down (West), Ilfracombe, 843 
Drewsteignton, Chagford, 305 
Dritton, Totnes, 163 
Dulford, Honiton, 191 
Dunchideock, Exeter, 306 
Dunkeswell, Honiton, 306 
Dunkeswell Abbey, Honiton, 307 
Dunsford, Exeter, 307 
Dunstone, Kingsbridge, 736 
Dunstone, Ashburton, 849 
Dunstone, Plympton, 860 
Dunterton, Tavistock, 308 
East Allington, Totnes, 308 
East Anstey, Dulverton, 309 
East Appledore, Appledore, 103 
East Bridgerule, Holsworthy, 181 
East Buckland, South Molton, 309 
East Budleigh, Budleigh Salterton, 310 
East Budleigh Hundred, 90 
East Butterleigh, Cullompton, 250 
East Charleton, Kingsbridge, 210 
East Chilla, Highampton, 1 65 
East Combe, Barnstaple, 764 
East Comworthy, Totnes, 240 
East Down, Barnstaple, 311 
East Down, Totnes, 1 63 
East Goldsworthy, Bideford, 595 
EastKnowstone,Morchard Bishop, 519 
East Leigh, Bideford, 844 
East Leigh-Betsford, Totnes, 464 
East Mere, Tiverton, 779 
East Ogwell, Newton Abbot, 312 
East Portlemouth, Kingsbridge, 673 
East Prawle, Kingsbridge, 214 
East Putford, Brandis Corner, 312 
East Sandford, Exeter, 697 
East Stonehouse, 600, 738 
East Teignmouth, 767 
East Town, Dawlish, 264 
East Town, Exeter, 508 
East Wonford, Brandis Corner, 545 
East Wonford, Exeter, 319 
EastWorlington,Morchard Bishop, 312 
Eastacombe, Barnstaple, 114 
Eastacott, Tavistock, 308 
Eastdon, Dawlish, 229 
Eastington, Morchard Bishop, 523 
Easton, Kingsbridge, 840 
Ebberley, Torrington, 680 
Ebford, Exeter, 855 
Eccombe, Honiton, 221 
Eddystone, Bideford, 467 
Eddystone Lighthouse, 605 
Edgcumbe, Tavistock, 545 
Edgin swell, Torquay, 686 
Egg Buckland, Plymouth, 313 
Eggesford, Wembworthy, 314 
Eke worthy, Bideford, 197 



Elburton, Plymouth, 670 

Elmscott, Bideford, 467 

Elston, Chulmleigh, 218 

Embridge, Dartmouth, 733 

Englebourne (Gt. & Lit.), Totnes, 464 

Ermington, Ivybridge, 315 

Ermington Hundred, 90 

Escot, Ottery St. Mary, 751 

Estacott, Ilfracombe, 554 

Exbourne, 316 

Exbridge, Tiverton, 551 

Exe (Nether), Exeter, 556 

Exe Island, Exeter, 324 

Exe (Up), Exeter, 679 

Exeter History, 316 ; Street Directory, 

368 ; Alphabetical Directory, 399 
Exminster, Exeter, 439 
Exminster Hundred, 91 
Exmouth, 440 
Exton, Exeter, 855 
Exwick, Exeter, 345, 376 
Fairmile, Ottery St. Mary, 751 
Fairway, Honiton, 449 
Fairy Cross, Bideford, 102 
Fardell, Ivybridge, 239 
Faringdon (or Farringdon), Exeter, 

448 
Farway, Honiton, 449 
Farwood, Axminster, 231 
Fatherford (Lower), Okehampton, 580 
Feniton (or Fenyton), Honiton, 449 
Fen Ottery, Ottery St. Mary, 835 
Fernhill, Ashburton, 849 
Fern worthy, Bridestowe, 179 
Filham (North & South), Ivybdge, 831 
Filleigh, South Molton, 450 
Five Lanes, Totnes, 539 
Flitton, South Molton, 574 
Fluxton, Ottery St. Mary, 585 
Foghanger, Tavistock, 645 
Ford, Bideford, 102 
Ford, Dartmouth, 255 
Ford, Devonport, 600 ; Directory, 294 
Ford, Ermington, 476 
Ford, Exeter, 568 
Ford, Kingsbridge, 214 
Ford Beaston, Totnes. 191 
Fordsr, Chagford, 454 
Freeland, Moreton Hampstead, 537 
Fremington, 451 
Fremington Hundred, 91 
Freynstone, South Molton, 720 
Frithelstock, Torrington, 452 
Frith elstock Stone, Torrington, 452 
Frogmoor (or Frogmore), Kingsbridge, 

210, 704, 705 
Frost, Bishop's Morchard, 159 
Fulford, Okehampton, 727 
Fulford (Little), Crediton, 706 
Furley, Chard, 543 
Gabber, Plymouth, 839 
Gabwell, Teignmouth, 735 
Galmpton, Brixham, 222 
Galmpton, Kingsbridge, 718 
Galsworthy, Bideford, 197 
Gappah, Chudleigh, 516 
Georgeham, Barnstaple, 453 
George Nympton, South Molton, 578 
Germansweek, Bratton Clovelly, 454 
Gidleigh (or Gidley), Chagford, 454 
Giles (St.)-on-the-Heath, Laimceston, 

684 
Giles (St.)-in-the-WQod, Torrington, 

685 



Index or Places. 



Gittisham, Honiton, 455 
(loldsworthy (East), Bideford, 595 
Goodloigh, Barnstaple, 45G 
Goodringtoii, Paignton, 590 
Goosoford, Okehampton, 727 
Gosford, Ottory St. Mary, 585 
Goveton, Kingsbridgo, 210 
Great Englebonrne, Totnos, 46 1 
Great Grindle, Ottory St. Mary, 229 
Great Hayes, Clmlmloigb, ] 12 
Great Knowle, Exmoutli, 201, 203 
Great Potheridge, Boaford, 5i'6 
Great Torrington, ioG 
Great Wooke, Chagford, 208 
Grindle, Exeter, 855 
Grindle (Great), Ottery St. Mary, 229 
Guineaford, IJarnstaple, 540 
Gulliford, Exeter, 855 
Gunn, Barnstaple, 750 

Hacche, South Molton, 720 
Hacconibe, Newton Abbot, 461 

Halberton, Tiverton, 402 

Halberton Hundred, 91 

Halford, Newton Abbot, 500 

Halfordswood, Exeter, 848 

Hallsands, Kingsbridge, 736 

Halsinger, Barnstaple, 176 

Hals well, Totnes, 191 

Halwell, Lifton, 464 

Halwell, Totnes, 463 

Hampton (High), 474 

Hankford, Brandis Corner, 204 

Harberton, Totnes, 464 

Harbertonford, Totnes, 465 

Harbournford, Ivy bridge, 717 

Hareombe, Newton Abbot, 216 

Harcombe, Sidmouth, 708 

Hareston, Plympton, 188 

Harford, Ivybridge, 466 

Harford, Newton Abbot, 499 

Harpford, Ottery St. Mary, 466 

Harracott, Barnstaple, 764 

Harraton, Kingsbridge «Sc Ivybridge, 
114 

Hartland, Bideford, 467 

Hartland Hundred, 92 

Hartleigh, Highampton, 198 

Hatherleigh, 468 

Hawkerland, Ottery St. Mary, 229 

Hayes (Great), Chulnileigh, 112 

Hayridge Hundred, 92 

Hay tor Hundred, 92 

Haytor V^ale, Newton Abbot, 499 

Haytown, Brandis Corner, 204 

Heal, Barnstaple, 595 

Healand, Torrington, 685 

Heanton (King's), Barnstaple, 540 

Heantcn Punchardon, Barnstaple, 
471 

Heanton Satchville, Beaford, 488 

Heasley, South Molton, 574 

Heavitree, Exeter, 319. 

Heddon's Mouth, Barnstaple, 540 

Hele, Cullompton, 171 

Hele, Ilfracombe, 494 

Hele (North & South), Chulmloigh, 
473 

Helscott, Launceston, 576 

Hembow, South Molton, 213 

Hembury (Broad), Honiton, 191 

Hembury Fort, Exeter, 596 
Hemerdon, Plympton St. Mary, 665 
Hempston (Broad), Totnes, 191 
Hempston (Little), Totnes, 526 



Hemyock (or Hemiojk), Wellington 

(Somerset), 471 
Homyoek Hundred, 93 
Hondham, Mounts, 857 
Hennock, Bovey Tracey, 472 
Hoy worthy, Bratton Clovelly, 454 
High Bickington, Chulmleigh, 473 
Higli Bray, South Molton, 474 
High Bray, South Molton, 720 
Higli Bullcn, Torrington, 685 
Iligli Cookworthy, Lifton, 524 
High Hampton (or Iligliampton), 474 
Higher Ashton, Newton Abbot, 112 
Higher Black Dog, Puddington, 837 
Higher Brimley, Newton Abbot, 499 
Higher Burraton, Exeter, 189 
Higher Hamlet, Exeter, toi> 
Higher Eocombo, Teignmouth, 735 
Higher Stoke, Dev-onport, 269 
Higher Town, Buckfastleigh, 194 
Higher Town, Tiverton, 462 
Highley St. Mary (or Hightleigh), 

Tiverton, 474 
Highweek, Newton Abbot, 556 
Hilltown, Tavistock, 520 
Hiscott, Barnstaple, 764 
Hittisleigh, Okehampton, 475 
Hockworthy, Wellington (Somerset), 

475 
Hoggadon, Launceston, 681 
Holbeton, Ermington, 475 
Holcombe, Dawlish, 264 
Holcombe Buraell, Exeter, 476 
Holcombe Kogus, Wellington (Somer- 
set), 477 
Hollacombe, Holsworthy, 478 
Holne, Ashburton, 478 
Holset, Kingsbridge, 673 
Holsworthy, 479 
Holwell, Aveton GifFord, 158 
Honeychurch,SarapfordCourtenay,482 
Honicknowle, Plymouth, 683 
Honiton, 482 

Honiton Barton, South Molton, 720 
Honiton's Clist, Exeter, 225 
Hooe, Plymouth, 670 
Hookway, Crediton, 242 
Hoops, Bideford, 595 
Hope Cove. Kingsbridge, 718 
Horndon, Tavistock, 763 
Horns Cross, Bideford, 595 
Horrabridge, 199, 697, 836 
Ilorseborough, Ilfracombe, 554 
Ilorsebridge, Tavistock, 751 
Ilorsemills, Newton Abbot, 516 
Ilorwood, Bideford, 4S8 
Houghton, Moretonhampstead, 552 
Houndle, Ivybridge, 239 
Huckworthy Bridge, Horrabridge, 697 
Huish, Beaford, 488 
Huish (North), Ugborough, 572 
Huish (South), Kingsbridge, 718 
Hunston, South Molton, 574 
ITuntsham, Bampton, 489 
Huntshaw (or Hunshaw), Bideford,490 
Hutcherley, Totnes, 163 
Huxham, Exeter, 490 
Iddesleigh(orIdsleigh),Winkleigb,490 
Ide, Exeter, 491 
Ideford, Chudleigh, 491 
Ilfracombe, 491 
Ilkerton, Barnstaple, 534 
Ilsham, Torquay, 686 
Ilsington, Newton Abbot, 499 



Ilton, Kingsbridge, 536 

In stow, 500 

Inwardlcigh, Exbourno, 501 

Ipplepon. Newton Abbot, 502 

Irishcombe, Morchard Bishop, 523 

Itton, Okehampton, 727 

Ivybridge, 503, 831 

Jacobstowe, Exeter, 504 

Jordan, Ashburton, 8t9 

Kallacott, Lifton, 193 

Kellaton (or Kellington), Kings- 
bridge, 736 

Kelly, Lifton, 505 

Kemp Town, South Molton, 538 

Kenn (or Kenne), Exeter, 505 

Kennerleigh, Crediton, 506 

Kennford, Exeter, 505 

Kentisbeare (or Kentisbeor), Cullomp- 
ton, 506 

Kentisbury, Barnstaple, 507 

Kentisbury Ford, Birnstaplo, 507 

Kenton, Exeter, 508 

Kent's Hole, 72 

Kenwith Castle, Appledoro, 103 

Kex'swell, Honiton, 191 

Kerswell (Abbot's), Newton Abbot, 100 

Kerswell (King's), Newton Abbot, 515 

Kigbear, Okehampton, 580 

Killatree, Holsworthy, 677 

Kilmmgton, Axminster, 509 

Kimmacott, Barnstaple, 540 

Kimworthy, Holsworthy, 172 

Kingford, Holsworthy, 594 

King's Ash, Chulmleigh, 112 

Kingsbridge, 509 

Kingscott, Torrington, 685 

Kingsett, Tavistock, 763 

King's Heanton, Barnstaple, 540 

Kingskerswell (or King's Carswell), 
Newton Abbot, 515 

King's Nympton, Chulmleigh, 516 

King's Tamerton, Plymouth, 683 

King's Teignton, Newton Abbot, 516 

Kingston, Ottery St. Mary, 229 

Kingston, Aveton Gifford, 518 

Kings wear, Dartmouth, 518 

Kinterbury, Plymouth, 683 

Knacker's Knowle (or Knoll), Ply- 
mouth, 313, 683 

Knightstone, Bishop's Morchard, 159 

Knighton, Newton Abbot, 472 

Knighton, Plymouth, 838 

KnightonBeaumont,NewtonAbbot,499 

Knowle (or Knoll), Barnstaple, 176 

Knowle, Crediton, 242 

Knowle (Great and Little), Exmouth, 
201, 203 

Knowstone, Morchard Bishop, 519 

Knowstone (East), Morchard Bishp.519 

Laira Green, Plymouth, 313 

Lake, Barnstaple, 764 

Lake, Bridestowe, 716 

Lamerton, Tavistock, 520 

Landcross (or Lancrass), Bideford, 521 

Landkey, Barnstaple, 521 

Landscove, Ashburton, 731 

Lanehead, Tavistock, 763 

Langdon, Launceston, 840 

Langford, Cullompton, 250 

Langridge, Barnstaple, 114 

Laugridge Ford, Barnstaple, 860 

Langtree, Torrington, 522 
Lapford, Morchard Bishop, 522 
Larcombe, Totnes, 464 



Index of* Placet^ . 



Larkbeare, Ottery St. Mary, 751 

jLea, Wellington (Somerset), 475 

Lee, Ilfracombe, 49 -t 

Lee Mill, Plymptou St. Mary, 665 

Leigh, Bishop's Morchard, 159 

Leigh, Modbury, 516 

Leigh, Wembwortliy, 231 

Leigh (East and AVest), liideford, 844 

Leigh (North), Honiton, 573 

Leigh (South), Honiton, 719 

Leigh-Betsford (East and West), 
Totnes, 464 

Leonard's (St.), Exeter, 316 

Lettaford, Moretonhampstead, 571 

Leusdon, Ashburton, 849 

Leverton, Newton Abbot, 499 

Lew Down, 523, 541 

Lew (North), Exbourne, 573 

Lewtrenchard, Lew Down, 523 

Leyford, Barnstaple and Lynton, 178 

Liddaton, Lew Down, 1 79 

Lidford, Bridestow, 531 

Lidstone, Kingsbridge, 210 

Lid well, Dawlish, 264 

Lifton, 524 

Lifton Down, Lifton, 521 

Lifton Hundred, 93 

Linchaford, Ashburton, 819 

Lincombe, Ilfracombe, 492 

Lincombe, Kingsbridgo, 536 

Lindridge, Teignmouth, 162 

Linton, Barnstaple, 534 

Listleigh, Bovey Tracey, 530 

Little Bovey, Newton Abbot, 166 

Little Engleboxirne, Totnes, 464 

Littlehani, Bideford, 525 

Littleham, Exmouth, 525 

Little Hempston, Totnes, 526 
Little Knowle, Exmoutli, 201, 203 
Little Potheridge, Beaford, 543 
Little Silver, Exeter, 439 
Little Silver, South Molton, 538 
Little Silver, Tiverton, 206 
Little Torrington, Gt. Torrington, 526 
Lixton, Kingsbridge & Ivybridge, 114 
Lobb, Barnstaple, 176 
Loddiswell, Kingsbridge, 527 
Longbridge, Chard, 543 
Longdown, Exeter, 476 
Loosebeare, Bow, 862 
Loveacott, Fremington, 451 
Loveton, Horrabridge, 542 
Lovistone, Beaford, 488 
Lower Ashton, Newton Abbot, 112 
Lower Black Dog, Puddington, 837 
Lower Brimley, Newton Abbot, 166 
Lower Brixham, Brixham, 181 
Lower Burraton, Exeter, 189 
Lower Eatherford, Okehampton, 580 
Lower Eocombe, Teignmouth, 735 
Lower Shillingford, Exeter, 439 
Lower Stoke, Devonport, 269 
Lower Tor, Ashburton, 849 
Lower Town, Bishop's Morchard, 159 
Lower Town, Buckfastleigh, 194 
Lower Town, Tiverton, 462 
Lowley Cross, Exeter, 303 
Loxbeare, Bow, 862 
Loxbeare (or Loxbeer), Tiverton, 528 
Loxhore, Barnstaple, 528 
Ludbrook, Ivybridge and Modbury, 

315, 546 
Luffincott, Launceston, 529 
Lundy Island, 529 



Luppitt, Honiton, 529 

Lupridge, Ugborough, 572 

Lustleigh, Bovey Tracey, 530 

Luton, Chudleigh, 531 

Luton, Honiton, 191 

Lutton, Ivybridge, 239 

Lutton, Ivybridge, 717 

Lydford, Bridestowe, 531 

Lympstone, Exeter, 533 

Lynbridge, Barnstaple, 53 i 

Lyneham, Plj?mpton, 860 

Lynmouth, Barnstaple, 534, 536 

Lynton, Barnstaple, 53 4 

Lyston, Exeter, 508 

Madford, Wellington (Somerset), 471 

Maidencombe, Teignmouth, 735 

Maidenhayno, Axminster, 555 

'Maker {Cor nwall), 536 

Malborough, Kingsbridge, 536, 810 

Malmsmead, Barnstaple & Lynton, 1 78 

Majahead, Kenton, 537) 

Manaton, Moretonhampstead, 537 

Manley, Tiverton, 779 

Mannamead, Plymouth, 236 

Mariansleigh, South Molton, 538 

Maristow, Lew Down, 541 

Marlandpeters, Great Torrington, 538 

Marldon, Totnes, 539 
Marsh Green, Exeter, 681 
Martinhoe, Barnstaple, 510 
Marwood, Barnstaple, 510 
Marwood (Middle), Barnstaple, 510 
Mary Ansleigh, South Molton, 538 
Mary Church (St,), Torquay, 686 
Marystowe, Lew Down, 511 
Mary Tavy, Tavistock, 763 
Matford, Exeter, 439 
Meadwell, Lifton, 505 
Meavy, Horrabridge, 542 
Meddon, Bideford, 467 
Meeth, Merton, 542 
Meldon, Okehampton, 580 
Membury, Chard, 543 
Mere (East & West), Tiverton, 779 
Merrifield, Kingsbridge, 221 
Merton, Beaford, 543 
Meshaw, South Molton, 544 
Metcombe, Ottery St. Mary, 585 
Michelcombe, Ashburton, 478 
Middlecott, Bishop's Morchard, 159 
Middlecott, Highampton, 165 
Middle Marwood, Barnstaple, 510 
Middlemoor, Tavistock, 847 
Middle Eocombe, Teignmouth, 234 
Middlewood, Dawlish, 229, 264 
Milburgh, Aveton Gilford, 158 
Milford, Torrington, 452 
Millbay, Plymouth, 605 
Millcombe, Totnes, 163 
Millford, Bideford, 467 
Milltown, Barnstaple, 540 
Milton, Horrabridge, 199 
Milton Abbot, Tavistock, 514 
Milton Damerel, Brandis Corner, 545 
Milton (South), Kingsbridge, 719 
Minchin Court, Ottery St. Mary, 122 
Modbury, 546 

Molland, South Molton, 549 
Molton (North), South Molton, 574 
Molton (South), 719 
Molton (South) Hundred, 95 
Monkleigh, Torrington, 550 
Monk Okehampton, Wiiakleigh, 551 
Monkton, Honiton, 551 



Moortown, Great Torrington, 456 

Morchard Bishop, 159 

Morchard (Cruwys), Tiverton, 249 

Morebath, Tiverton, 551 

Moreleigh, 554 

Moretonhampstead, 552 

Morice Town, Devonport, 269, 600 ; 
Directory, 289 

Morley (or Morleigh), 551 

Morte Point, 554 

Morthoe (or Morte), Ilfracombe, 554 

Mothecombe, Ermington, 476 

Mount Batten, 670 

Mount Edgcumbe, 536 

Muddiford, Barnstaple, 540 

Musbury, Axminster, 555 

Mutley, Plymouth, 236 

Mutterton, CuUompton, 250 

Muxbere, Tiverton, 462 

Nadder, Exeter, 848 

Natsworthy, Ashburton, 849 

Nethercott, Barnstaple, 176 

Nether Exe, Exeter, 556 

Netherton, Honiton, 449 

Netherton, Teignmouth, 234 

Newbridge, Ashburton, 849 

Newbridge, Beaford, 488 
New Buildings, Exeter, 697 

Newhaven, Bideford, 595 
Newhouse(nowAvonwick),Ugboro,572 
Newland, Barnstaple, 750 
Newport, Barnstaple, 132, 161 
Newton, South Moltoo, 3 60, 213 
Newton Abbot, 556 
Newton Bushel, Newton Abbot, 556 
Newton Ferrers, Ivybridge, 567 
Newton Poppleford, Otterv Sc. Mary, 

122, 568 
Newton St. Cyres, Exeter, 568 
Newton St. Petrock, Torrington, 569 
Newton Tracey, Barnstaple, 569 
Nicholas (St.), Teignmouth, 690 
Nicholshayne, Wellington (Somerset), 

253 
Nimet (see Nymet) 
North AUer, South Molton, 720 
Northam, Bideford, 570 
Northam Eidge, Bideford, 570 
North Bovey, Moreton Hampstoad, 571 
North Brentor, Bridestow, 520 
North Buckland, Barnstaple, 453 
Northcott, Launceston, 572 
Northend, Wellington (Somerset), 253 
North Filham, Ivybridge, 831 
North Hele, Chulmleigh, 473 
North Huish, Ugborough, 572 
Northleigh, Barnstaple, 45S 
North Leigh, Honiton, 573 
North Lew, Exbourne, 573 
North Molton, South Molton, 574 
Northmost Tn. Budleigh Salterton, 584 
North Petherwin, Launceston, 576 
North Pool, Kingsbridge, 726 
North Tawton, 577 
North Tawton Hundred, 94 
North Whilborough, Newtn Abbot, 515 
Norton, Dartmouth, 255 
Norton, Exeter, 568 
Norwood, Great Torrington, 456 
Noss Mayo, Ivybridge, 679 
Nutwell, Exeter, 855 
Nymet (Broad), Bow, 192 
Nymet Eowland, Lapford, 578 
Nymet St. George, South Molton, 578 



x\\ 



Index ol" Places. 



Nymet Tracey, Exeter, 168 

Nympton (Bishop's), Sth. Molton, 160 

Nympton (King's), Chulmloigh, r)16 

Nympton St. George, Sth. Molton, 578 

Oakford, Tiverton, 579 

Oakhampton, 580 

Oftwell, Honiton, 579 

Ogwell (East), Nowton Abbot, 312 

Ogwell (West), Newton Abbot, 844 

Okeford, Tiverton, 579 

Okehampton, 580 

Okohampton (Monk), Winkleigh, 551 

Oltlborough, IBishop's Morehard, 159 

Oldmill, Daitmouth, 255 

Onemouth, Kingsbridge, 778 

Oreston, Plymouth, 670 

Otterton, Budleigh Salterton, 584 

Ottery, Tavistock, 520 

Ottery St. Mary, 585 

Ottery St. Mary Hundred, 94 

Ottery (Up), Honiton, 833 

Ottery (Venn, or Een), Ottery St. 
Mary, 835 

Owl's Combe, Honiton, 115 

Oxenham, Okehampton, 727 

Paignton, 590 

Palmer's, Tiverton, 779 

Pancrasweek (or Pancraswyke), Hols- 
worthy, 594 

Pansom, Launceston, 684 

Parkham, Bideford, 595 

Parracombe, Barnstaple, 595 

Parracombe Mill, Barnstaple, 595 

Parsonage, Ivy bridge, 831 

Passford, JBudleigh Salterton, 584 

Patchole, Barnstaple, 507 

Payhembury, Exeter, 596 

Pennycross, Plymouth and D'port, 597 

Pennyeross, Wellington (Somerst), 471 

Penquit, Modbury, 546 

Penruse, Launceston, 576 

Penstone, Exeter, 230 

Perreton, Exe'ter, 846 

Petermarland, Great Torrington, 538 

Peter Tavy, Tavistock, 764 

Petheridge (Great and Little), Bea- 
ford, 543 

Petherwin (or Petherwin, North), 
Launceston, 576 

Petherwingate, Launceston, 676 

Petrock Stow, Beaford, 598 

Petton, Tiverton, 123 

Peyhembury, Exeter, 596 

Philham, Bideford, 467 

Pilton, Barnstaple, 125, 598 

Pinchaford, Newton Abbot, 500 

Pinhoe, Exeter, 599 

Pinn, Budleigh Salterton, 584 

Pippacott, Barnstaple, 176 

Pirzwell, Cullompton, 506 

Pitson, Budleigh Salterton, 584 

Pitt Quarter, Tiverton, 779 

Plymouth History, 600 ; Directory, 620 

Plympton, Kingsbridge, 536 

Plympton Hundred, 94 

Plympton Maurice (or Earl's), Plymp- 
ton St. Mary, 669 

Plympton St. Mary, 665 

Plymstock, Plymouth, 670 

Plymtree, Cullompton, 672 

Podington, Crediton, 677 

Polsham, Paignton, 590 

Poltimore, Exeter, 672 

Pomphlet, Plymouth, 670 



Ponsford, Cullompton, 250 
Ponsworthy, Ashburton, 849 
Pool (North), Kingsbridge, 726 
Pool (South), Kingsbridge,. 726 
Portbridge, Totnes, 734 
Portlemouth, Kingsbridge, 673 
Postbridge, Horrabridge, 531 
Potheridge (Great and Little), Bea- 
ford, 543 
Poughill, Crediton, 674 
Poundsgate, Ashburton, 849 
Powderham, Exeter, 674 
Prawle, Kingsbridge, 214 
Prawle (East), Kingsbridge, 214 
Prawle Point, Kingsbridge, 673 
Prescot, Wellington (Somerset), 253 
Prestacott, Okehampton, 146 
Preston, Mounts, 857 
Preston, Newton Abbot, 516 
Preston, Paignton, 590 
Princetown, Horrabridge, 531, 675 
Prixford, Barnstaple, 540 
Pryor's Quarter, Tiverton, 779 
Puddington, Crediton, 677 
Puddlebridge, Honiton, 573 
Purlbridge, Axminster, 231 
Putford (East), Brandis Corner, 312 
Putford (West), Brandis Corner, 844 
Puttsborough, Barnstaple, 453 
Pyworthy, Holsworthy, 677 
Quither, Tavistock, 545 
Quoditch, Lifton, 113 
Kackenford, Morehard Bishop, 678 
Eaddon, Cullompton, 777 
Ealeigh, Barnstaple, 598 
Eamsley, Okehampton, 727 
Eatsloe, Exeter, 672 
Eattery (or Eattrey), Buckfastleigh, 

678 
Eawridge, Honiton, 833 
Eedhill, Bishop's Morehard, 159 
Eevelstoke, Ivybridge, 679 
Eew, Kingsbridge, 536 
Eewe, Exeter, 679 
Eexton, Lifton, 193 
Eickham, Kingsbridge, 673 
Eiddlecombe, Chulmleigh, 112 
Eidgway, Plympton St. Mary, 665, 669 
Eill, Ottery St. Mary, 585 
Eingmoor Down, Horrabridge, 542 
Eingmore, Aveton Gilford, 680 
Eingmore, Teignmouth, 690, 692, 735 
Eoborough, Plymouth, 149 
Eoborough, Torrington, 680 
Eoborough Hundred, 94 
Eochill, Morehard Bishop, 519 
Eockbeare, Exeter, 681 
Eocombe, Teignmouth, 234 
Eocombe (Higher and Lower), Teign- 
mouth, 736 
Eomanfeleigh, South Molton, 682 
Eose Ash, South Molton, 682 
Eousdon (or Eoosdown), Lyme Eegis, 

683 
Eowland's Leigh, Lapford, 578 
Eudge, Crediton, 242 
Eumonsleigh (or Eumsleigh), South 

Molton, 682 
Eunnaford Coombe, Buckfastleigh, 

194 
Eushford, Chagford, 208 
St. Budeaux, Plymouth, 683 
St. David's, Exeter, 320 
St. George Clist, Topsham, 226 



St. Giles-ou-the-Heath, Launceston 

684 

St. Giles-in-the-Wood, Torrington, 685 
St. John's Chapel, Barnstsiplo, 764 
St. Leonard's, Exeter, 316 
St. Mary Church, Torquay, 686 
St. Nicholas, Teignmouth. 090 
St. Thomas the Apostle, Exeter, 320 
Sainthill, Cullompton, 506 
Salcombe, Kingsbridge, 692 
Salcombe Eegis, Sidmouth, 694 
Sallicombe, Honiton, 449 
Saltash Passage, Plymouth, 683 
Salterton (Budleigh), Exmouth, 201 
Salterton (Woodbury), Exeter, 855 
Saltram, Plympton St. Mary, 666 
Saltren's Cottages, Torrington, 550 
Sampford Courtenay, 695 
Sampford Peverell, Tiverton, 696 
Sampford Spiney, Horrabridge, 697 
Sandford (East & West), Crediton, 697 
Sandygate, Newton Abbot, 517 
Satterleigh, South Molton, 699 
Saunton, Barnstaple, 176 
Scoriton, Buckfastleigh, 194 
Seaton, Axminster, 699 
Seed, Sidmouth, 695 
Sessaeott, Brandis Corner, 844 
Shadycombe, Kingsbridge, 536 
Shaldon, Teignmouth, 691 
Shallowford, South Molton, 720 
Shapcombe, Honiton, 529 
Shapwick, Axminster, 116 
Shattern, Dawlish, 264 
Shaugh, Honiton, 529 
Shaugh Prior, Eoborough, 701 
Shebbear, Highampton, 702 
Shebbear Hundred, 95 
Sheepham, Modbury, 546 
Sheepstor, Horrabridge, 703 
Sheepwash, Highampton, 703 
Sheldon, Honiton, 704 
Sheplegh-Bow, Totnes, 163 
Sherford, Frogmoor, 704 
Sherwell (or Sherwill), Barnstaple, 70$ 
Sherwell Cross and Village, Barn- 
staple, 705 
Sherwill Hundred, 95 
Sherwood (or Sherwood Villa), Exeter, 

705 
Shesborough, Ilfracombe, 554 
Shillingford, Tiverton, 123 
Shillingford (Lower), Exeter, 439 
Shillingford St. George, Exeter, 705 
Shiphay, Torquay, 686 
Shipstor, Horrabridge, 703 
Shipwash, Highampton, 703 
Shobrooke, Crediton, 706 
Shute, Axminster, 706 
Sid, Sidmouth, 695 
Sidbury, Sidmouth, 707 
Sidford, Sidmouth, 707, 708 
Sidmouth, 708 

Sigford, Newton Abbot. 499 
Silverhill, Kingsbridge, 718 
Silver (Little), Exeter, 439 
Silver (Little), South Molton, 538 
Silver (Little), Tiverton, 206 
Silverton, Cullompton, 714 
Sitcott, Launceston, 684 
Slade, South Molton, 842 
Slade, Hfracombe, 492 

^Slapton, Kingsbridge, 715 

' Slewton, Exeter, 846 



Index of Palaces. 



I j^loncombe, Moretonhampstead, 552 
i Sraallacombe, Newton Abbot, 500 
j •jmallbrooke. Exeter, 568 
:^mallridge, Axminstor, 116 
Smithincott, Cullorapton, 829 
Sorley, Kingsbridge, 840 
•^oui-ron, Bridestowe, 716 
j-^outh Allington, Kingsbridge, 214 
South Bovey, Newton Abbot, 166 
'South Brent, Ivybridge, 717 
! South Cheriton, Dunsford, 211 
iSouthcott. Bideford, 844 
I Southerleigh, Bridestowe, 716 
iSoutherton, Ottery St. Mary, 466 
j South Filham, Ivybridge, 831 
^ South Hams, 51 
South Hele, Chulmleigh, 473 
Southill, Cullompton, 506 
South Huish, Kingsbridge, 718 
LSouth Leigh, Honiton, 719 
[South Milton, Kingsbridge, 719 
j South Molton, 719 
I South Molton Hundred, 95 
{South Pool, Kingsbridge, 726 
South Sydenham, Tavistock, 751 
I South Tawton, Okehampton, 727 
[ South Town, Exeter, 508 
South Whilborough,Ne wton Abbot,5 1 5 
South Won ford, Exeter, 319 
South Zeal, Okehampton, 727 
Sowden, Exeter, 533 
Sowton, Exeter, 728 
Sparkwell, Totnes, 730 
SparkAvell, Plympton St. Mary, 665 
Splatz, Winkleigh, 192 
Spreyton, Bow, 729 
Spriddlestone, Plympton, 188 
Sprytown, Lew Down, 748 
Staddiscombe, Plymouth, 670 
Staddon, Hols worthy, 479 
Stag's Head, South Molton, 720 
Stanborough Hundred, 96 
Stanton (Church), Honiton, 220 
Staplake, Exeter, 508 
Staple, Totnes, 254 

Staplecross,Wellington (Somerset), 475 
Staple Vale, Great Torrington, 456 
Stapley, Honiton, 221 
Starcross, Exeter, 729 
Staunton (Church), Honiton, 220 
Staverton, Totnes, 730 
Stenhall. Cullompton, 829 
Stibb Cross, Torrington, 522 
Sticklepath, Okehampton, 695 
Stockland, Honiton, 731 
Stockleigh English, Crediton, 732 
Stockleigh Ponieroy, Crediton, 732 
Stoke, Bideford, 467 
Stoke, Ashburton, 478 
Stoke Canon, Exeter, 732 
Stoke Damerel, Devonport, 269, 600 ; 

Directory, 294 
Stokefleming, Dartmouth, 733 
Stoke Gabriel, Totnes, 734 
Stoke Eivers, Barnstaple, 737 
Stokeinteignhead, Teignmputh, 735 
Stokeleigh Pomeroy, Creditbn, 732 
Stokenham (or Stockingham), Kings- 
bridge, 736 
Stonecombe, Barnstaple, 311 
Stonecross, Barnstaple, 101 
Stonehouse (East), 600, 738 
Stonyford, Ottery St. Mary, 229 
Stoodleigh, South Molton, 842 



Stoodleigh, Tiverton, 748 
Stowe St. Mary, Lew Down, 541 
Stowford, Chulmleigh, 47o 
Stowford, Lew Down, 748 
Stowford, Ottery St. Mary, 229 " 
Stowford (West), Barnstaple, 750 
Stowford, Torrington, 522 
Stow St. Giles, Torrington, 685 
Stow St. Petrock, Beaford, 598 
Strechford, Totnes, 730 
Street, Dartmouth, 163, 165 
Strete Raleigh, Exeter, 846 
Studley, Tiverton, 748 
Summerstown, Lifton, 464 
Sutcombe, Holsworthy, 749 
Sutton, Kingsbridge, 719 
Swimbridge (or Swymbridge), B, 750 
Sydenham Damarel (or South), 

Tavistock, 751 
Taddiport, Great Torrington, 526 
Talaton (or Tallaton), Ottery St. 

Mary, 751 
Tale, Exeter, 596 
Taleford, Ottery St. Mary, 585 
Talewater, Ottery St. Mary, 751 
Tamerton Foliot (or Foliott), Ply- 
mouth, 752 
Tamerton (King's), Plymouth, 683 
Tavistock, 753 
Tavistock Hundred, 96 
Tavy (St. Mary), Tavistock, 763 
Tavy (St. Peter), Tavistock, 764 
Taw Green, Okehampton, 727 
Tawstock, Barnstaple, 764 
Tawton (Bishop's), Barnstaple, 161 
Tawton (North), 577 
Tawton (North) Hundred, 94 
Tawton (South), Okehampton, 727 
Tedburn St. Mary, Exeter, 765 
Teignbridge Hundred, 97 
Teign (Canon), Dunsford, 215 
Teigncombe, Chagford, 208 
Teigngrace, Newton Abbot, 766 
Teignholt, Chagford, 305 
Teignmouth (East & West), 767 " 
Teignton (Bishop's), Teignmouth, 162 
Teignton (King's or Regis), Newton 

Abbot, 516 
Templeton, Tiverton, 775 
Tetcott, Holsworthy, 775 
Thelbridge, Morchard Bishop, 776 
Thomas the Apostle (St.), Exeter, 320 
Thornbury, Brandis Corner, 776 
Thornhill Head, Bideford, 197 
Thorverton, Cullompton, 776 
Thriverden, Brandis Corner, 844 
Throwleigh (or Throwley), Okehamp- 
ton, 777 
Thrushelton (or Thurshelton), Lew- 
Down, 779 
Thurlestone, Kingsbridge, 778 
Tidcombe, Tiverton, 779 
Tideford, Totnes, 240 
Tinney, Lifton, 524 
Tipton, Ottery St. Mary, 585 
Tithacot, Bideford, 197 
Tiverton, 779 
Tiverton Hundred, 97 
Topsham. Exeter, 792 
Torbay, 182 
Torbrian (or Torbryan), Newton Abbot, 

796 
Torcross, Kingsbridge, 736 
Tor (Lower), Ashburton, 849 



Tormoham (or Tormohun), T, 796 

Torquay, 796 

Torr, Ivybridge, 239 

Torr, Ivybridge, 567 

Torrington (Black), Highampton, 165 

Torrington (Black) Hundred, 87 

Torrington (Great), 456 

Torrington (Little), Gt. Torringtn, 526 

Totleigh, Highampton, 165 

Totnes, 819 

Townbridge, Chulmleigh, 205 

Townstall, Dartmouth, 255 

Trentishoe, Barnstaple, 828 

Triccombe, Honiton, 573 

Trill, Axminster, 116 

Trusham, Bovey Tracey, 828 

Tuckenhay, Totnes, 111, 240 

Tuckingmill, Bow, 862 

Turnchapel, Plymouth, 670 

Twitchen, Bideford, 197 

Twitchen, South Molton, 828 

Two Bridges, Horrabridge, 675 

Uffculme, Cullompton, 829 

Ugborough, Ivybridge, 831 

Underwood, Plympton St. Mary, 665 

Upcott, Beaford, 143 

Upcott, Dolton, 304 

Upcott, Exeter, 765 

Upcott, South Molton, 574 

Upcott, Wellington (Somerset), 253 

Up Exe, Exeter, 679 

Uphay, Axminster, 116 

Uplowman (or Uploman),Tiverton, 832 

Uplyme, Lyme Regis, 833 

Upottery (or Up Ottery), Honiton, 833 

Upper Brixham, Brixham, 181 

Upton, Exeter, 596 

Upton, Kingsbridge, 719 

Upton, Torquay, 796 

Upton Helions (or Hellions), Crediton, 
834 

Upton Pyne, Exeter, 835 

Uton, Crediton, 242 

Vaultersholme (now in Cornwall), 536 

Venbridge, Exeter, 508 

Venn, Barnstaple, 521 

Venn, Kingsbridge, 221 

Venn Ottery, Ottery St. Mary, 835 

Venton, Plympton St. Mary, 665 

Venton, Totnes, 254 

Virginstowe (or Virginstow),' Laun- 
ceston, 835 

Waddon, Newton Abbot, 216 

Walkhampton, Horrabridge, 836 

Walscott, South Molton, 574 

Warcombe, Ilfracombe, 492 

Warfleet, Dartmouth, 255 

Warkleigh (or Warkley), S.Molton, 836 

Warmhill, Bovey Tracey, 472 

Washbourne, Totnes, 111, 463 

Washfield, Tiverton, 837 

Washford Pyne, Puddington, 837 

Watchcombe, Axminster, 231 

Watcombe, Torquay, 686 

Water, Moretonhampstead, 537 

Watergate, Bridestowe, 179 

Waterhead, Kingsbridge, and Ivy- 
bridge, 114 

Waterleet, Ivybridge, 239 

Watermouth Cove, 146 

Watton, Totnes, 734 

Way, Tiverton, 250 

Waytown, Totnes, 191 

Wear Giflford, Bideford, 838 



Indox: of Places. 



Weaver, CuUompton, 250 

Wedfield, Brandis Corner, 844 

Week, Axminster, 116 

Week, Chulmleigh, 205 

Week, Okohampton, 727 

Week, Torrington, 522 

Week St. German's, Bratton Clovelly, 

454 
Week St. Pancras. Ilolsworthy, 694 
Week (West), Lifton, 524 
Weeke (Great), Chagford, 208 
Welcom])e, Stratton, 838 
Welltown, Tiverton, 200 
Werabury, Plymouth, 838 
Wemb worthy, 839 
Werrington, Launeeston, 839 
West Alvington, Kingsbridgo, 840 
West Anstey, Tiverton, 841 
West Appledore, Appledore, 103 
West Ashford, Barnstaple, 471 
West Buckland, South Molton, 842 
West Budleigh Hundred, 97 
West Charleton, Kingsbridge, 210 
West Chilla, Highampton, 165 
West Combe, Barnstaple, 764 
West Down, Ilfracombe, 843 
West Hole, Torrington, 569 
West Hooe, Plymouth, 670 
West Leigh-Betsford, Totnes, 464 
West Leigh, Bideford, 844 
Westleigh, Wellington, 204 
West Mere, Tiverton, 779 
West Ogwell, Newton Abbot, 844 
West Putford, Brandis Corner, 844 
West Sanford, Exeter, 697 
West Stowford, Barnstaple, 750 
West Teignmouth, 767 
West Town, Exeter, 508 
West Water, Axminster, 116 
West Week, Lifton, 524 
West Wonford, Brandis Corner, 545 
West Worlington, Morchard Bishop, 

846 
Westcott, Ottery St. Mary, 751 
Westerland, Totnes, 539 
Western Quarters, Tiverton, 462 
Weston, Honiton, 115 
Weston, Plympton, 860 
Weston, Sidmouth, 174 
Weston Mill, Plymouth & D'port, 597 



Weston Poverell, Plymouth & Devon- 
port, 597 

Westward Ho ! Bideford, 845 

Wcstwood, Exeter, 189 

Westwood, Dawli.-jh, 229, 26 i 

Weycroft, Axminster, 116 

Whiddon Down, Okehampton, 727 

Whilborough (North & South), New- 
ton Abbot, 515 

Whimple, Exeter, 846 

Whipton, Exeter, 320 

Whitbeare, Brandis Corner, 545 

Whitchurch, Tavistock, 847 

Whitestone, Exeter, 848 

Whitford, Axminster, 706 

Whitnage, Tiverton, 832 

Whitston, Exbourne, 573 

Whitstone, Exeter, 848 

Whittley, Plymouth, 683 

Wick, Totnes, 254 

Widecombe (or Widdecombe) in-thc- 
Moor, Ashburton, 849 

Widworthy, Honiton, 850 

Wiggaton, Ottery St. Mary, 585 

Willand, CuUompton, 850 

Willey, Sampford Courtenay, 695 

Willincott, Hfracombe, 843 

AVilliswell, Great Torrington, 538 

Willsworthy, Tavistock, 764 

Wilmington, Honiton, 579 

Wilsworthy, Exeter, 508 

Winkleigh, 851 

Winkleigh Hundred, 97 

Winscott, Exeter, 568 

Winsham, Barnstaple, 176 

Winstone, Plympton, 188 

Wistman (or AViseman's) Wood, 49 

Witheridge, 852 

Witheridge Hundred, 97 

Withleigh, Tiverton, 779 

Withycombe Eawleigh (or Withe- 
combe Eawleigh), Exmouth, 854 

Wolborough, Newton Abbot, 556 

Wolston Green, Totnes, 730 

Wolverston, Honiton, 115 

Wonford (East & West), Brandis 
Corner, 545 

Wonford (East & South), Exeter, 319 

Wonford Hundred, 98 

Wonton, Ivy bridge, 717 



Woodbridge, Honiton, 449 
Woodbury, l-'^xeter, 855 
AVoodbury Saltcrton, Exeter, 855 
Woodford, Totnes, 163 
Woodgate, Bishop's Morchard, 150 
Woodhuitih, Brixham, 181 
Woodland, Ashburton, 857 
Woodland, Newton Abbot, 502 
Woodhmd Head, Crediton, 242 
Woodlane, Bishop's Morchard, 159 
Woodleigh, Mounts, 857 
Woodmanton, Exeter, 855 
Woodsdown, Hols worthy, 594 
Wood town, Bideford, 102 
"Woolfardisworthy (or Woolsery), 

Bideford, 858 
Woolfardisworthy (or Woolsery), 

Crediton, 859 
Woolleigh, Beaford, 143 
Woolston, I^jngsbridge, 840 
Worlington (East), Morchard Bishop, 

312 
Worlington (West), Morchard Bishop, 

8i6 
Wormhill, Morotonhampstead, 571 
Wrafton, Barnstaple, 471 
Wrangaton, Ivybridge, 831 
Wyke, Axminster, 116 
Wyke St. Maiy, Chagford, 208 
Yalberton, Paignton, 590 
Yarcombe, Chard, 859 
Yard, South Molton, 682 
Yardbury, Axminster, 232 
Yarnscombe, Barnstaple, 860 
Yartcombe, Chard, 859 
Yarty, Chard, 543 
Yealm Bridge, Plympton, 860 
Yealmpton, Plympton, 860 
Yeatson, Totnes, 111 
Yedbury, Tiverton, 250 
Yellowford, CuUompton, 777 
Yeo, Plympton, 860 
Yeoford, Crediton, 242 
Yeolmbridge, Launeeston, 840 
Yettingham, Budleigh Salterton, 149 
Yoldford, CuUompton, 777 
Youlston, Holsworthy, 172 
Zeal Monachorum, Bow, 862 
Zeal (South), Okehampton, 727 



GENEEAL INDEX OF SUBJECTS 

{See also the following Indexes for Exeter and Plyitiouth, ^-c.) 



Abbeys, 117, 195, 199, 306, 
467, 534, 581, 611, 754, 
797-8 
Acland Family, 521 
Acland, Sir T.D., Bart. 189 
Acreage, 21, 22, 24, 27, 78 
Adams, William, 592 
Ages of the Population, 83 
Agricultural Returns, 53 
Agricultural Societies, 189, 

484, 659, 685, 823, 853 
Agriculture, 50 
Alcock, Rev. Thomas, 684 



Ancient British Roads, 41 
Ancient Britons, 39, 537, 573 
Ancient History, 39 
Ancient Houses, 256,337,582 
Annuitant Society, 722 
Aquarium, 801 
Archdeaconries, 31,339 
Archery Clubs, 590, 616 
Area, 21, 22, 24, 27, 78 
Artillery, 357, 494, 693, 769 
Ashburton, Barons, 107 
Aspect, 50 
Assessments, 25 



Asylums, 356, 440, 669, 730 
Athelstane, 114,117,125,322 
Awful Visitation, 849 
Babington, Bishop, 586 
Badcock, Rev. Saml. 129, 723 
Baker, Rev. Thomas, 160 
Bampfield, Grace, 599 
Bampfylde, Sir John, 673 
Bampton, John de, 123 
Band of Hope, 592 
Bankruptcy Courts, 30, 333, 

740 
Baring, Alexander, 107 



Baronets, 48 
Baronies, 43 
Barracks, 273, 302, 326, 547, 

603, 738-9 
Barrows, 313, 505 
Bartlett, Revds. Walter and 

John, 152 
Bassett Family, 146 
Bastard, B. J. P,, Esq. 861 
Bathing Places, 17, 201, 266, 

264, 440, 453, 491, 534, 

590, 691, 699 708, 736, 

767, 796 



Greiieral Index oF Sulyects. 



Battles, 117, 123,599 

Bayley, W. R., Esq. 707 

Beacons, 253, 605, 748 

Beare, Justice, 201 

Becky Falls, 537 

Bedford, Duke of, 545, 754 

Beer Stone, 699 

Benefit Societies, 469, 484, 
710 

Benevolent Institutions, 130, 
132, 229, 265, 355, 362, 
616, 710, 722, 757, 802 

I Berry, Sir John, 519 
Bible Christian College, 702 

Bidder, George, 553 

Birds, 718 

Births, 84 

Bishops, 244, 338, 720, 752 

Bishop's 'Palaces, 161, 216, 
243, 343, 590 

Blachford, Lord, 239 

Blundell, Peter, 787 

Bogan, Zachary, 526 

Boroughs, 21, 22, 27, 78, 
125, 144, 150, 170, 218, 
231, 243, 256, 269, 270, 
317, 456, 483, 492, 531, 
546, 581. 601, 606, G69, 
709, 720, 727, 754, 821, 
853, 861 

Botany, 54 

Boundaries, 17 

Bowen, Captain Richard, 493 

Bowerman's Nose, 537 

Bracton, Henry de, 174 

Bray, Mrs, 757 

Breakwaters, 182, 604 

Bridges. 50, 115, 150, 167, 
321, 503, 531, 568, 569, 
605, 683, 691, 720, 738, 
768, 786, 819, 829 

British Entrenchments, 206, 
552, 707, 855 

British Pottery, 125 

British Seamen's Orphan 
Home, 183 

Britons, 39 

Browne, William, 757 

Buck, L. AV., Esq. 150 

Buckland, Dean, 118 

Building Societies, 132, 357, 
459, 741 

Buller, Judge, 723 

Bulteel, Lady, 476 

Burgess, Captain, R.N. 794 

Burial Boards, 118, 130,459, 
511, 693, 710, 769, 793 

Byng, Baron, 456 

Cabbages (Paignton), 590 

Canals, 20, 216, 329-30, 479, 
516, 557, 753, 779, 792 

Can n, Abraham, 230 

Cantelupe, Thomas de, 191 

Capern, Edward, 787 

Carboniferous System, 63 

Carew, Bampfylde Moore, 
149 

Carew Family, 461 

Carew, Lady, 678 

Carew, Sir W. P. 461 

Carpenter, Nathaniel, 833 

Carpet Manufacture, 36, 116 

Cary,R.S.S., Esq.798 

Cagtles, 47, 123, 125, 147, 



175, 195, 206, 218, 256, 
322, 323, 327, 328, 333, 
4n, 455, 456, 472, 518, 
529, 531, 539, 552, 580, 
596,669,674-5,692,696, 
78U, 819, 820, 851, 855 

Cathedrals, 243, 325, 339, 
613 

Cattle, 549, 574 

Caverns, 72, 216, 567, 686, 
730, 798, 861 

Chalybeate Springs, 77, 123 

Champernowne, A., Esq. 254 

Champernowne, Sir Richard, 
546 

Chappie, William, 853 

Charities, 30 

Charles L 171, 557, 602 

Charters, 116,125.150, 167, 

170, 204, 256, 331, 456, 
483. 552, 557, 558, 581, 
585, 601, 602. 720, 721, 
756, 767, 781^ 821, 851 

Cherry Orchards, 456 

Cholera, 21, 603, 679 

Chudlcigh, Sir George, 113 

Chudleigh Rock, 216 

Chulmleigh, Seven Prebends 
of, 219 

Churchill, John, boo 

Churston, Lord, 222 

Cider, 53, 144, 195, 240, 
590, 718, 730 

Civil Condition of the Po- 
pulation, 83 

Civil Wars, 42, 125, 167, 

171, 189, 207, 215, 227, 
231,257,323-5,457,492, 
580, 585, 602, 669, 670, 
675, 683, 692, 728, 756, 
780, 793 

Clarence, Duke of, 182 
Clevland, Archibald, Esq., 

844 
CliiFord Family, 216 
Climate, 20, 441, 797 
Clinton, Lord, 488 
Clothing Clubs, 303, 802 
Coal, 213 
Coast Guard Stations, 174, 

183, 201, 214, 264, 442. 

590, 673, 680, 691, 692, 

709, 718, 739, 768 
Coffin Family, 102 
Coham Family, 165 
Coleridge, Rt. Hon. Sir J, 

T. 787 
Coleridge, Samuel T. 585 
Commerce, 36 
Conduits, 105, 334, 336, 546 
Convalescent Homes, 553, 

802 
Copleston, Bishop, 579 
Copper Mines, 75 
Corporations. 126, 150, 170, 

256,270,331,456,606-7, 

669, 720, 781, 821 
Cottage Garden Societies, 

494, 560, 793 
Cottage Hospitals, 107, 167, 

219, 265, 560 
County Asylum, 440 
Coimty Courts, 30, 1 17, 127, 
, 152, 243, 332, 457, 480, 



484, 510, 558, 581, 610, 
, 721, 740, 755, 782, 822, 

851 
County Divisions, 21 
County Proper, 24, 82 
Courtenay Family, 48, 675 
Court Leets and 13aron, 105, 

114, 123, 160, 170, 242, 

467, 479, 483, 508, 510, 

546, 552, 558, 575, 585, 

678, 720, 754, 767, 853 
Cowell, Dr. 750 
Creeks, 20 

Cretaceous Series, 69. 
Cricket Clubs, 442, 560, 710 
Cricket Grounds, 201, 797 
Cromlechs, 40, 305, 552, 555 
Curious Custom, 517 
Danes, 42 
Danish Encampments, 176, 

195 
Dartmoor Forest, 49 
Dartmoor Prison, 676 
Dartmouth, P^arl o*", 257 
Davie, Sir H. R. F., Bart, 697 
Davis, Captain John, 735 
Deaneries, 31 
Deaths, 84 

Devon, Earls of, 47, 675 
Devonian Period, 60 
Dispensaries, 131, 153, 217, 

265, 276, 355, 442, 616, 

617, 710, 757, 769, 801 
Distribution of Population, 

78 
Divett, Edward, Esq. 229 
Divisions, 21, 26, 28, 30, 

31, 35 
Dolde, John, 172 
Docks, 272, 442, 605-6, 

666, 739 
Doddridge, Sir John, 130 
Domesday Book, 43 
Down, Abraham & Benj. 154 
Dowrich Family, 697-8 
Drainage, 493, 740, 799 
Drake, Sir Francis, 199, 601, 

757, 859 
Drake, Sir F. G. A. F. E., 

Bart. 855, 859 
Druidical Remains, 40, 146, 

175, 305, 630, 637, 552, 

555, 572 
Druids, 40, 49 
Duckworth, Sir J. T. B., 

Bart. 793 
Dukes, 47 

Dunning, John, Esq. 107 
Duntze, Sir J. L., Bart. 729 
Earls, 47 
Earthenware Manufacture, 

167, 451, 610 
Ecclesiastical Divisions, 31 
Echo, 227 
Education, 37, 85 
Egremont, Earl of, 714 
Electors, 21 
Elton, Sir E. M. 850 
Emigration, 753 
Encroachments of the Sea, 

163 
Entrenchments, 228, 240, 

463, 527, 552, 596, 673, 

699, 707, 737, 855 



Exmouth, Viscount, 215, 441 
Expenditure, 25, 29 
Extra-Parochial Places, 23 
Fair Water, 517 
Fairfiix, General, 105, 125 
Fairs (List of), 13 
Farmers' Clubs, 130 
Farrington, Sir H. A. 585 
Fires, 36, 171, 189,195,216, 

219, 244, 250. 272, 469, 

482, 585, 703, 714, 733, 

780 
Fisheries, 37, 114, 116, 125, 

158, 182, 201, 228, 533, 

534, 567, 568, 609, 679, 

692, 700, 709, 736, 767, 

778, 792, 820 
Fitzralph, Richard, 849 
Flavel, Rev. John, 257 
Flax Manufacture, 36, 116 ' 

Flint Quarry, 831 
Floating Bridges, 256, 273 
Floods, 100, 321 
FoUett, Sir W. W. 794 
Ford, John, 500 
Foresters, 190 
Forests, 49 

Forster, Dr. Nathaniel, 670 
Fortescue, Earl, 450 
Fortescue, Sir Henry, 308 
Forts, &c. 150, 182, 194, 

270, 313, 441, 518, 547, 

596, 601, 603, 604, 670, 

738, 740 
Fox Covers, 475, 846 
Freemasons, 130, 184, 244, 

265, 442, 494, 511, 560, 

592, 617, 711, 722, 740, 

758,769,785,794,802,823 
French Invasions, 256, 529, 

601, 738, 767, 855 
Friendly Societies, 130. 184, 

190, 229, 244, 484,559, 

617, 680, 710, 780, 794, 

802 
Fulford Family, 307 
Furneaux, Dr.*^ Philip, 823 
Gaols, 127, 150, 274, 333, 

608, 676, 721, 736, 782 
Gates, Sir Thomas, 231 
Gay (poet), 130, 132 
Geology, 58 

Gifford, AVilliam, Esq. 107 
Gilbert, Sir Humphfey, 539 
Glanville, Judge & Sir 

John, 757 
Gold Mines, 574 
Golf Club. 570 
Gorham, Rev. G. C, 173 
Granite, 65, 500, 557 
Graves, Admiral S. 596 
Grenville, Sir Richard, 153, 

199 
Hammer, Rev. Jonathn. 129 
Hankford, Sir Wm. 204, 550 
Harbours, 257, 271, 492, 

529, 534, 605, 692, 709, 

767, 797 
Harding, Dr. Thos. 130, 235 
Harris Family. 453 
Harris, Rev. William, 482 
Haytor Granite Works, 500 
Heie, Sir John, 839 
Ifervey, Rev. James, 152 



xvi 



Greiiei*al Index of" ^ulttjects. 



Highway Boards, 18, 105, 

117, 469,610, 524 
Highway Districts, 29 
History, 39 
Holno Chaso, 478 
Hopkins, Bishop, 697 
Horticultural Societies, 244, 

364, 451, 560, 617, 793 
Hospitals, 587, 616, 739, 801 
Hounds, 315, 780 
Hountor, 537 
House of Mercy, 167 
Houses,18, 21,22, 24,27,82 
Hubba Stone, 103 
Hundred Court, 469, 736 
Hundreds, 22, 23, 87 
Industrial Schools, 440, 508 
Infirmaries, 131, 153, 276, 

355, 739, 769, 801 
Ireland, Dr. John, 107 
Iron Ore, 76, 182, 472 
Jeffries, Judge, 631 
Jewel, Bishop, 130, 132, 147 
Judge's Seat, 39 
Judicial Statistics, 29 
Kelly's College, 757 
Kempthorn Sir John, 831 
Kennaway, Sir John, Bart. 

751 
Kennicott, Dr. 823 
Kent's Hole, or Cavern, 72, 

686, 798 
King, Mr. Eichard, 547 
Kingsley, Eev. Charles, 

478, 845 
Kinsale, Lord, 536 
Kitt's Hole, 531 
Knight-Bruce, Kt. Hon. Sir 

J. 177 
Labyrinth, 479 
Lace Manufacture, 36, 174, 

329, 442, 482, 568, 584, 

700, 709, 780, 855 
Landholders, 54 
Land Slips, 74, 121, 700 
Land Societies, 132, 493 
Lawrence, Gen. Stringer,306 
Leach, Sir S. 206 
Lear, Sir Peter, 162 
Ley, Eev. Edward, 823 
Lias, 69 
Libraries, 106, 115, 130, 

144, 153, 201, 217, 244, 

276,310,353-4,452,469, 

501, 547, 615, 667, 685, 

710, 711,722,754,756-7, 

783, 785, 793, 801, 822, 

842 
Lieutenancy Sub-Divisions, 

30 
Lighthouses, 176, 494, 529, 

555, 736, 768 
Lifeboats, 265, 442, 555, 

567, 670, 692, 709, 768 
Lime Eock Quarries, 305, 

475, 567, 580, 749 
Limestone, 64, 305 
Limestone Caverns, 72,567, 

686, 730, 798, 861 
Literary Institutions, 130, 

201, 244, 469, 484, 524, 

547, 553, 559, 582, 615, 

710, 769, 785 
Local Board Districts, 31, 80 



Logan Stone, 305, 630, 552 
Longevity, 100, 172, 240, 

484, 552, 768 
Loosemore John, 160 
Lopes, Sir L. M., M.P. 752 
Lunatic Asylums, 356, 440, 

669, 730 
Lundy Island, 529 
Lyte, Eev. John 0. 184 
Mackerel, 37, 609 
Magistrates (List of), 6 
Manton, Thomas, 232 
Manufactures, 36 
Marbl e Manufacture ,686 
Market Towns, 103, 104, 
116, 123, 125, 144, 150, 
168, 181, 207, 218, 231, 
242, 250, 255, 273, 330, 
440, 456, 468, 479, 482, 
491, 509, 546, 552, 556, 
577, 581, 585, 610, 692, 
708, 719, 753, 779, 792, 
796, 819, 829 
Marlborough, Duke of, 555 
Marriages, 83 
Mayne, Eev. Jasper, D.D. 

469 
Means of Communication, 18 
Measures of Land, 43 
Mechanics' Institutes, &c. 
276, 452, 659, 615, 710, 
722, 757, 769 
Members of Parliament, 6, 

21, 126, 332, 754, 782 
Metamorphic Eocks, 60 
Meteoric Stone, 315 
Mineral Springs, 77 
Mines and Mining, 75, 144, 
182, 215, 234, 268, 303, 
472, 500, 523, 627, 537, 
649, 668, 671, 574, 720, 
753, 763, 847 
Miocene Deposits, 70 
'Miracles,' 192 
Mission to Seamen, 183 
Monasteries, 598, 611, 665 
Monk, General, 456, 521 , 543 
Morley, Earl of, 666 
Morris, Lieut.-Col., C.B.469 
Mount Edgcumbe, Earl of, 

636 
Muden, Dr. Peter, 205 
Municipal Boroughs, 22, 78, 
125, 150, 170, 256, 269, 
270, 317, 456, 483, 581, 
606, 720, 781, 821 
Municipal Eeform Act, 22 
Musical Societies, 354, 484, 

493 
Mutual Improvement So- 
cieties, 586, 793 
Napoleon, 603 
Naval Station, 125 
Navigable Elvers, 20 
Nelson, Lord, 525 
Newcomeu, Thomas, 256 
Newman, Sir Lydstone, 

Bart. 537 
News Eooms, 153, 276, 569, 

567, 615 
Nobility, 48 
Norman Conquest, 42 
Northcote, Et. Hon. Sir S. 
H., Bart., C.B, 835 



Obelisk, 537 

Occupations, 26 

Odd Fellows, 469, 494, 740. 

758, 786 
Ore, 75, 234, 500, 596 
Owl's Combe, 115 
Oxenham Family, 727 
Oyster Beds, 37, 567 
Palk, SirLawronce,Bart.505 
Paper Manufacture, 189 
Parishes, 23 
Parks, 130, 244 
Parliamentary Boroughs, 21, 
78, 125, 144, 160, 170, 
256, 269, 317, 456, 483, 

546, 581, 601, 606, 669, 
720, 754, 781, 821 

Parliamentary Divisions, 21 

Parliamentary Eepresenta- 
tives, 21, 126,332,754,782 

Pauperism, 25, 86 

Peat, 49, 180 

Pellew, Sir Edward, 441 

Penrose, John, 452 

Perring, Sir John & Eev. Sir 
Philip, 476 

Peters, Hugh, 457 

Petitor, 686 

Petty Sessional Divisions, 26 

Petty Sessions, 117,127,170, 
183, 211, 219, 222, 232, 
243, 251, 264, 334, 457, 
469, 480, 484, 610, 524, 

547, 552, 558, 577, 685, 
690, 666, 709, 721, 740, 
756, 768, 782, 799, 822, 
855, 861 

Piers, 121, 182, 467, 492, 

590, 605, 670, 699, 709, 

710, 768, 845 
Pinder, Peter, 302 
Plague, 152, 327, 457, 602-3 
Philanthropic Society, 758 
Pole, Sir William, 706 
Police Divisions, 28 
Police Force, 28 
Polling Places, 21 
Polo, 690 

Poltimore, Lord, 673 
Pomeroy Family, 147 
Poor Law, 23 
Population, 18, 21, 22, 24, 

27,78 
Ports, 128, 151, 329, 609, 

767, 792, 796 
Portsmouth, Earl of, 839 
Post Offices, &c. 36 
Post-Tertiary Deposits, 71 
Potters' Clay, 616, 701 
Pottery, 560 

Prideaux, Sir Edmund, 449 
Prince of Orange, 182, 326, 

557 
Prince, Eev. John, 118 
Printing Press, 754 
Priories, 125, 191, 240, 335, 

336, 452, 502, 546, 559, 

584. 698, 665, 687 
Prisons, 127, 150, 274, 333, 

608, 676, 721, 736, 782 
Proportion of the Sexes, 78 
Proprietary College, 659 
Provident Institutions, 184, 

356, 659, 722 



Public Officers (List of), 6 
Eaces, 603, 606, 666, 673, 

768, 780, 820 
Eailways, 18, 105, 125, 143, 

165, 170, 182, 201, 216, 

242, 366, 451, 478, 479, 

492, 509, 531, 567, 574, 

600, 676, 709, 754, 764, 

776, 779, 829 
Eain Gauge, 718 
Eaised Beaches, 73 
Ealeigh, Sir Walter, 239, 

310, 585 
Eateable Value, 24, 25, 30 
Eates, 29 
Eats, Isle of, 529 
Eattenbury, Jack, 700 
Eeading Eooms, 116, 130, 

146, 171, 189, 195, 201, 

217, 228, 244, 310, 493, 

528, 534, 653, 667, 687, 

615, 686, 710, 711, 722, 

793, 801, 842 
Eebellions,227,244, 695,780 
Eecreation Grounds, 1 30, 

682, 710, 797 
Eeformatories, 173, 356 
Eegattas, 256, 264, 270, 606, 

729, 736, 768, 801 
Eegistration County and 

Districts, 23, 82 
Eelative Ages, 26 
Eental, 25 

Eeynell, Eev. Edward, 312 
Eeynolds, John & Thos. 599 
Eeynolds, Sir Joshua, 669 
Eeynolds, Eev. Eichard, 733 
Eidgway Family, 163 
Eifle Volunteers, 132, 357, 

560, 617 
Eisdon, Tristram, 685 
Eivers, 19, 580, 696, 753 
Eoads, 18 
Eocking Stone, 305 
Eogers, Sir F. L. 239 
Eolle, Dennis, Esq. 150 
Eolle, Lord & Lady, 149-50 
Eomau Coins, &c. 41, 241, 

322, 501, 505, 615 
Eoman Encampments and 

Fortifications, 116, 172, 

240, 241 
Eoman Eoads, 41, 146, 321, 

322, 554, 820 
Eomans, 41 
Eoman Stations, 41, 321, 

596, 699 
Eoyal Albert Bridge, 683 
Eural Deaneries, 31 
Sailors' Home, 268 
St. Boniface, 244 
St. Brannock, 176 
St. Simon, 769 
Salkeld, John, 221 
Sanatorium, 846 
Sanitary Organisation, 85 
Savings Banks, 251, 276,367, 

591, 617, 722, 767, 794 
Saxons, 42 

School Boards, 37, 86 
Scott, Sir Walter, 175 
Seale, Sir H. P. 256 
Sea Walls, 709, 797 
Serge Manufacture, 36, 105, 



Greneral Index of Sult^ects. 



1 



160, 195, 207, 244, 482, 

677, 581, 720 
Seven Prebends of Chiilm- 

leigh, 219 
Shebbeare, Dr John, 153 
Ship-building, 128, 151, 302, 

670, 610, 792 
Shipping Afjsociation, 692 
Shipwrecked Fishermen's & 

Mariners' Societies, 442, 

693, 802 
Sidmoutb, Viscount, 709, 833 
Silk Manufacture, 36, 221, 

585 
Silke, Eev. James, 199 
Skating Kinks, 616, 797, 801 
Slate Quarries, 201,240,730 
Smith, Mr. Eobert, 494 
Smuggling, 494, 700, 718 
Soil, 50 

Somerset, Duke of, 147, 766 
Springs, 77, 100, 182, 494, 

517, 678 
Stannary Parliaments, 39, 

207, 531 
Stapledon, Bishop, 550 
Statues, 131, 321, 333, 336, 

05, 603, 609, 754 




Stedman, Major John G. 

149 
Stone Cross, 174 
Strange, John, 152 
Strode, Sir Kiclmrd, 40 
Submarine Forests, 73 
Surface, 50 

Temperance Society, 452 
Temperature, 20 
Tesselated Pavements, 322, 

833 
Thurlestone Rock, 778 
Torbay, 182, 796 
Torrington, Viscount, 456 
Tougood, Micuiah, 349, 553 
Towns, 23, 82 
Townships, 23 
Tracey, Sir William, 555 
Trades Directory, 863 
Tradition of the Oxenham 

Family, 727 
Training Ships, 255 
Tramways, 18, 204, 289, 500, 

574. 664, 820 
Trees, Eemarkable, 144, 542, 

553, 597, 729, 841 
Trelawny, Sir Harry, 683 
Tremayne, Thomas, Esq. 520 



Triassic Series, 67 
Tucker, Mrs. Mary, 173 
Tumuli, 313, 505, 840 
Turnpike Trusts, 18, 29 
Tything, 23 
Union County, 24 
Unions, 23, 24 
Urban Sanitary Districts, 

31 
Vaccination, 25 
Valley of Rocks, 534 
Vital Statistics, 78 
Volunteers, 132, 327, 357, 

494, 560, 602, 617, 693, 

756, 769, 793 
Voters, 21, 331. 483,606-7, 

754, 781, 821 
Walrond, Sir J. W., Bart. 829 
War Prison, 676 
Waterfalls, 308, 505, 531, 

537 
Wellington Monument, 224 
Wells, 100, 158, 469, 494, 

547 
Wesley, John, 784 
Westcote, Thomas, 706 
White Ale, 257, 302, 509 
Wichehalse Family, 534 



Wilkins, John, 232 

William III. 182 

William the Conqueror, 43 

Williams Family, 228 
j Williams, Sir F. M., Bait. 
471 

Wilson, Rev. Henry, 198 
I Wistman (or AViseman's^ 
I Wood, 49 
j Woods, 268, 466 
I Woollen Manufacture, 36, 
I 105, 123, 128, 160, 171, 
195, 216, 232, 244, 250, 
328, 457, 464, 469, 509, 
546, 552, 577, 581. 585, 
598, 696, 720, 753, 780, 
I 820, 829 

j Working Men's Institutes, 
i 258, 265, 785, 793, 847 

Worsted Manufacture, 829 

Wrey, Sir B. P., Bart. 764 

AVyait, Sir John, 843 

Wyot, Philip, 132 

Yacht Clubs. 518, 616, 801 

Yeomanry Cavalry, 132, 357 

Yonge Family, 232 

Y^oung (poet), 154 



EXETEE INDEX OF SUBJECTS, 



Acreage, 317, 319 
Additional Curates Soc. 349 
Albert Memorial Museum, 

353 
Alfred the Great, 322 
Almshouses, 336, 338, 358 
Ancient History, 321 
Ancient Houses, 337 
Annuity Society, 357 
Archdeaconries, 31,339 
Architectural Society, 349 
Area, 317, 319 
Artillery, 357 
Assembly Rooms, 354 
Assize Hall, 333 
Assizes, &e. 334 
Asylum, 356 
Athelstane, 322 
Athenaeum, 354 
Bankruptcy Court, 333 
Barracks, 326 
Basin, 330 
Bedford House, 335 
Benefices, 339 

BenevolentSocieties,355,362 
Bishops, 338 
Bishop's Palace, 343 
Blind Institution, 353 
Blue School, 349 
Bodley, Sir Thomas, 365 
Botanical and Horticultural 

Society, 354 
Bridges, 321 
British Schools, 352 
Britons, 321 
Building Society, 357 
Bury Meadows, 321 



Canal, 329-30 

Canons, 344 

Carriers, 439 

Castles, 322, 323, 327, 328, 
333 

Castle Yard, 317 

Cathedral, 325, 339 

Cathedral Library, 354 

Catholic Chapel, 349 
I Cattle Market, 331 
I Cemetery, 349 
I Chamber of Agriculture, 334 
{ Chamber of Commerce, 334 
I Chapels, 349 
j Charities, 358 
I Charity Schools, 351 
i Charity Trustees, 358, 360 
I Charters, 331 
I Cholera, 327 

! Church Building Assoc. 349 
j Church Endowment Fund, 
i 349 

Churches, 344 

City, 320 

City Council, 332 

City Magistrates, 332 

City Prison, 333 

Civil Wars, 323, 324, 325 

Close, 343 

Commerce, 329 

Conduits, 334, 386 

Corn Exchange, 331 

Corporation, 331 

Corporation of the Poor, 318 

County of the City, 331 

County Court, 332 

County Prison, 333 



Courts, 331, 333 

Custom House, 334 

Customs, 330 

Danes, 322 

Danes' Castle, 328 

Deaf and Dumb Institution, 
352 

Dean and Chapter, 339 

Deaneries, 31 

Devon and Exeter Hospital, 
354 

Devon and Exeter Institu- 
tion, 354 

Dignitaries of the Diocese, 
344 

Diocese, 337 

Directory, 399 

Dispensary, 355 

Dorcas Societies, 362 

Drainage, 327 

East Wonford, 319 

Ecclesiastical History, 335 

Education, Board of, 352 

Elementary Schools, 351 

Eminent Men, 318, 320, 
349, 365 

Episcopal Schools, 351 

Exe Bridge, 321 

Exe Island, 324 

Exeter, Farl and Marquis 
of, 328 

Eye Infirmary, 355 

Fairs, 330 

Female Reformatories, 356 

Fishing, 321 

Flood, 321 

Foster Dr. John, 366 



Free Church, 348 

Free Cottages, 362 

Free Library, 353 

Freemen, 331 

Friars' Walk, 321 

Friary (Black & Grey), 335 

Gas Works, 335 

Gates, 320 

Grammar School, 350 

Guardians, 318, 319 

Guild of Deyonshire 

Ringers, 349 
Guildhall, 333 
Heavitree, 319 
Hele's School, 351 
High School, 351 
History, 321, 335 
Homoeopathic Dispensary, 

355 
Hospitals, 354 
Hounds, 321 
Houses, 317, 319 
Humane Society, 355 
Inland Revenue Office, 334 
Insurance Co. 356 
Iron Bridge, 321 
Lace Manufacture, 329 
Langton, Stephen, 365 
Law Library, 354 
Lepers' Hospital, 336 
Libraries, 353, 354 
Literary Societies, 354 
Lunatic Asylum, 356 
Lying-in Charity. 355 
Magdalen Hospital, 359 
Magistrates, 332 
Manors, 320 



a 



Exeter Inclex: of* Sixl::^ <5cts. 



Manufactures, 328 
Markets, 320, 330 
Marquis of Exeter, 328 
Martyn, William, 305 
Martyrs, 324 
Medical Library, 354 
Medico-Chirurgical Soc. 354 
Members of Parliament, 332 
Militia, 327, 357 
Militia Camp, 320 
Mints, 322, 328 
Monastic Institutions, 335 
Municipal J^orough, 317 
Museum, 353 
Musical Association, 35 4 
National Schools, 352 
Navigation, 316, 329 
Newspapers, 354 
Northernhay, 320 
Nurseries, 354 
Nurses' Training Instn. 356 
Oratorio Society, 354 
Orphanage, 356 
Parishes, 317, 319 
Parliamentary Borough, 317 
Parliamentary Kepresenta- 

tives, 332 
Penitentiary, 356 
Petty Sessions, 334 
Pilots, 330 
Plague, 327 



riainworkers' Society, 357 
Police, 332 
Population, 317, 319 
Port of Exeter, 329 
Post Office, 366 
Prebendaries, 344 
Prince of Orange, 326 
Priories, 335 6 
Prisons, 333 
Probate Court, 333 
Provident Institutions, 356 
Public Officers, 332 
Public Walks, 320 
Eagged Schools, 352 
Railways, 316, 366, 439 
Rateable Value, 317, 319 
Reform Acts, 331 
Reformation, 324 
Reformatories, 356 
Registrars, 318 
Religious Institutions, 349 
Revenue Officers, 334 
Revolution, 326 
Rifle Volunteers, 357 
Riots, 327 
Rivers, 329 

Roman Catholic School, 352 
Roman Coins & Remains, 

322 
Roman Roads & Stations, 

321. 322 



Romans, 321 
Rougemont Castle, 327 
Royal Visits, 327 
Rural Deaneries, 31 
St. John's Hospital, 349 
St. Thomas the Apostle's, 

320 
St. Thomas' Union, 318 
Sanitary Improvements, 327 
Savings Bank, 357 
Scholarships, 352 
School Boards, 352 
Schools, 349 
Schools of Art & Science, 

353 
Servants' Homes, 352 
Session^ House, 333 
Sieges, 324 
Situation, 316, 320 
South Wonford, 319 
Southcott, Joanna, 365 
Sporting, 321 
Stamp Office, 334 
Statues, 321, 333, 336 
Steam Packets, 330 
Street Directory, 368 
Subscription Rooms, 354 
Suburbs, 320 
Tailors' Company, 331 
Tea Gardens, 321 



Tessclated Pavements, 322 

Theatre, 354 

Town Council, 331 

Trade, 329 

Training Institution, 352 

Unions, 318 

Victoria Hall, 354 

Volunteers, 327, 357 

Voters, 331 

Walls and Gates, 320 

Wards, 332 

Waterworks, 334 

Wesleyan School, 352 

West of England Insurance 
Company, 356 

Western Provident Associa- 
tion, 356 

Whipton, 320 

William the Conqueror, 322 

Witchcraft, 325 

Witenagemote, 322 

Wonford (East and South), 
319 

Wonford House, 356 

Woollen Manufacture, 328 

Workhouses, 318, 319 

Worthies, 318, 320, 349, 365 

Wynard's Hospital, 361 

Yeomanry Cavalry, 357 



PLYMOUTH, DBVONPOET, AND STONEHOUSE 
INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



Abbey, 611 

Acreage, 738 

Acts for Paving, &c. 270 

Admiral's House, 273 

Albert Hall, 616 

Almhouses, 617 

Ancient History, 601 

Area, 738 

Archery Association, 616 

Assembly Room, 274 

Athenseum, 615 

Bankruptcy Court, 740 

Banks, 273, 610, 738 

Barbican, 605 

Barracks, 273, 603, 738, 739 

Beacon, 605 

Bell Turret, 616 

Benevolent Institutions, 616 

Bishop (Rom. Cath.), 613 

Blind Association, 277 

Blind Institution, 617 

Blockhouse, 739 

Board Schools, 276, 614,740 

Bonding Warehouses, 273 

Borough Magistrates, 271, 

607 
'BovoMghs :— Devo)iport, 269, 

270; Plymouth, 601, 606 
Breakwater, 604 
Bridges, 605, 738 
Building Society, 741 
Bunker's Hill, 272 
Cabp, 661 



Carriers, 289, 664 

Cathedral (Rom. Cath.), 613 

Catwater, 605 

Cemetery, 613 

Chapels, 275, 613, 740 

Charities, 277, 617 

Charity School, 614 

Charles I. 602 

Charters, 601, 602 

Cholera, 603 

Churches, 274, 610, 740 

Citadel, 603 

Civil Wars, 602 

Clock Tower, 616 

Club, 615 

Coastguard Station, 739 

Column, 270 

Commerce, 273 

Convent, 615 

Conveyance, 289, 294, 300, 

664 
Cook worthy, Mr. William, 

610 
Corporation of the Poor, 607 
Corporations, 270, 606-7 
Cotton, William, Esq. 615 
Cottonian Library, 615 
County Court, 610, 740 
Creeks, 600 
Cromwell, Oliver, 602 
Custom House, 273, 609 
Debating Society, 616 
Devil's Point, 739 | 



Devonport, 269 
Devonport Column, 270 
Directories : — Devowport, 

278 ; Morice Town, 289 ; 

Plymouth, 620 ; StoJce, 

294; 8tonehousc, 741 
Dispensaries, 276, 616, 617 
Docks, 272, 605-6, 739 
Dockyard, 272 
Drainage, 740 
Drake, Sir Erancis, 601 
Drake's Island, 601, 604 
Drill Hall, 617 
Earthenware Manufacture, 

610 
East Stonehouse, 738 
Eddystone Lighthouse, 605 
Elocution Society, 615 
Eminent Men, 611, 615, 

618 
Endowed School, 614 
Exchange, 610 
Excise Officers, 609 
Exports, 609 
Eye Infirmary, 616 
Fairs, 273, 610 
Female Home, 617 
Female Orphan Asylum, 

276, 616 
Fire Brigade, 740 
Fisheries, 609 
Floating Bridge, 273 
Ford, 294 



Fortifications, 270, 601, 603, 

604, 738, 740 
Free Library, 615 
Freemasons, 617, 740 
Free Schools, 276, 614 
French Invasions, 601, 738 
Friaries, 611 
Friendly Societies, 617 
Gaols, 274, 608 
Garrison, 604 
Gas Works, 274, 610 
George IIL 272 
Government House, 273 
Government Prison, 608 
GovernmentSteam Yard, 273 
Grammar School, 613 
Great Western Docks, 605-6 
Grey School, 614 
Guardians, 607 
Guildhall, 608 
Gun Wharf, 273 
Halls, 616, 740 
Hamoaze, 271 
Harbours, 271, 600, 605 
Hele's and Lanyon's School, 

614 
High Schools, 276,614 
Higher Stoke, 269, 270 
History, 270, 601 
Hoe (The), 604 
Home for Aged and Infirm, 

741 
Horticultural Society, 617 



Plynioiitli, Devonpoirt, a,iid Stoneliouse Index of Snt^ects. 



Hospitals, 276,616, 739 
Hotels, 273, 616 
House of Mercy, 617 
Household of Faith, 614 
Houses, 606, 738 
Imports, 609 
Infirmaries, 616, 739 
Inland Eevenue Office, 273, 

609 
King's Hill, 272 
Laira, 605 
Libraries, 276, 615 
Lighthouses, 605 
Literary Institutions, 615 
Little Sisters of the Poor, 741 
Lower Stoke, 269, 270 
Lying-in Charity, 616 
Magistrates, 271, 607 
Manors, 270, 738 
Manufactures, 610 
Marketplace, 610 
Markets, 273, 601, 610 
Mechanics' Institution, 276, 

615 
Members of Parliament, 

271, 607 
Mendicity Society, 617 
Mercantile Association, 276 
Military Hospital, 739 
Millbay, 605 
Monasteries, 611 
Morice Town, 269, 270 
Mount Batten, 604 
Mount Wise, 273 



Municipal Boroughs, 269, 

270, 606 
Municipal Buildings, 608 
Museums, 615 
Napoleon, 603 
National Schools, 615, 740 
Natural History Soei ety, 615 
Naval Hospital, 739 
Newspapers, 615 
NcwsKooms, 276, 615 
Oddfellows, 740 
Oil Gas Works, 610 
Omnibuses, 289, 294, 300, 

664 
Orphans' Aid Hospital, 616 
Parliamentary Boroughs, 

269, 601, 606 
Parliamentary Kepresenta- 

tives, 271, 607 
Penitentiaries, 617 
Petty Sessions, 740 
Piers, 605 
Plague, 602, 603 
Plymouth, 600 
Plymouth Institution, 615 
Police Courts, 609, 740 
Population, 600, 606, 738 
Porcelain Manufacture, 610 
Port, 609 
Post Offices, 274, 277, 289, 

294, 619, 741 
Priories, 611 
Prisons, 274, 608 
Provident Institutions, 617 



Public Library, 615 
Public Officers, 271, 607 
Races, 603, 606 
Railways, 278, 294, 600, 663 
Rateable Value, 608, 738 
Reading Room, 615 
Regattas, 270, 606 
Rifle Volunteers, 617 
Royal Albert Hospital, 276 
Royal Hotel, 616 
Royal Marine Barracks, 739 
Royal Naval, &c. Free 

Schools, 276 
Royal Visits, 603 
Royal William Victualling 

Yard, 738 
St. Andrew's Hall, 616 
St. G-eorge's Hall, 740 
St. James's Hall, 616 
St. Nicholas Island, 604 
Savings Banks, 276, 617 
School Boards, 275, 614, 

740 
School of Cookery, 615 
Schools, 275, 615, 739 
Semaphore, 273 
Ship-building, 610 
Shipping, 272, 609 
Siege, 602 

Sisters of Notre Dame, 613 
Situation, 270, 600, 738 
Skating Rink, 616 
Skelton Family, 618 
Soup Kitchen, 616 



Spanish Armada, 602 
Statues, 603, 609 
Steamers, 289, 606, 664 
Steam Yard, 273 
Stoke (Higher and Lower), 

269, 270, 294 
Stonehouse (East), 738 
Suburbs, 270 
Sunday School Choir, 617 
Sutton Pool, 605 
Temperance Hall, 276 
Theatre, 616 
Three Towns, 600 
Town Council, 271, 607 • 
Town Halls, 274 
Trade, 273, 609 
Tramways, 289, 664 
Union, 740 
Urban Sanitary Authority, 

740 
Volunteers, 602, 617 
Voters, 606-7 
Wash Houses, 616 
Water Conveyance, 664 
Water Works, 274, 601, 

610, 740 
Western College, 613 
Wharves, 273 
Workhouses, 271, 607, 740 
Worthies, 611, 615, 618 
Yacht Club, 616 
Young Men's Christian 

Association, 615 



INDEX TO ADVEETISEES. 



Acton & Borman, emery & black lead mfrs. London, 32 
Ascott Jas. buildr. contractr. whlwright. &c. Halberton, 12 
Avery & Hayman, proprietors of North Devon Journal, 

Barnstaple, 18 
Aviolet, watchmaker, jeweller, goldsmith, &c. Exeter, 21 
Bastow Thos. W. railway carrier & whsman. Plymouth, 10 
Beer & Driffield, artists in stained glass, &c. Exeter, 5 
Bright Hy. C. head mstr. Heavitree Collegiate Schl. Exeter, 8 
Brockington T. seed, corn, &c. mert. Whimple & Exeter, 10 
Butcher A. H. brewer, Anchor brewery, Stonehouse, 16 
Castle College (C. J. Harland, principal), Torquay, 25 
Catford J. S. portrait and landscape photographer, Ilfra- 

combe and Barnstaple, 22 
Colebrooke A. A, manufixcturing hosier, Exeter, 21 
Cook Alfred, ship and boat builder, Appledore, 26 
Cranford R. printer and proprietor of Dartmouth and 

Brixham Chronicle, Dartmouth, 9 
Dadds Jno. fern grower & florist, Langleigh, Ilfracombe, 22 
Daily Western Times (Latimer & Glanville, pi*oprietors), 

Exeter, 29 
Dartmouth and Brixham Chronicle (R, Cranford, proprie- 
tor), Dartmouth, 9 
Deering John & Sons, joiners, builders, &e. Tiverton, 28 
Donisthorpe & Brodie, proprietors of Exeter and. Plymouth 

Gazette and Gazette Daily Telegram, Exeter, 30 
Esplanade Hotel, Paignton, 17 

Exeter and Plymouth Gazette (Donisthorpe & Brodie, pro- 
prietors), Exeter, 30 
Fry Thomas, cab proprietor & apartments, Ilfracombe, 22 



Gazette Daily Telegram (Donisthorpe & Brodie, proprie- 
tors), Exeter, 30 
Gerston Family & Commercial Hotel, Paignton station, 17 
Gillott Joseph & Sons, steel pen manufacturers, Birming- 
ham, opposite first cover 
Godfrey's Railway Hotel, Tiverton junctn. nr. Cullomptn. 17 
Harlaud C. J. principal. Castle College, Torquay, 25 
Heath J. P., M.R.C.V.S. manufacturer of Heath's Lamb 

Mixture, Exeter, 18 
Heavitree Collegiate School, Exeter (H. C. Bright, head 

master), 8 
Henson H. tailor and draper, Tiverton, 22 
Hepburn & Gale, tanners, &c. London, opposite Mill Band 

Manufacturers in Trades Directory 
Holloway & Son, cabinet mkrs. upholstrs. &c. Barnstaple, 26 
Latimer & Glanville, proprietors of Daily Western Times, 

Exeter, 29 
Lawrence Robert A. printer and publisher of North Devon 

Hercdd, Barnstaple, 13 
Lidstone Fredk. B. auctioneer, appraiser, &c. Exeter, 11 
Martin W. W. proprietor Palmerston Hotel, Tiverton, 27 
Matthews H. baker, cook and confectioner, Plymouth, 24 
Merrifield R. H. engineer, millwright, &c. Plymouth, 28 
Millbay Soap, Alkali and Soda Company (lira.), soap 

manufacturers, Plymouth, 6 
Monk J. E. wholsl. waterproof clothing mfr. Plymouth, 20 
NichoUs, Mathews & Co. engineers, brass and iron foun- 
ders, &c. Tavistock Iron Works, 19 
North Devon Herald (Robt. A. Lawrence, publr.) Brnstple. 1 3 



a2 



Index to A-clvei-tisers. 



Iforth Dcvo)i Journal (A^xerySi Hayman, proprs.) Ernstple. 1 8 
Oakey John & Sous, ornery & black lead mfrs. London, 26 
Pearse Saml. furnishing & general ironmonger, Exeter, 7 
Pearse S. proprietor Koyal Hotel, Plymouth, 02>posite 

Hotels in IVades Directory 
Eeed William Cann, Angel Hotel, Tiverton, 11 
Saxon N., Royal and Fortescue Hotel, Barnstaple, 22 
Searle William, l)ookscllcr, stationer, &c. Torquay, 28 
Smith Bros, wholesale bookbinders, London, 2 
Stanley Charles & Son, wool manure merchants, Wath, 

near Rotherham, 4 
Stoyel W. H. boot and shoe manufacturer, Tiverton, 28 
Stubbs & Co. mercantile ofl&ces, London, 14 & 15 
Symons John & Co. cider merchants, Totnes, 20 
Teed, mfr. of blue-black correspondence ink, Exmouth, 23 
Timewell S. W. uiort.& dlr. in coal, grain, &c. Ki ngsbridge,25 



Torquay Directory and South Devon Journal (William 

Winget, publisher), Torquay, 31 
Trehane Walter, wine merchant, Exeter and Exmouth, 3 
Vickary & Co. ironmongers, gasfitters, &c. Exeter, 8 
Wadge Edwin H. statuary, wood carver, &c. Ashburton 

and Buckfastleigh, 23 
Wallingford (owner of), Budleigh Salterton, to be let, 21 
Walter's Earley Hotel, Plymouth, 19 
Ward James, London Commercial Hotel, Okehampton, 27 
Westlako Thomas & Co. manufacturers of brass and copper 

goods, &c. Plymouth, 23 
White William, directory publisher, Sheffield, 32 
Wilkinson & Co. wine and brandy merchants, Torquay, 12 
Wilkinson R. Came, wine and brandy importer, Exeter, 9 
Winget William, publisher of Torquay Directory and 

South Devon Journal, Torquay, 31 



TEADES INDEX TO ADYEETISEES 



AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENT 

MANUFACTURER & AGENT. 
Ascott James, Halberton, 12 

ALE & STOUT MERCHANTS. 
Wilkinson & Co. Torquay, 12 

ARCHITECT, SURVEYOR AND 
MAPPER. 
Wadge Edwin H., Ashburton and 
Buckfastleigh, 23 

ARTISTS IN STAINED GLASS. 
Beer & Driffield, Exeter, 5 

AUCTIONEER & APPRAISER. 
Lidstone Frederick B., Exeter, 1 1 

BAKER, COOK & CONFECTNR. 
Matthews H., Plymouth, 24 

BEER ENGINE MANUFCTRS. 
Westlake Thos. & Co. Plymouth, 23 

BLACK LEAD MANUFACTRS. 
Acton & Borman, London, 32 
Oakey John & Sons, London, 26 

BOILER MAKERS. 
Merrifield R. H., Plymouth, 28 
Nicbolls, Mathews & Co. Tavistock, 19 

BOOKBINDERS. 
Smith Brothers, London, 2 

BOOKSELLER & STATIONER. 
Searle William, Torquay, 28 

BOOT & SHOE MANUFACTR. 
Stoyel W. H., Tiverton, 28 

BRASS FOUNDERS. 
Merrifield B. H., Plymouth, 28 
NichoUs, Mathews & Co. Tavistock, 19 

BRASS WORKERS. 

Vickary & Co. Exeter, 8 

Westlake Thos. & Co. Plymouth, 23 



BREWER. 
Butcher A. H., Stonehouse, 16 

BUILDERS & CONTRACTORS. 
Ascott James, Halberton, 1 2 
Deering John & Sons, Tiverton, 28 

CAB PROPRIETOR. 
Fry Thomas, Ilfracombe, 22 

CABINET MKRS. & UPHLSTRS. 
Holloway & Son, Barnstaple, 26 

CAKE MERCHANT. 
Timewell S. W., Kingsbridge, 25 

CHURCH AND ANTIQUITY 
RESTORER. 
Wadge Edwin H., Ashburton and 
Buckfastleigh, 23 

CHURCH DECORATORS. 
Beer & Driffield, Exeter, 5 

CIDER MERCHANTS. 
Symons John & Co. Totnes, 20 
Wilkinson & Co. Torquay, 12 

COAL MERCHANT. 
Timewell S. W., Kingsbridge, 25 

COPPER & BRASS GOODS MFRS. 
Westlake Thos. & Co. Plymouth, 23 

CORN MERCHANT. 
Brockington T., Whimple & Exeter, 10 

DIRECTORY PUBLISHER. 

White William, Sheffield, 32 

EMERY, &c., MANUFACTURERS. 
Acton & Borman, London, 32 
Oakey John & Sons, London, 26 

ENGINEERS. 
Merrifield R. H., Plymouth, 28 
Nicholls, Mathews & Co. Tavistock, 1 9 



ENGRAVER AND COPPER- 
PLATE PRINTER. 
Searle William, Torquay, 28 

FERN GROWER AND FLORIST. 
Dadds John, Langleigh, Ilfracombe, 22 

FIRE AND LIFE OFFICE. 
Royal : F. B. Lidstone, Exeter, 11 

FURNITURE AND GOODS 
REMOVER. 
Bastow Thomas W., Plymouth, 10 

GASFITTERS. 
Vickary & Co., Exeter, 8 

GASFITTINGS MFRS. 
Westlake Thos. & Co. Plymouth, 23 

GRAIN, MEAL & FLOUR MERT. 
Timewell S. W., Kingsbridge, 25 

HERALDIC STAMPER. 

Searle William, Torquay, 28 

HOSE PIPE MANUFACTURERS. 

Hepburn & Gale, IjoniiiOn, opposite Mill 

Band Mamifctrs. in Trades Directory 

HOSIER (MANUFACTURING). 
Colebrooke A. A., Exeter, 21 

HOTELS. 
Angel Hotel, William C. Reed, Tiver- 
ton, 11 
Esplanade Hotel, Paignton, 17 
Gerston Hotel, Paignton station, 17 
Godfrey's Railway Hotel, Tiverton 

junction, near CuUompton, 17 
London Hotel, Jas.Ward,Okehmptn. 27 
Palmerston Hotel, W. W. Martin, 

Tiverton, 27 
Royal Hotel, S. Pearse, Plymouth, 
opposite Hotels in Trades Directory 
Royal & Fortescue Hotel, N. Saxon, 

Barnstaple, 22 
Walter's Farley Hotel, Plymouth, 19 



Trades Index to A.clvei'tiser«. 



HOUSE AND ESTATE AGENT. 
Lidstone Frederick B., Exeter, 1 1 

HOUSE FURNISHERS. 
Holloway & Son, Barnstaple, 26 

INK MANUFACTURER. 
Teed — , Exmouth, 23 

IRON FOUNDERS. 

Merrifield R. H., Plymouth, 28 
Nicholls, Mathews & Co. Tavistock, 19 

IRONMONGERS. 

Pea'rse Samuel, Exeter, 7 
Vickary & Co. Exeter, 8 

IRON WORKERS. 

Vickary & Co. Exeter, 8 

JOINERo. 
Deering John & Sons, Tiverton, 28 



^T.Ct( 



IFE BOARD & POLISH MFRS. 

cton & Borman, London, 32 
Oakey John & Sons, London, 26 



LAMB MIXTURE MNFR. 
Heath J. P., M.R.C.V.S., Exeter, 18 

LEATHER & GRINDERY DLR. 
Stoyel W. H., Tiverton, 28 

LEATHER MANUFACTURERS. 

Hepburn & Gale, London, opposite Mill 
Band Majwfctrs. in Trades Directory 

LODGING HOUSE KEEPER. 
Fry Thomas, Ilfracombe.. 22 

MANURE MERCHANTS. 

Brockington T., Whimple & Exeter, 10 
Stanley Charles & Son, Wath, near 

Rotherhara, 4 
Timewell S. W., Kingsbridge, 25 

MERCANTILE OFFICES. 

Stubbs' Mercantile Offices, London, 
H& lo 

MERCHANTS (GENERAL). 

Brockington T., Whimple & Exeter, 10 
Timewell S. W., Kingsbridge, 25 

MILL BAND MANUFACTURERS. 

Hepburn & Gale, London, opposite Mill 
Band Manufctrs. in Trades Directory 



MILLWRIGHTS. 

Ascott James, Halberton, 12 
Merrifield R. H., Plymouth, 28 



NEWSPAPERS. 

Daily Western Times (Latimer & 
Glanville, proprietors), Exeter, 29 

Dartonouth and Brixham Chronicle 
(R. Cranford, propr.), Dartmouth, 9 

Exeter and Plymouth Gazette (Donis- 
tliorpe & Brodie, proprs.), Exeter, 30 

Gazette Daily Telegram (Donisthorpe 
& Brodie, proprietors), Exeter, 30 

North Devon Herald (R. A. Lawrence, 
publisher), Barnstaple, 13 

North Devon Journal (Avery & Hay- 
man, proprietors), Barnstaple, 18 

Torquay Directory and South Devon 
Journal (Wm. Winget, publisher), 
Torquay, 31 

OIL MERCHANTS. 

Stanley Charles & Son, Wath, near 
Rotherham, 4 



PHOTOGRAPHER. 

Catford J. S., Ilfracombe and Barn- 
staple, 22 

PRINTERS, 

Cranford R., Dartmouth, 9 
Donisthorpe & Brodie, Exeter, 30 
Latimer & Glanville, Exeter, 29 
Lawrence Robert A., Barnstaple, 13 

PUBLISHER. 

White William, Sheffield, 32 

RAILWAY CARRIER AND 
WAREHOUSEMAN. 

Bastow Thomas W., Plymouth, 10 

REFRESHMENT ROOMS. 

Matthews H., Plymouth, 24 
Ward James, Okehampton, 27 

SCHOOLS. 

Castle College (C. J. Hailand, princi- 
pal), Torquay, 25 

Heavitree Collegiate School (H. C, 
Bright, head master), Exeter, 8 

SEED MERCHANTS. 

Brockington T., Whimple & Exeter, 10 
Timewell S. W., Kingsbridge, 25 

SHIP & BOAT BUILDER. 

Cook Alfred, Appledore, 20 



SMITHS. 

Merrifield R. H., Plymouth, 28 
Nicholls, Mathews & Co. Tavistock, 19 
Vickary & Co. Exeter, 8 

SOAP MANUFACTURERS. 

Millbay Soap, Alkali & Soda Co. 
(limited), Plymouth, 6 

STATUARY. 

Wadge Edwin H., Ashburton & Buck- 
fastleigh, 23 

STEEL PEN MANUFACTURERS 

Gillott Joseph & Sons, Birmingham, 
opposite first cover 

TAILOR & DRAPER. 
Henson H., Tiverton, 22 

TANNERS. 

Hepburn & Gale, London, opposite Mill 
Band Manufctrs.in Trades Directory 

THRASHING MACHINE OWNER. 
Brockington T., Whimple & Exeter, 10 

TIN PLATE WORKERS. 
Vickary & Co. Exeter, 8 

TRADE PROTECTION SOCIETY. 

Stubbs' Mercantile Offices, London, 
14 & 15 

UNDERTAKERS. 

Deering John & Sons, Tiverton, 28 
Holloway & Son, Barnstaple, 26 

VETERINARY SURGEON. 
Heath J. P., M.R.C.V.S. Exeter, 18 

WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER, 
GOLDSMITH, &c. 

Aviolet, Exeter, 21 

WATERPROOF CLOTHING MFR. 
Monk J. E., Plymouth, 20' 

WHEELWRIGHT. 

Ascott James, Halberton, 12 

WINE, &c. MERCHANTS. 
Trehane Walter, Exeter & Exmouth, 3 
Wilkinson & Co. Torquay, 12 
Wilkinson R. C, Exeter & Torquay, 9 

WOOD CARVER. 
Wadge Edwin H., Ashburton and 
Buckfastleigh, 23 



Trade MiarliS Index.— County Oflicers, ete. 



TEADE MAEKS INDEX, 



I'ox Charles, printer, stationer, bookseller, 
bookbinder, proprietor and publisher of 
Kmgshridgc Gazette and SotUli Devon 
Advertiser, and agent for Accident In- 
surance Co. 37 Fore street, Kingsbridge, 
pages 513, 1043, and 1053 



Madocks John, brewer, maltster, cooper, 
consulting brewer, brewers' engineer, 
and lime burner, Warfleet Brewery, 
Dartmouth, pages 261, 895, 921, and 
1032 

Millbay Soap, Alkali & Soda Co. (li- 
mited), soap, &c. manufacturers, 
Millbay road, Plymouth ; Philip K. 
Truscott, secretary ; John Eice, 
manager, pages 645 and 1076 {See 
Advertiscjnent, page 6) 




MILL 



BAY 



Timewell Stephen Wreford, merchant, dealer 
in coal, grain, seed, cake, manure, meal, 
bran, flour, &c., and agent for Burnard, 
Lack & Alger's manures, Duke street, 
Kingsbridge ; stores, Dodbrooke, Frogmore, 
and South Pool, pages 514, 922, and 1000 
(See Advcrtisemmt, page 25) 

Torbay & Dart Paint Co. (Limited), sole pro- 
prietors of Wolston's celebrated Torbay 
iron paints, Clarence street, Dartmouth;' 
and Furzeham hill, Brixham; London 
office, 23 Great George street, AVestminster, 
S.W., pages 187, 263, 919, and 1046 



White William, publisher of county and town 
directories, &c., 18 and 20 Bank street, 
Sheffield {See Advertisement, page 32) 




xV^l*^. 





COUNTY OFFICEES, ETC. 



MEMBERS OF PARLIAMENT. 

North Devon — Sir S. H. Northcote, & Sir T. D. Acland 
East Devon — Sir L. V. Palk, and Sir J. H. Kennaway 
South Devon — Sir M. Lopes, and J. T. Carpenter-Gar- 

nier, Esq. 
Barnstaple — T. Cave and S. D. Waddy, Esqrs. 
Dbvonport — J. S. Puleston, Esq. and Capt. George E. 

Price, Esq. 
Exeter — Arthur Mills and J. G. Johnson, Esqrs. 
Plymouth — E. Bates and Sampson Lloyd, Esqrs. 
Tavistock— Lord A. J.E. Russell 
Tiverton — Sir J. H. Amory, and the Right lion. W. N. 

Massey 

Lord Lieutenant and Gustos Rotulorum — The Duke 

of Somerset 
High Sheriff (1878)— S. C. Hamlyn, E^q. Colebrooke, 

Crediton 
Under Sheriff — Brutton J. Ford, Esq. Exeter 



Clerk or the Peace — Henry Ford, Esq. Exeter 
County Clerk— E. H. H. Houlditch, Esq. Exeter 
Clerk of the Lieutenancy General Meetings — Messrs. 

Pearce & Cross, South Molton 
Chief Constable — Gerald de Courcy Hamilton, Esq.Exeter 
County Treasurer — H. M. James, Esq. Exeter 
County Solicitor — T. E. Drake, Esq. Exeter 
Coroners — H. Michelmore, Esq. Newton Abbot (Totnes 
district) ; R. R. Rodd, Esq. Stonehouse (Stoke Damerel 
district) ; John H. Toller, Esq. Barnstaple (Barnstaple 
district) ; Robert Fulford, North Tawton (Okehampton 
district) ; R. R. Crosse, Esq. Cullompton (Crediton 
district) 
County Analyst — A. W. Blyth, Esq. Barnstaple 
Surveyor of County Bridges and of County Buildings 

— H. W. Farley, Esq. Exeter 
Governor of High Gaol and Keeper of House of 
Correction — Major Kirkpatrick. Matron— Miss S. 
A. Hughes. Surgeon— Mr. T. W. Caird 



ACTING MAGISTEATES EOE THE COUNTY, 



{For Contractions see ;page 863.) 



Acland Sir Thomas Dyke, M.P. Killerton park, Broadclyst, 

Exeter; and Minehead, Somerset 
Adairs Colonel A. W., Bovey Tracey 
Addington Hon. G. A. B. B. 

Allen John, Esq. Coleridge house, Stokenham, Kingsbridge 
Anson Car twright Henry, Esq. 9 Monk-]e-Grande,Heavitree 
Arnold Lieut.-Col. Wm., Nethercott, Iddesleigh, Winkleigh 
Arthur Rev. James, BA., Atherington, Barnstaple 
Atkinson Wm., Esq. Abbotsbury, Higliweek, Newton Abbot 
Bailey Charles Fredk. Esq. Lee Abbey, Lynton, Barnstaple 
Bassett Rev. Arthur Charles, Watermouth, Berrynarbor, I 
Bastard Baldwin John P. Esq. Kitley, Yealmpton 
Bawden Rev. Joshua, South Molton 
Bayley AYra. Rooker, Esq. Cotford house, Sidbury, Sidm'th 



Treverven, Esq. Teignmouth 
Esq. Rhyll house, East Anstey, 



Beavan John Griffiths, 
Bellew John Froude, 

Dulverton 

Bentinck Charles Aldenbury, Esq. Bovey Tracey 
Berc Montague, Esq. Q.C. 1 Eliot terrace, Plymouth 
Bewes Cecil Edward, Esq. Hill Side, Plympton St. Mary 
Binford William, Esq. 6 Broad street. South Molton 
Bird wood General William Ilbert, Wcodcot, Salcombe, 

Kingsbridge 
Blachford Lord, Blachford bouse, Cornwood, Ivybridge 
Boles Rev. James Thomas 

Bowring Lewis Bentham, Esq. Lavrochbere, Torquay 
Bradshaw F. 
Bradsha^V Octavius, Esq. Torquay 



A-cting" Mlag-istrates for the Oounty. 



Bridges William Thomas, Esq. D.C.L., Torwood, Torquay 
Brown Michael Lewis, Esq. Keittos, Bishopsteignton 
Buckingham Eev. Jas., D.C.L., Doddiscorabsleigh, Exeter 
i Budd Christian, Esq. M.D., North Tawton 
' BuUer C. R. Esq. 
Buller Major Eedvers Henry, O.B., Downes, Crediton 
Buller Wentworth William, Esq, Chappie, Bovey Tracey, 

Newton Abbot 
Inilteel J. Esq. Pamphlete 
L'almady Vincent Pollixfen, Esq. The Hut, Tetcott, 

Holsworthy 
Carow Thomas, Esq. Collipriest, Tiverton 
Carpenter-Garnier John, Esq. M.P.,Mount Tavy, Tavistock 
Cary Stanley Edward, Esq. Tollaton, Totnes 
Cary g. E. G. Esq. 

Champernowne Arthur, Esq. Partington, Totnes 
Charlewood Admiral Edwd. P., Porthill, Northam, Bidefrd 
Chaster John Webber, Esq. West hill, Totnes 
Chichester Arthur Chamberlyne, Rose Mount, Alphington.E 
Chichester Lieut.-Col. Arthur Charles, Kerswell, Exeter 
Chichester Sir Arthur, Bart. Toulston park, Sherwell, B 
Chichester Sir Alexander Palmer Bruce, Arlington court, B 
Chichester Charles, Esq. D.L., Hall, Bishop's Tawton, B 
Chichester Robt.,Esq. B.xi., D.L., Hall, Bishop's Ta\yton, B 
Chichester William Henry, Esq. Grenofen house, Whit- 
church, Tavistock 
Churston Lord, Lupton house, Brixham 
Clarke Edward S. Esq. Fulford house, Dunsford, Exeter 
Clarke Rfchard Hall, Esq. Bridwell, Halberton, Tiverton 
Clarke T. E. Esq. 

Clifford Eight Hon. Lord, D.L. Ugbrook house, Chudleigh 
Clifford-Butler Hon. Jas. .Fitzwalter, Sanctuary, Shobrooke 
Clinton Eight Hon. Lord, Heanton Satchville, Huish, 

Beaford ; and London 
Coffin Jno. Eichd. Pine, Esq. Portledge, Alwington, Bidefrd 
Coham William Holland Bickford, Esq. Black Torrington, 

Highampton 
Coleridge Wm. Eennell, Esq. Salston hs. Ottery St. Mary 
Collier William Fredk. Esq. Woodtown, Sampford Spiney 
Collins Chas. Eobert, Esq. Strathculm house, Bradninch 
Collins John, Esq. Wonham house, Bampton, Tiverton 
Collins-Splatt Henry, Esq. Brixton hs. Brixton, Plympton 
Conran Capt. Wm. Blackland house, Plympton St. Mary 
Coode Edwd. Esq, Polapit Tamar, Werrington, Launceston 
Cornish Charles John, Esq. Salcombe Eegis, Sidmouth 
Cornish-Bowdeu F. 
Cornish-Bowden Eear-Admiral William, E.N. Oak la"wn, 

Newton Abbot 
Cory William, Esq. Halsdon, Dolton, Eggesford 
Courtenay Lord, Powderham, Exeter 
Cruwys George James, Esq. Cruwys Morchard, Tiverton 
Cubitt William, Esq. Fallapitt, East AUington, Totnes 
Curry WilUam, Esq. F.E.O.S. Boutport street, Barnstaple 
Daniel Thomas Carew, Esq. Stoodleigh, Tiverton 
Davie Geo. Christr., Esq. The Elms, Bishop's Tawton, B 
Davie Sir Henry Eobert Ferguson, Bart. M.P. Greedy 

park, Sandford, Exeter 
Davie Colonel J. D. 

Davy John Tanner, Esq. Ashtown, Eose Ash, Sth. Molton 
Davy Eobert Manning, E&q. Grove hill, Topsham ; and 

Oxenhay lodge, Membury, Axminster 
Dawson Ealph, Esq. Wembiiry house, Wembury, P 
Deacon James Pryse, Esq. Hoo-Meavy, Horrabridgo 
Deakin Colonel James Henry, Werrington, Launceston 
Deane Wm. Anthony, Esq. Webbery, Alverdiscott, Bidefrd 
Dennis Thomas John, Esq. Bradiford house, Pilton, B 
Devon Earl of, Powderham, Exeter 
Devon Henry Charles, Esq. Cruwyshaye, Eackenford 
Divett John, Esq. Bovey Tracey, Newton Abbot 
Dixon Joshua, Esq. Winslade house, Clist St. Mary, E 
Dowell Capt. Wm. Montague, E.N., C.B. Torr hs. Bideford 
Drew Colonel Francis Edward 

Drewe Edward, Esq. Eatcliffe house, Clisthydon, Exeter 
Drewe Lieutenant-Colonel F. The Grange 



Drinkwater Peter Bourne, Esq. Lincombe, Torquay 
Duckworth Sir John Thomas Buller, Bart. Wear house, 

Countess Wear, Exeter 
Duntze Sir John Lewis, Bart., Starcross, Exeter 
Durant Eichard, Esq. Sharpham, Ashprington, Totnes 
Eales Charles 
Ebrington Viscount 

Edwards Commander Frederick, E.N., Ivybridge 
Edwards Eev. Hy., B.A., Eectory, Churchstanton, Honiton 
EUicombe George Bradford, Esq. Eocklands, Chudleigh 
Elliott John James, Esq. Leigham, Egg Buckland, P 
Elton Sir Edward Marwood, Bart. Widworthy court, Wid- 

worthy, Honiton ; and London 
English J. T. Esq. Stamford hill, Stratton 
Farringdon Sir Henry Anthony, Bart. Gosford house, 

Ottery St. Mary 
Firth Frederick Henry, Esq., Cator court, Widdicombe-in- 

the-Moor, Ashburton 
Fisher Thomas, Esq. Buckland Filleigh, Highampton 
Fleming John, Esq. Bigadon, Buckfastleigh ; & London 
Fletcher C. E. Esq. Dawlish _ 
Fortescue Earl, Castle hill, Filleigh, South Molton 
Fortescue John Faithful, Athenaeum street, Plymouth 
Fortescue Mathew, Esq., Q.C. Weston house, Berry Pome- 

roy, Totnes 
Fortescue William B. Esq. Octon, Torquay 
Froude William, Esq. C.E,, F.E.S. Chelston cross, Cock- 

ington, Torquay 
Fulford Francis Drummond, Esq. 3 Carlton hill, Exmouth 
Fursdon C. Esq. Tiverton 
Garratt Lieutenant-Colonel A. 

Garratt John, Esq. Bishop's court, Farringdon, Exeter 
Gill Eeginald Butler Edgcumbe, Esq. Ward house, Beer 

Alston, Eoborough 
Gill Eev. William, Venn house, Lamerton, Tavistock 
GiffDrd Hon. «Sc Eev. Eobert George, M.A., Eackenford, 

Morchard Bishop 
Germon Colonel Eichard Charles, Gortlee, Dawlish 
Graham J. 
Gregory J. B. Esq. 
Grigg John William, Esq. Heathfield house, Tamerton 

Foliott, Plymouth 
Hale-Monro C. J. Esq. Ingsdon, Newton 
Hallett William Trelawny, Stedcombe house, Axraouth 
Halliday William Halliday, Esq. Glenthorne,Countesbury; 

and West view, Torquay 
Hamilton Alexander Henry A. Esq. Fairfield 
Hamlyn Shilston Calmady, Esq. Leawood, Bridestowe 
Harding Lieut.-Col. William, Upcott, Pilton, Barnstaple 
Harris John Crighton, Esq. 6 Bloomfield, Pennsylvania, E 
Harris Captain William, Yealmptou, Plympton 
Hatherly Narcissus Collins, M.D. 123 East st. S. Molton 
Hawkins C. S. Esq. Kingsbridge 
Hawkins Stuart, Esq. Alston, Plympton St. Mary 
Hayter-Hames Eev. Hayter George, M.A., Chagford 
Hayne Major Charles Seale, Kingswear, Dartmouth 
Hibbert Col. Hugh Thomas, Broadgate house, Pilton, B 
Heathcoat-Amory Sir John Heathcoat, Bart.M.P. Knights- 

hayes court, Tiverton 
Hill John, Esq. Pitt house, Moretonhampstead 
Hippisley John Henry, Esq. Shobrooke park, Crediton 
Hoare Peter Merrick, Esq. Luscombe, Dawlish 
Hodge J. Gage, Esq. Willesleigh, Barnstaple 
Holds worth Arthur Frederick, Esq. Widdecombe house, 

Stokenham, Kingsbridge 
Hole Alfred Eobert, Esq. Beam house, Great Torrington 
Hole Eev. Eobert, B.A., North Tawton 
Hole Wm. Eobt. Esq. Park, Bovey Tracey, Newton Abbot 
Holley James Hunt, Esq. Oaklands, Okehampton 
Holley Windham Hunt, Esq. Oaklands, Okehampton 
Hughes Major-General William Templer, C.B., Egland, 

Awliscombe, Honiton 
Huyshe Eev. John, Clisthydon, Exeter 
Johnson Edward, Esq. Farringdon house, Farringdon, E 



-A.ctiiig' Miajyistirates for* the Oouiity. 



Johnson John G-eorgo, Esq., M.P,, Cross, Little Torrington, 

Groat Torrington 
Ivoatos William, Esq. Primley hill, Paignton 
Kekewich Trehawke, Esq. Peamore house, Exminster 
Kolly lieginald, Esq. Kelly, Lifton 
Konliaway Sir John II., Bart., M.P., Escot, Ottery 
King Thomas, Esq. Manor hs. North Iluish, Ugborough 
Kitson Rev. Thos., M.A. Shiphay hs. St. Mary Church, T 
Knight Jamos Alexander 11. Esq. The Lawn, Axminster 
Laity Richard John, Esq. 35 Ker street, Devon port 
Law Thomas Shephard, Esq., F.R.C.S., Riversdale, B 
Lewellyn Lew6llyn, Esq. Nethway, Brixhara 
Lewis J. J). 

Ley John Ilenry, Esq. Trehlll, Kenn, Exeter 
Lindsay Honourable Colin, Deer park, Biickerell, Honiton 
Locke J. A. Esq. Dulverton 
Lopes Sir M., Maristowe, Roborough 
Lousada John B. Esq. 

Lowe Vice-Admiral Arthur, Stoke, Devonport 
Lucas S. L. L. Esq. Thuborough house, Sutcombe 
Luxmoore J. C, Esq. London 
Lyne De Castro F. 

Madden Lieut.- Col. Lewis Powell, Totnes 
Mallock Richard, Esq. Cockington court, Cockington, T 
Manning Thomas Ellis, Esq. Eversfield, Bratton Clovelly 
Marker Greorge Marker, Esq. Yondercott, UfFculme 
Marker Richard, Esq. Coombe, Gittisham, Honiton 
Marsh-Dunn Richard M. Esq. Carlton lodge, Teignmouth 
Matthews Wm. Edwin, Esq. 15 The Crescent, Plymouth 
Maule George Norman, Esq. Ilfracombo 
May Rear-Admiral Charles Henry, Leeford, Budleigh 

Salterton, Exmouth 
Melhuish Walter AVilliam, Esq. Court Barton, Clawton, 

Ilolsworthy 
Mellor Alfred, Esq. Oiterhead, Churchstanton, Honiton 
Miles William, Esq. Dixfield house, Exeter 
Milford Frederick, Esq. Matford house, Exeter 
Milford John, Esq. Coavec, Topsham road, Exeter 
Mitchell William Prjce, Esq., D.L., Holwell, Whitchurch, 

Tavistock 
Monro C. J. H. 
Moles worth George Mill Frederick, Esq. Northdown 

house, Bideford 
Moore-Stevens John Curson, Winscott house, Marland 

Peters, Great Torrington 
Morley Earl, Saltram, Plympton St. Mary 
Morshead Rev. Henry John, M.A., Kelly, Lifton 
Mudge Arthur, Esq. Sydney, Plympton 
Nagle Joseph Chichester, Esq. Calvcrleigh, Tiverton 
Neuman George, Esq. Tracey house, Awliscombe, Honiton 
New John Cave, Esq. Caddock house, Uifcnlme 
Newman Thomas Holsworth, Esq. Coryton, Lew Down 
Nightingale Col, Manners, 8 Barn Park ter. Teignmouth 
Northcote Right Honourable Sir Stafford Henry, C.B., M.P. 

Pynes, Upton Pyne, Exeter 
Oldham Joseph, Esq. Strawbridge, Hatherleigh 
Oldham Ernest, Esq. Strawbridge, Hatherleigh 
Palk Sir Lawrence, M.P. Haldon house, Kenn, Exeter 
Palk Rev. AVilmot Henry, M.A. Ashcombe, Dawlish 
Parker Admiral George, Delami >re, Cornwood, Ivybridge 
Parker Rev. Franke, M.A. Luffincott, Launceston 
ParlbyRev. John Hall, M.A. Manadon,Pennycross, Plymth 
Peek Sir H. W., M.P. Rousdon, Lyme Regis ; and Wimble- 
don house, Surrey 
Peters William Henry, Esq. Harefield, Lympstone, Exeter 
Phillipps-Treby Colonel Paul Winslow, Goodamoor, 

Plympton St. Mary 
Phillips Captain, Sorrents, Torquay 
Phillips Henry Cramer March, Esq. Wellswood, Torquay 
Phillpotts Captain Henry, St. Clare, Torquay 
Pino-Coffin Jno. Rchd.Esq. Portledge, Alwington, Bideford 
Pode John Duke, Esq. Slade hall, Cornwood, Ivybridge 
Poltimore Lord, Court hall, North Molton; Poltimore, 
Exoter : and London 



Ponsford John, Esq. Ford house, Drewstoignton 
Porter Henry Aylmer, Esq. 41 Southernhay, Exeter 
Porter William, Esq. Hembury Fort, BuckorcU, Honiton 
Portsmouth Earl of, Eggesford house, Wembworthy ; and 

Hurstbourne park, Hampshire 
Quicke John, P^sq. Newton hs. Newton St. Gyres, Exeter 
Rayer William Carew, Esq. Holcombe co\irt, Wellington 
Ridgway Lieutenant-Colonel Alexander, Sheplegh court, 

Blackawton, Totnes 
Robinson Randolph 

Rogers Thomas, Orleigh court, Buckland Brewer, Bideford 
Rolle Honourable Mark George Kerr, Stevenstone, St. 

Giles-in-thc-Wood, Torrington 
Rowo William North, Esq. Cove, Tiverton 
Russell Richard Bury, Esq. Dennington house, Swimbridge 
St. Aubyn Edward, Manor lodge, Stoke, Devonport 
Samborne Rev. Richard Lane Palmer, Ashreigney, 

Chulmleigh 
Sanders E. A. Esq. Stoke house 
Saunders C. M. 

Saville Lieutenant-Colonel, Langdon house, Dawlish 
Scales E. Esq. Holcomb villas, Dawlish 
Scarborough John L. Esq. Coly house, Colyford, Colyton 
Scobell Edwin, Esq. Goodameavy hs. Meavy, Horrabridge 
Scratton Daniel Robert, Esq. West Ogwell, Newton Abbot 
Seale Sir Henry Paul, Bart. Norton house, Dartmouth 
Seale John H. Esq. Norton house, Dartmouth 
Shelley Sir John, Bart. Shobrooke park, Crediton 
Short Francis Baring, Esq. Bickham, Kenn, Exeter 
Sidmouth Right Honourable Viscount, M.P. Manor house, 

Upottery, Honiton 
Sillifant Arthur Onslow, Esq. Coombe house, Colebrooke 
Sim Wm. Clulow, Esq. Knowle, Clist St. George, Topsham 
Simcoe Captain John Kennaway, Wolford lodge, Dunkes- 

well, Honiton 
Simpson Chas., Esq. 51 Durnford street. East Stonehouse 
Smyth William Gould, Fort house. South Molton 
SoltauGeo. Wm. Esq. Little Efford, Egg Buckland, Plymth 
Soltau John T. Esq. Somerset lodge. Newton Abbot 
Soltau-Symons Geo. Chaddlewood hs. Plympton St. Mary 
Spied J. B. Esq. Oifwell house, Offwell, Honiton 
Splatt AY. F. 

Spragge Francis Hoare, Esq. The Quarry, Paignton 
Stewart-Sa vile Rev. Fredk. Alexr.,M.A., Ardmore, Torquay 
Still John Thomas, Esq. Mountfield house, Musbury 
Stuart Lieutenant-General Sir Charles Shepherd, G.C.B. 

Southlands, Withycombe Rawleigh, Exmouth 
Stucley Colonel William Lewis, Hartland Abbey, Bideford 
Stucley-Stucley Sir G. Bart. 

Studd Edward Fairfax, High house, Kenton, Exeter 
Studdy Hy. Esq. Waddoton court. Stoke Gabriel, Totnes 
Talbot John Reginald Francis George, Esq. Rhode Hill 

house, Uplyme 
Tanner Rev. John Vowler, The Rectory, Eggesford, 

Wembworthy 
Templer James George John, Lindridge, Bishop's Teign- 

ton, Teignmouth 
ThoroldRev. Wm., M.A. The Rectory, Warkleigh,S. Molton 
Toll Henry Limbrey, Esq. Manor house. Street, Totnes 
Toms Captain Henry Riversea, Kingswear, Dartmouth 
Toms Rev. Humphrey Wm., M.A. Combmartin, Barnstaple 
Tonge Charles, Esq. Oaklands, Dawlish 
Torrens Sir R. R., K.G.M.G. Ashburton 
Tremayne John, Esq., M.P. Sydenham house, Marystowe, 

Lew Down 
Trist Major John Fincher, 18 The Crescent, Plymouth 
Troyte Charles Acland Williams, Esq. Huntsham court, 

Huntsham, Bampton 
Tucker Charles, Esq. Marlands, Magdalen road, Exeter 
Turner Charles Henry, High Cliff house, Dawlish 
Turner Thomas, Esq., CuUompton 
Twysden Captain J. S., Charlston, Kingsbridge 
Uniacke Captain Henry Turner, Lay well, Brixham 
Vicary John, Esq. The Knowlos, Highweek, Newton Abbot 



A-cting" IWtag-i^trates fbi- tlie CJoniity. 



Vicary John Fulford, Esq. North Tawton 
Vidal Edwd. Urch, Esq. Corn borough, Abbotsham, Bidefrd 
Vivian Edward, Esq. Woodfield, Torquay 
Vye Nathaniel, Esq., D.L., Tlosemount, Ilfracombe 
Wade Charles Joseph, Esq. Dawlisli 
"Waldy Captain "William Thomas, Howden, Tiverton 
"Walkey Joseph Elliot 0. Esq. Pole house, Ide, Exeter 
Walrond Sir John, Bradfield house, Uffculme, Cullompton 
"Walrond Lieut. Col. William Hood, New court, Topsham 
Watson Richard Iluxham, Esq. Northgate house, Totnes 
Watts William John, Esq. Ford house, Newton Abbot 
Webber Charles Henry, Esq. St. Brannock, Braunton 
Were Joseph, Esq. Hay, Broadclyst, Exeter 
Were Thomas Kennet 

White Thomson Robert Thomas, Esq. Broomford manor. 
Jacobstowe, Exeter 



Wilcocks Jas. Blackmore, Esq. Stoke cottage, Stoke, D'port 

William Charles Henry, Esq. Pilton house 

Wilson Captain 

Wise Col. Uacres W. Aileron house, Loddiswell, Kingsbdge 

Wood John, Esq. The Grrange, Withycombe Rawleigh, 

Exmouth 
Woodley James, Esq. Halshanger house, Ashburton 
Woolcorabe Henry, Esq. Ashbury, Exbourne 
Wreford John, Esq. Clannaborough, Bow 
Wren Adderley Barton, Esq., B.A., Lenwood, Northara, 

Bideford 
Wrey Sir Bouchier Palk, Quayfield house, Ilfracombe 
Wrey Rev. Henry Bouchier, M.A. Corffo house, Tawstock 
Wrey Henry Bouchier Toke, Esq. 8 Powderham terrace, 

Teignmouth 
AVyatt-Edgell A. Esq. Cowley house, Exeter 



SEATS OF NOBILITY, CLEEGY AND GENTEY IN DEVONSHIRE. 



Villas, ^'c, in Towns and Bathing Places are not included. 



Abbey House, Buckfastleigh, 195 

~ botsham Court, James Taylor, Esq. 99 

eton Castle, West Worlington, Sir George Stucley, 
' Bart. 846 
A-la-Ronde, Withycombe RaAvlcigh, Miss Anna Sophia 

Hurlock, 854 
Aileron House, Loddiswell, Colonel Dacres "Wise, 527 
Altamera, Topsham, Mrs Ellen Ord, 793 
Amery House, Monkleigh, Mrs Maria Somes, 550 
Arlington Court, Sir Alexander Palmer Bruce Chichester, 

Bart. J.P. 104 
Ashbury House, Venerable Archdeacon WooUcombc, and 

Henry Woollcombe, Esq. J.P. 110 
Ashfield, Awliscombe, Dowager Lady Graves Sawle, 116 
Ash House, Stokefleming, Mrs Mary Weymouth Netherton 

Chilcote, 734 
Ashley Court, Tiverton, William Henry Dunsford, Esq, 

J.P. 779 
Ashley House, Tiverton, Thomas Harold Tronson, Esq. 779 
Ash Town, Rose Ash, John Tanner Davy, Esq. J.P. 683 
Barcombe, Paignton, — Keates, Esq. 590 
Barton Hall, Kingskerswell, Hercules Edwin Brown,Es 1.515 
Barton House, Bishop's Morchard,Henry Churchill, Esq 159 
Bayview, Northam, Col. John Ross Wheeler, 571 
Beam House, Great Torrington, Alfred Robert Hole, Esq. 

J.P. 456 
Beechwood House, Plympton St. Mary, Right Hon. Lord 

Seaton, 666 
Bickham, Buckland Monachorum, Reginald Gill, Esq. 199 
Bickham, Kenn, Francis Baring Short, Esq. J.P. 505 
Bickington Lodge, Fremington, Lieutenant John Beaufin 

Irving, 451 
Bicton House, Right Hon. Lady Louisa Rolle, 149 
Bigadon House, Buckfastleigh, John Fleming, Esq. J.P. 195 
Bishop's Court, Faringdon, John Garratt, Esq. J.P. 448,728 
Bishop's Palace, Paignton, Colonel Bridgman, 590 
Bishop's Tawton Hall, Robert Chichester, Esq. B.A., J.P., 

and Charles Chichester, Esq. J.P., D.L. 162 
Bishopstowe, St. Mary Church, Sampson Hanbury, Esq. 686 
Bitton, Teignmouth, Mrs Catherine Ann Parsons, 768 
Blachford House, Cornwood, Lord Frederick Rogers Blacli- 

ford, 239 
Black Hall, North Huish, Frederick James Cornish-Bowden, 

Esq. J.P. 572 
Blackland House, Plympton St. Mary, Captain William 

Conran, J.P. 666 
Blackpool Cottage, Stokefleming, Thomas H. Newman, 

Esq. J.P. 733 



Blackslade Hou.se, Widecombe-in-the-Moor, Robert Dy- 

mond, Esq. J.P. 849 
Bovacott, Bradford, Clervaux Leslie Morley Saunders, 

Esq. 169 
Bowden House, Stokefleming, Lewis Richard Netherton, 

Esq. J.P. 734 
Bowden House, Totnes, W. D. Adams, Esq. 820 
Bowringsleigh, West Alvington, William Roope Ilbert, 

Esq. 840 
Bradfield, Uffculme, Sir John W. Walrond, Bart. J.P. 829 
Bradiford House, Pilton, Thomas John Dennis.Esq. J.P.135 
Bradley House, Newton Abbot, Miss Mary Ann Wall, 557 
Bradley Manor House, Newton Abbot, Major Christopher 

Hellyer Beddek, 561 
Bradninch House, — Roll, Esq. 171 
Bramford House, Brampford Speke, William Gamlen, 

Esq. J.P. 174 
Bndwell, Uffculme, Richard Hall Clarke, Esq. J.P. 830 
Bridwell House, Ilalberfon, Richard Hall Clarke, Esq. 462 
Brixton House, Henry Collins-Splatt, Esq., J.P. 188 
Broadgate House, Pilton, Col. Hugh Thomas Hibbert, 

J.P. 137 
Broadhembury Grange, Mrs. Drewe, 191 
Brcokfield, Fremington, Major Robert Hayes Lovell, 452 
Brook House, Buckfastleigh, J. Michelmorc, Esq. 195 
Broomborough, Totnes, Mrs. Mary Phillips, 820 
Broomford Manor, Jacobstowe, Lieut. Col. White Thomson, 

J.P. 505 
Buckerell Lodge, Rev. G. Barons Northcote, 194 
Buckland Abbey, Buckland Monachorum, Alexander Fre- 
derick Bundock, Esq. 199 
Buckland Court, Buckland-in-the-Moor, B. J. P. Bastard, 

Esq. 200 
Buckland House, Buckland-Tout-Saints, Mrs Annie Bruns- 

kill, 201 
Buckland Filleigh House, Thomas Fisher, Esq. J.P. 198 
Burrow Park, Abbotskerswell, William Creed, Esq. 100 
Butterford, North Huish, Samuel Cockrem, Esq. 572 
Bvdown House, Swinibridge, John Nott Pyke-Nott, Esq. 751 
Bystock, Colaton Raleigh, John Paul Bryce, Esq. 229 
Cadhay, Ottery St. Marj , Mrs. Elizabeth Collins, 585 
Calverleigh House, Joseph Chichester Nagle, Esq. J.P. 207 
Cann Hs. Tamerton Foliott, Mark Stevens Grigg, Esq. 753 
Canon-Teign House, Christow, Right Hon. Viscount Ex- 
mouth, 215 
Castle (The), Tiverton, Mrs. Ellen Carew, 780 
Castle Hill, Filleigh, Right Hon. Earl Fortescue, and Rt. 

Hon. Viscount Ebrington, 450 



10 



Seattsi ol* ]Vol>ility9 Olerg^y audi Grentry in Devonsliire. 



Chaddlewood, Plympton St. Mary, George Soltau-Symons, 

Esq. 666 
Chantry. Aveton Gilford, John Alfred Pcarco, Esq. 115 
Chattuu, Axniinster, George Andrew Spottiswoode, Esq. 
Chelston Cross, Cockington, William Eroude, Esq., CM, 

E.R.S., J.P. 228 
Chelston Manor^ Cockington, — Blackwood, Esq. 228 
Chircombe, Northam, General AVilliam Crichton, 571 
Chittlehana Ilolt Manor House, Chittlehampton, Thomas 

Eater, Esq. 213 
Clannaborougli House, John Wreford, Esq., J.P. 223 
Cleavelands, Northam, Lady Mary Bishop, 571 
Clevelands, Axmouth, Edward Levi Ames, Esq. 121 
Cloakham House, Axniinster, Henry Knight, Esq. 116 
Clovelly Court, Neville Fane, Esq. 228 
Cockington Court, Eichard Mallock, Esq. J.P. 228 
Coham House, Black Torrington, William Holland Bick- 

ford Coham, Esq. J.P. 165 
Cole House (or Colhays), Bovey Tracey, Theophilus Levett, 

Esq. 167 
Coleridge, Stokenham, John Allen, Esq. J.P. 736 
Collaton Kirkbam, Paignton, Mrs. Hogg, 590 
Colleton Barton, Chulmleigh, Sir F. Williams, 218 
Collipriest House, Tiverton, Thomas Carew, Esq. J.P 779 
Coly House, Colyton, John Scarborough, Esq. 233 
Combe House, Gittisham, Richard Marker, Esq. 455 
Combhead, Bamptou, Captain William Levi, J.P. 123 
Coombe Hall, Drewsteignton, James Strong, Esq. 305-6 
Coombe House, Colebrooke, Arthur Onslow Sillifant, 

Esq. J.P. 230 
Coombe Royal, AVest Alvington, John Luscombe, Esq. 840 
Cornborough, Abbotsham,Edward Urch Vidal, Esq. J.P. 99 
Cory ton Park, Kilmington, Frederick Swabey, Esq. 509 
Cotford House, Sidbury, Wm. Rooker Bayley, Esq. J.P. 707 
Cottage (The), Netherexe, Christopher Hill, Esq. 556 
Court Barn, Clawton, Walter Wm. Melhuish, Esq. J.P. 223 
Court Barton, Dittisham, Edward Owen, Esq. 301 
Court Grange, Abbotskerswell, Mrs. Marcus Hare, 100 
Court Hall, Monkton, Mrs. N. E. Gard, 551 
Court Hall, Nth. Molton, Rt. Hon. Lord Poltimore, J.P. 574 
Court Hall, Sidbury, Right Hon. Stephen Cave, M.P. 707 
Courtis Knowle, Diptford, Mrs Catherine Hare, 301 
Courtlands, Withycombe Rawleigh, Mrs. O. Browne, 854 
Court Place, Parracombe, Chas. Blackmore, jun. Esq. 596 
Coventry Lodge, Seaton, Sir Weaker Coventry Trevelyan, 

Bart. 701 
Cowley House. Brampford Speke, Arthur Wyatt-Edgell, 

Esq. J.P., B.A., F.G.S. 174 
Craddock, UfFeulme, John Cave New, Esq. J.P. 830 
Creedy Park, Sandford, Sir Henry Robert Furguson 

Davie, Bart. M.P., J.P. 697 
Cross, Little Torrington, John George Johnson, Esq. M.P., 

J.P. 526 
Cross House, Northam, Major Jas. Hy. Prendergast, 571 
Cruwyshaye, Rackenford, Hy. Chas. Devon, Esq. J.P. 678 
Cruwys-Morchard Court, Geo. Jas. Cruwys, Esq. J.P. 250 
Culver House, Chudleigh, Rev. Thos. Jno. Yarde,M.A, 216 
Culver House, Holcombe Burnell, Edwd. Byrom, Esq. 476 
Daison (The), St. Mary Church, William John Potts Cliatto, 

Esq. 686 
Darley House, Okehampton, Wm. Ponsford, Esq. J.P. 683 
Dartington Hall, Arthur Champernowne, Esq. J.P. 254 
Dean Court, Dean Prior, Wm. Richard Coulton, Esq. 268 
Deer Park, Buckerell, Hon. Colin Lindsay, 194 
Delamore, Cornwood, Admiral George Parker, J.P, 239 
Denbury House, Misses Gardiner, 269 
Derriford House, Egg Buckland, Copplestone Lopes Rad- 

clifFe, Esq. 313 
Diptford Court, Thomas Rutland, Esq. 301 
Downes, Crediton, Major Redvers Hy. Buller, C.B., J.P. 242 
Drascombe Farm, Drewsteignton, Arthur Knapman, Esq. 

305-6 
Dulford House, Broadhembury, Henry Walrond, Esq. 191 
Dunchideock House, Walter John Llewellyn, Esq. 306 



Dunmore House, Bradninch, Thomas Chalmers, Esq. 171 
Dundridge, Harberton, R. Orlibart, Esq, 464 
Dunsland, Bradford, Harry Moulton-Barrett, Esq. 169 
Dunsland Court, Jacobstowe, Rev. Charles St. Denys 

Moxon, B.C.L. 505 
Eardley Villa, Berry Pomeroy, Admiral Arthur Parry 

Eardley-Wilmot, C.B. 148 
Ebford Barton, Woodbury, Miss Ann Greir Lee, 856 
Eiford Manor, Egg Buckland, Mrs. Anne Laetitia Clark, 313 
Eggesford House, Wembworthy, Right Hon. Earl of 

Portsmouth, 839 
Endsleigh Cottage, Milton Abbot, His Grace the Duke of 

Bedford, 545, 754 
Englebourne, Harberton, John Browne Paige-Browne, 

Esq. 464 
Escot House, Talaton, Sir John Henry Kennaway, Bart. 

M.P. 751 
Eversfield, Bratton Clovelly, Thomas Ellis Manning, Esq. 

J.P. 175 
Exeleigh House, Starcross, Sir John Lewes Duntze, Bart. 

J.P. 729 
Fallapit House, East Allington, Wm. Cubitt, Esq. J.P. 308 
Fanfield, Countess Wear, Alexander Harry A. Hamilton, 

Esq. J.P. 242 
Faringdon House, Edward Johnson, Esq. J.P. 448 
Feniton Court, Rev. William Francis Gore, B.A. 450 
Flcte, Holbeton, Henry Bingham Mildmay, Esq. 476 
Follaton House, Totnes, Stanley Edwd. Cary, Esq. J.P. 820 
Ford House, Drewsteignton, John Ponsford, Esq. J.P. 305-6 
Ford House, Newton Abbot, Wm. John Watts, Esq. J.P. 557 
Fort Hill House, Barnstaple, John Roberts Chanter, 

Esq. J.P. 134 
Fremington House, W. A. Yeo, Esq. 451 
Fuidge House, Spreyton, Samuel Norris, Esq. 729 
Fulford House, Dunsford, Edward Clark, Esq. J.P. 307 
Fullaford, Buekfastleigh, Exors. of .John Hamlyn, Esq. 195 
Fursdon Cadbury, Rev. Edward Fursdon, M.A. 206 
Gaddon House, UfFeulme, William Ayshford Wood, Esq. 830 
Gatcombo House, Little Hempston, Commander Robert 

George Baker, R.A. 526 
Glenthorne, Countisbury, William Halliday Halliday, Esq. 

J.P. 241 
Gnaton Hall, Newton Ferrers, Charles Freeman, Esq. 567 
Good-a-Meavy House, Meavy, Edwin Scobell, Esq. J.P. 542 
Goodamoor, Plympton St. Mary, Colonel Paul Winslow 

Phillipps-Treby, J.P. 666 
Goodrington, Paignton, James Brown, Esq. 590 
Gosford House, Ottery St. Mary, Sir Henry Anthony Far- 

rington, Bart. 585 
Graystone, Drewsteignton, Richard Strong, Esq. 305-6 
Greenway, Churston Ferrers, Mrs Susannah Harvey, 223 
Grimstone House,Whitchurch,MontagueBere,Esq. Q.C.847 
Grenofen, Whitchurch, William Henry Chichester, Esq. 

J.P. 847 
Grove Hill, Topsham, Robert Manning Davy, Esq. J.P. 793 
Haccombe House, Misses Carew, 461 
Haine, Stowford, Edward Blackburn, Esq. 749 
Halberton Court, Thomas Webber, Esq. 462 
Haldon House, Kenn, Sir Lawrence Palk, Bart. M.P., 

J.P. 505 
Halsdon House, Dolton, William Cory, Esq. J.P. 303 
Halshanger House, Ashburton, Jas. Woodley, Esq. J.P. 110 
Halwell House, South Pool, Albert PraedHallifax,Esq.727 
Halwell Manor House (near Lifton), William Jas. Harris, 

Esq. 464 
Harefield, Lympstone, William Henry Peters, Esq. J.P. 533 
Harewood, Plympton St. Mary, Captain Henry John 

Tolcher, 666 
Hartland Abbey, Colonel William Lewis Stucley, 467 
Hayne House, Plymtree, Frederick Alexander Manfield, 

Esq. 672 
Hazlewood, Loddiswell, William Peek, Esq. J.P. 527 
Heale House, Littleham (near Bideford), Richard Sanders, 
Esq. 525 



Seats of IVol3ility, Clerg-y and Oentry in IDevonsliire. 



11 



Heanton House, Heanton Punchardon, Exors. of Sir 

Frederick Martin Williams, Bart. M.P., J.P. 471 
Heauton Satchville, Huish, Eight Hon. Lord Clinton, 

488, 698 
Heathlield House, Tamerton Foliott, John AVilliams 

Grigg, Esq. J.P. 753 
Heaths Court, Ottery St. Mary, Lord Coleridge, 58u 
Hembury Fort, Buckerell, William. Porter, Esq. J.P. 194 
Hemerdon House, Plympton St. Mary,Mrs.Woollcombe,666 
High House, Kenton, Edward Fairfax Studd, Esq. J.P. o09 
Hillersdon House, CuUompton, Mrs. Maria Grant, 251 
Hillside, Plympton St. Mary, Cecil Edward Bewes, Esq. 

J.P. 667 
Holcombe Court, Holcombe Eogus, William Carew Payer, 

Esq. J.P. 477 
Holne Chase House, Holne, Sir B.P. AVrey, Bart. 478 
Holwell House, Whitchurch, William Pryce Michell, Esq. 

J.P., D.L, 847 
Hoo-MeaA^y, Meavy, James Pryse Deacon, Esq., J.P. 542 
Horswell House, South Milton, Eev. James Edward 

Newell, M.A. 719 
Horwell, Colebrooke, Samuel Norrish, Esq. 230 
Horwood House, Eev. John Dene, B.A. 488 
Hudscott, Chittlehampton, John Baring Short, Esq. 213 
Huntsham Court, Charles Arthur Williams Troyte, Esq. 

J.P. 489 
Hut (The), Tetcott, Vincent Pollixfen Calmady,Esq.J.P.775 
Indio, Bovey Tracey, Charles Aldenbury Bentinck, Esq. 

J.P. 167 
Ingsdon, Ilsington, Charles Hale Monro, Esq. J.P. 500 
Jacobstowe Manor House, Charles J. Moxon, Esq. 505 
Kelly House, Eeginald Kelly, Esq. J.P. 505 
Kenbury House, Exminster, Augustus W. B. Daniell, 

Esq. 439 
Killerton House, Broad Clyst, Sir Thomas Dj ke Acland, 

Bait. M.A., D.C.L., M.P. 189 
Kingshurst, Paignton, Eev. Thos. Grainger Hall, M.A. 590 
King's Nympton Park, Newell Connop, Esq. 516 
Kingswear Castle, Major C. Seale-Hayne, 518 
Kingswear Castle, Brixham, Charles Seale-Hayne, Esq. 

J.P. 187 
Kitley, Yealmpton, Baldwin John Pollexfen Bastard, 

Esq. J.P. 861 
Knightshayes Court, Tiverton, Sir John Heathcoat 

Heathcoat-Amory, Bart. M.P., J.P. 780 
Knowle, Clist St. George, Wm. ClulowSim,Esq. J.P. 226 
Knowle, Sidmouth, Eev. Eichard Thornton Thornton, 

B.A. 709 
Knowle House, Salcombe Eegis, Eight Honourable S. 

Cave, M.P. 695 
Langdon Hall, Wembury, Eichard Cory, Esq. 839 
Leawood, Bridestowe, Shilston Calmady Hamlyn, Esq. 

J.P. 179 
Lee Abbey, Lynton, Chas. Fredk. Bailey, Esq. J.P. 534 
Leigh House, Chulmleigh, Miss Mary Preston, 218 
Leigham House, Egg Buckland, James John Elliot, Esq. 

J.P. 314 
Lenwood, Northam, Adderley Barton Wren, Esq. B.A. 

J.P. 571 
Lew House, Lewtrenchard, Colonel Eichard Cooper, 523 
Leywell House, Brixham, Captain Henry Turner Uuiacke, 

J.P. 182 
Lifton Park, Frank Bradshaw, Esq. 524 
Lindridge, Bishop's Teignton, J. G. J. Tern pier, Esq. J.P. 1 62 
Little Bray, Charles (near South Moltou), Sir Thomas 

Dyke Acland, Bart. 209 
Little Efford, Egg Buckland, Geo.AVm. Soltau, Esq.J.P.314 
Livonia, Sidford, Colonel Eobert Murray Curry, 708 
Longstone, Pilton, John Thomas Fisher, Esq. J.P. 135 
Lukesland, Harford, James Johnston Mac Andrew, Esq. 466 
Lundy Island, William Heaven, Esq. 529 
Lupton House, Brixham, Lord Churston, 182 
Lupton House, Churston Ferrers, Eight Honourable Lord 

Churston, J.P, 222 



Lydford Bridge, Lydford, Daniel Eadford, Esq. 531 
I^ynmouth Manor House, Mrs Mary Teresa Lock Eoe, 534 
Maisonette, Stoke Gabriel, Capt. Eiehd. Dawkins, E.N. 734 
Mamhead Park, Sir Lydstone Newman, Bart. 537 
Manadon, Penny Cross, Eev. John Hall Parlby, M.A., 

J.P. 597 
Manor (The), Sidmouth, children of the lato George 

Edmund Balfour, Esq. 709 . . 

Manor Cottage, Bradford, Jsph.Thos. English, Esq. J.P. 169 
Manor Cottage, Coryton, Thomas Holdsworth Newman, 

Esq. J.P. 241 
Maristow, Tamerton Foliott, Sir Lopes Massey Lopes, 

Bart. M.P., J.P. 752 
Marley House, Eattery, Misses Carew, 678 
Marley Lodge, Withycombe Eawleigh, Mrs. Long, 854 
Marpool Hall, Withycombe Eawleigh, Exors. of H. Percy, 

Esq. 854 
Membland Hall, Holbeton, Edward Chas. Baring, Esq. 476 
Millaton, Bridestowe, John Gubbins Newton, Esq. 179 
Monkaton Manor, Pinhoe, George Edwin Elliott, Esq. 600 
Moreton House, Bideford, Mrs Ann Buck, 150 
Mothecombe House, Holbeton, Henry Bingham Mildmay, 

Esq. 476 
Moult (The), Malborough, Viscount Courtenay, 636 
Mount (The), Salcombe, Earl of Devon, 693 
Mount I3oone, Dartmouth, 256 

Mountfield, Musbury, Captain Thomas Still, J.P. 556 
Mount Stephen, Halberton, George Coombe, Esq. 462 
Mount Tavy, Tavistock, John Carpenter-Garnier, Esq. 

M.P. 754 
Natsworthy Manor, Widecombe-in-the-Moor, William John 

Owen Tucker, Esq. 850 
Ness House, Shaldon, Eight Hon. Lord Clifford, 691 
Nethercott. Iddesleigh, Lieut.-Col. Wm. Arnold, J.P. 490 
Netherton Hall, Farway, Lady Louisa Prideaux, 449 
Nethway House, Brixham, Llewellyn Llewellyn, Esq. 

J.P, 182 
Newcombes, Crediton, Benjamin Wood Cleave, Esq. 247 
Newcourt House, Topsham, William Hood Walrond, Esq. 

J.P. 793 
NewnhaTU_.Eaji, Plympton St. Mary, Misses Dorothy and 

TTeorgina Strode, 666 
Newton House, Newton St. Cyres, John Quicke, Esq. 

J.P. 568 
Newton House, Newton Tracey, Major Thomas Howard 

Effingham Hogg Dimond Hogg, 570 
Northcote Manor House, Burrington,WilIiam Buckingham, 

Esq. 205 
North Huish Manor House, Thomas King, Esq. J.P. 572 
Norton Parks, Dartmouth, Sir Henry Paul Seale, Bart. 256 
Nutwell Court, Woodbury, Sir Francis George Augustus 

Fuller- Eliott Drake, Bart. 855 
Nutwell House, Woodbury, Miss Seliua Northcote, 855 
Oakey, Stoke Canon, Charles G-. Ford, Esq. 733 
Oakfield Lodge, Buckerell, Miss Margaret Eadcliffe, 194 
Oakford Manor House, William Spurway, Esq. 579 
Oaklands, Chudleigh, Major-General Charles James 

Buchanan Eiddell, C.B., E.A. 218 
Oaklands, Okehampton, James Hunt Hollev, Esq. J.P. ; & 

Windham Hunt Holley, Esq. J.P. 583 
Offwell House, Major J. B. Speid, 579 
Ogwell House, West Ogwell, Daniel Eobert Scratton, 

Esq. J.P. 844 
Oldway, Paignton, Mrs. Isabella Eugenie Singer, 590 
Orchard Hill, Northam, Exors. of Thos. Evans, Esq. J.P. 57 1 
Orleigh Court,Buckland Brewer, Thos. Eogers, Esq. J.P. 1 98 
Otterhead, Church Stanton, Alfred Mellor. Esq. J.P. 221 
Ottery St. Mary Manor House, Miss Mary Frances Keble, 

Coleridge, 585 
Oxenham Manor House, South Tawton, Captain William 

John Luxmore, 728 
Oxenway, Membury, Eobt. Manning Davy, Esq. J.P. 543 
Oxton House, Kenton, Gen. Edward Studd, J.P., D.L. 608 
Painsford, Ashprington, Eichard Coaker, Esq. 1 1 1 



I 



12 



@eat^ of IVobility, Olei-g^y and Grentr^^ in I>evoiiNli.ire. 



P.imflete, Holbeton, John lUilteol, Esq. 476 
riirk(Tlio),Bovey Tracoy, Win. Ilo])t. Hole, Esq. J.P. 167 
L*iii'kti')lLl, Paignton, Arthur Hydo Dondy, Esq. 590 
P.irford, ijrewsteignton, Wni. Ilichanl Bishop, Esq. 305-6 
Park House, Sandford, Elias Tremlott, Esq. 698 
Parnacott, Pyworthy, Miss Vowlor, 678 
Paschoe, Colebrooko, John Bastin, Esq. 230 
].*oamore House, Esminster, Trehawke Kekewich, Esq. 

J.P. 439 
Perridgo, Holcombe Burnell, Capt. St. John Daubeny, 477 
Petticombo, Monkleigh, John Saltren Willett, Esq. 550 
Pickwell, Goorgeliam, 453 

Pilton House, Charles Henry Williamf?, Esq. J.P. 598 
Polapit Taniar, Werrington, Edward Coode, Esq. J.P. 840 
Pole House, Ide, Joseph Elliott C. Walkey, Esq. J.P. 491 
Poltimore House, Lord Poltimore, 673 
Pomeroy, Grittisham, Captain R. Hody Cox, 455 
Port Hill, Northam, Admiral Edward P. Charlwood, 571 
Portledge, Alwington.Jno. Kichd. Pine Coffin, Esq. J.P. 102 
Pound, Buck'and Monachoruni, Rev. Anthony Bailer, 199 
Powderhani Castle, Right Honourable the Earl of Devon, 

and Lord Courtenay, 674 
Primley, Paignton, J. E. Belfield, Esi. 590 
Primley Hill, Paignton, William Keates, Esq. J.P. 593 
Primley Hill, Sidbury, Richard Taylor, Esq. 708 
Puddington Lodge, John Leete Eland, Esq. 677 
Puslinch House, Newton Ferrers, Rev. DukeYonge,M. A. 567 
Pyne's House, Upton Pyne, Right Honourable SirStaflford 

Henry Northcote, Bart. C.B., M.P. 835 
Quarry (The), Paignton, Eras. Hoare Spragge, Esq. J.P. 590 
Quayheld House, Ilfracombe, Sir Bouchier Palk Wrey, 

J.P. 499 
Radford Mansion House, Plynistock, Miss Edith Agnes 

Surgison, 672 
RatclylFe, Clyst Hydon, AValter Matthew, Esq. 225 
Ratclyffe House, Clyst Hydon, Edwd. Drew, Esq. J.P. 226 
Ravensbury, Dartmouth, Geo. Parker Bidder, Esq. C.E.259 
RedclifFe, Paignton, Robert Clodd Smith, Esq. 590 
Retreat (The), Northam, Col. Chas. Cambrian Henehy, 571 
Retreat (The), Topsham, A. M. Hamilton, Esq. 793 
Rode Hill House, Uplyme, John Reginald Erancis George 

Talbot, Esq. J.P. 833 
Rhydda Bank, Trentishoe, Miss Amelia Catherine 

Griffiths, 828 
Rhyll House, East Anstey, John Froude Belle w,Esq. J.P. 309 
Ringrone, Malborough, Lord Kinsale, 536 
Riverside, Northam, Major-General Maxtone Murray, 571 
Riversmeet, Topsham, Erancis Davy, Esq. 793 
Rockbeare Court, Gilbert Walsh, Esq. 681 
Rockbeare House, Colonel Thomas Richard Crosse, 681 
Rockhill, Stoketieraing, Richard Brown Cleland, Esq. 

J.P. 734 
Roeklands, Chudleigh, George Bradford Ellicombe, Esq. 

J.P. 217 
Rosemont, Alphington, Arthur Chamherlayne Chichester, 

Esq. J.P. 101 
Rosemount, Ilfracombe, Nathaniel Vye, Esq. J.P., D.L. 499 
Rougemont, Exeter. Mrs. Mary Eliza Gard, 412 
Rousdon Hall, iSir Henry W. Peek, Bart. M.P., J.P. 683 
Rydon House, Talaton, Jonah Pynsent Mathew, Esq. 751 
St. Brannock, Braunton, Chas. Hy. Webber, Esq. J.P. 178 
St. John's Cottage, Withycombe Rawleigh, 854 
St. Loyes, Exeter, Major General Guy Rotton, 320 
Salcombe House, Salcombe Regis, Charles John Cornish, 

Esq. 695 
Salston House, Ottery St. Mary, William Rennell Coleridge, 

Esq. J.P. 585 
Saltram, Plympton St. Mary, RightHon.Earl of Morley,666 
Sanctuary (The), Shobrooke, Honourable James Eitzwalter 

Butler, J.P. 706 
Sandridge, Stoke Gabriel, Baroness de Virte, 734 
Sandwell, Harberton, J. Tayleur, Esq. 464 
Seaforth Lodge, Seaton, Lady Louisa Ashburton, 700 
Shambles House, Dartmouth, Lieut.-Col. Ridgway, J.P. 263 



Sharpham, Ashprington, Richard Durant, Esq. J.P. Ill 
Sheaf hayno House, Yarcombo, Sir Erancis George 

Augustus Fuller-Eliott Drake, Birt. 859 
Shoplcgh Court, ]]lackawton, Lieut.-Col. Alexander Ridg- 
way, J.P. 163 
Shiphay House, St. Mary Church, Rev. Thomas Kitson, 

M.A., J.P. 686 
Shobrooke Park, John Henry Hippislt^y, Esq. J.P. 706 ; 

Shuto House, Sir William Edmund Pole, Bart. 706 
Sidbury Manor House, Thorn: is Sneyd, Esq. 708 
Silverton Park, 714 

Slade, Cornwood, John Duke Pode, Esq. 239 
Slade House, Charleton, Edward Arthur, Esq. 210 
Slewton House, Whimple, George Brooke, Esq. 846 ^_| 

Smytham, Little Torrington, Capt. Osmund Scott, 527 jH| 
South Allington House, Chivelstone, Capt. Thomas HarruH 

Pitts, 214 
Southlands, Withycombe Rawleigh, Licut.-General Sir 

Charles Shepherd Stuart, G.C.B., J.P. 855 ^ 

Springfield, Northam, Major William Douglas Scott, 57l^| 
Stanley Villa, Northam, Col. J. T. Clarke, 571 ^ 

Staple Court, Hockworthy, William Dester, Esq. 475 
Stodcombe House, Axmouth, William Trelawny Hallett, 

Esq. J.P. 121 
Stevenstone .House, St. Giles-in-the-Wood, Hon. Mark 

George Kerr Rolle, J.P. 685 
Stoke Cliff Hous9, Dartmouth, Capt. Augustus Peter Ark- 

wright, R.N., M.P. 259 
Stoke House, Stokefieming, Geo. Parker Bidder, Esq. 733 
Stokely House, Stokenham, Sir Lydston Newman, Bart. 736 
Stoodleigh Court, Thomas Carew Daniel, Esq. J.P. 748 
Stover Hs., Teigngrace, His Grace the Duke of Somerset, 766 
Stowford, Harford, Miss Rivers, 466 
Strathculm House, Bradninch, Charles Robert Collins, 

Esq. J.P. 171 
Strawberry Hill, Lympstone, Edwd.Michell Pierce, Esq. 633 
Strawbridge, Hatherleigh, Joseph Oldham, Esq. J.P. 469 
Street Manor House, Blackawton, Henry Limbrey Toll, 

Esq. J.P. 163 
Strete Raleigh House, Whimple, Mrs Ann BuUer, 847 
Strode House, Modbury, Mrs. Caroline Mitchell, 548 
Sydenham House, Marystowe, John Tremavne, Esq. M.P., 

J.P. 541 
Tadaport, West Buckland, Murray George, Esq. 842 
Tapeley (or Tapleigh), West Leigh, William Langhara 

Christie, Esq. M.P. 844 
Tawstock Court, George Henry Pinckney, Esq. 764 
Torquay Manor House, Sir Lawrence Palk, Bart. M.P. 797 
Torr House, Newton Eerrers, Chas. Cornthwaite, Esq. 567. 
Torr Villa, Newton Eerrers, Misses Mary & Frances 

Yonge, 567 
Torre Abbey, Torquay, Robert Shcdden Sulyard Gary, 

Esq. 798 
Townstall House, Dartmouth, Ralph Richardson, Esq. 

M.D., J.P. 263 
Tracey House, Awliscombe, George Neumann, Esq. J.P. 1 1 5 
Trehill, Kenn, John Henr}' Ley, Esq. 505 
Tristford, Harberton, Major John Fincher Trist, J.P. 464 
Ugbrooke Park, Chudleigh, Right Hon. Lord Clifford, J.P.. 

D.L. 216 
Upcott, Pilton, Liout.-Col. William Harding, J.P. 598 
Upcott Avenel, Sheepwash, W. H. B. Coham, Esq. J.P., 

D.L. 703 
Upcott Barton, Beaford, Thomas Webber Snell, Esq. 143 
Upottery Manor House, Right Hon. Viscount Sidmouth, 

M.P. 833 
Upton Lodge, Brixham, Rev. Geo. Hy. Gervaise Cutler, 1 82 
Venn, Churchstow, Misses Savery, 222 
Venn House, Lamerton, Rev. William Gill, J^P. 520 
Venn Ottery Barton, Thomas Yelverton, Esq. 835 
Venton, Dartington, James Dimond Moysey, Esq. 255 
Waddeton Court, Stoke Gabriel, Hy. Studdy, Esq. J.P. 734 
Walreddon House, Whitchurch, Sir T, L. Seccombe, 
K.C.S.L, C.B. 848 



Seats of* IVotoility, Clei-g-y and Grentry in Devonsliire, 



13 



WarUigh, Tamertjn Foliott, Mrs. Charlotte Hannah 

Eadcliife, 752 
W'atennouth Castle, Berrynarbor, Frederick Williams, 

Esq. R.N. 146 
Way J3artoii, Chagfurd, Thos. Taylor Coniam, Esq. 207 
Wear Hall, Wear Gitford, Col. Arthur Hill Millett, 838 
Wear House, Countess W^eir, Sir John Thomas Euller 

Duckworth, Bart. J.P. 793 
Webbery, Alverdiscott, Wm. Anthony Deane, Esq. J.P. 102 
Weir House, Topsham, Sir John Thomas Buller Duck- 
worth, Bart. J.P, 793 
Wellesbourne,Northam, Genl.Wm. Nelson Hutchinson, 571 
Wembury House, Kalph Dawson, Esq. J.P. 839 
Werrington Park, Col. James Henry Deakin, J.P. 840 
Westcott House, Rockbeare, John Elliott, Esq. 681 
Weston House, Berry Pomeroy, Matthew Fortescue, Esq 

J.P. 148 
West Rockham, Cruwys Morchard, "Wm. Tidbald, Esq. 250 
Whetcombe, North Huish, Henry Thos. Kingwell, Esq. 572 
White Hall, Churchstow, Jno.Weston Peters Gale, Esq. 221 
Whiteway House, Chudleigh, Dowager Countess of 

Morley, 216 
Whitleigh Hall, St. Budeaux, John Croad Henn-Gennys, 

Esq. 684 
Whyddon Park, Chagford, Rev. Alfred Gresley Barker, 

M.A. 207 
Widey Court House, Egg Buckland, Rev. J. Morshead, 3 1 3 
Widworthy Court, Sir Edward Marwood Elton, Bart. 850 
Widdecombe, Stokenham, Arthur Frederick Holdsworth, 

Esq. J.P. 736 
Willesleigh, Landkey, Gage John Hodge, Esq. J.P. 522 



Willestrew Park, Lamerton, John Hy. Gubbin, Esq. 520 
Winscott, Peter's Marland, John Curzon Moore-Stevens, 

Esq. J.P. 638 
Winslade House, Clist St.Mary,Joshiia Dixon, Esq. J.P. 227 
Winterbourn House, Teignmouth, Miss Richards, 768 
Wiscombe Park, South Leigh, Exors. of Charles Gordon, 

Esq. 719 
Withecombc House, Witliycombe Rawleigh, Otho Cooke, 

Esq. 854 
Witliycombe Rawleigh Grange, John Wood, Esq. J.P. 855 
Wolford Lodge, Dunkoswell, Captain John Kennaway 

Simcoe^ R N. 306 
W^onham House, Bampton, John Collins, Esq, J.P. 124 
Wonston, Throwleigh, James Dunning, Esq. 778 
Woodlands, Kenn, 505 
WoodtowD, Sampford Spiney, W^illiam Frederick Collier, 

Esq. J.P. 697 
Woodtown House, Alverdiscott, Capt. Algernon Capel, 102 
Woodville House, Northam, John How, Esq. J.P. 571 
"Woody Bay, Martinhoe, AVm. Aysford Sanford, Esq. J.P. 540 
Woolston House, Loddiswell. Thomas Wyse Weymouth, 

Esq. 527 
Worth House, Washfield, Rev. Reginald Worth, 837 
Wray Barton, Moretonhampstead, Robert William Crump. 

Esq. 552 
Yannons (The), Teignmouth, Robert Moir, Esq. 768 
Yco Vale, Alwington, Captain Audley Archdale, 102 
Yondercott, Uffculme, George Marker Marker, Esq. 

J.P. 830 
Youlston Park, Sherwell, Sir Arthur Chichester, Bart. 

J.P. 705 



LIST OF FAIRS IN DEVON SHIEE. 



Market days are shown in j^aren 



Ashburton (Saturday), (cattle, third Saturday in month), 
first Thursday in March and June, and August 10 and 
November 11 

Ashreigny, Wednesday after January 30 

Ashwater, first Tuesday in May, and first Monday in Aug. 

Axminster (Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday, and great 
market on alternate Thursday), Tuesday after April 25, 
Tuesday after June 24, and Wednesday after Oct. 10 

Axmouth, Shrove Tuesday 

Bampton (Wednesday and Saturday), Wednesday before 
Lady-day, Whit Tuesday, last Thursday in October, and 
last Wednesday in November 

Barnstaple (Friday), Fridays before March 21 and April 21, 
last Friday in July, AYednesday before September 19, 
and second Friday in December (wool, January 17, 
July 25, and September 18) 

Beer {Seaton), Monday after October 14 

Bideford (Tuesday and Saturday), February 14 and 15, 
second Tuesday in March, last Tuesday in April, July 18, 
third Tuesday in September, and November 1 3 

Bishop's Morchard, Monday after September 9 

Bishop's Nympton, Wednesday before October 25 

Bovey Tracey, Easter Monday 

Bow (cattle market), first Monday in every other month 

Bradninch, first Wednesday in April, and third Wednesday 
in September 

Bradworthy, September 9 

Bratton Fleming, August 19 

Bridestowe, first Wednesday in June, and July 29 

Broad Clyst, first Mondays in April and September 

Broadhembury, second Monday in December 



Buclcfastleigh, third Thursday in June, and second Thurs- 
day in September 

Buckland Monachorum, Trinity Monday, Tuesday, and 
Wednesday 

Budleigh Salterton, Wliit Tuesday 

Burrington, June 17 

Chagford (Saturday), first Thursday in May, and last 
Thursday in March, September and October 

Chawleigh, May 6, and Tuesday before last Thursday in 
October 

Cheriton Bishop, Monday in Whitsun w'eek 

Chudleigh, Easter Tuesday 

Chulmleigh (Friday), Easter AVednesday and last Wednes- 
day in July 

Churchinford, January 25 and 26, and last Friday in April 

Clayhidon, June 18 

Colyton (Thursday and Saturday), third Tuesday in April, 
second Tuesday in October, & Wednesday after March 1 1 

Cornwood, first Monday in May, and last Monday in Sept. 

Crediton (Saturday), May 11, August 21, and September 21 

Cullompton (Saturday), first Wednesdays in May & Nov. 

Culmstock, May 21 

Dalwood, Wednesday before August 21 

Dartmouth (Friday), March and October 

Dawlish, Easter Monday 

Denbury, September 19 

Devonport (Tuesday, Thursday, & Saturday), Whit IMonday 

Dodbrooke, Wednesday before Palm Sunday 

Dolton, dates not yet fixed 

Drewsteignton, Thursday after Candlemas-day, and Thurs- 
day after Trinity Sunday 



u 



IL<ist of Faii*s in Devon sliire. 



Dunsford, Monday after September 8 

East Budleigh, Easter Tuesday 

r^xpter (Tuesday, Friday, and Saturday), third Wodnos- 

days in February, May, and July, and second Wednesday 

in December 
Great Torriagton (Saturday), March 16, May 4, July 5, 

and October 10 
Ilartland, Wednesday in Easter Week, and September 25 
Hatherloigh (Tuesday), May 21, June 22, September 4, 

and November 8 
Jligh ]3ickington, Monday after May 14 
Holsworthy (AVednesday and Saturday), March 14, 

April 27, July 9, 10, and 11, and October 2 
Honiton (Saturday), Wednesday & Thursday after July 19 
Ilfracombe (Wednesday and Saturday), April 14, and 

Saturday after August 23 
Kilmington, first Wednesday in September 
Kingsbridge (Saturday), July 25, 26, and 27 
Levvtrenchard, Tuesday before last Wednesday in November 
Lifton, February 13 
Lydford, Tuesday after July 20 
Mem bury, August 10 
Modbury (Thursday), May 4 
Moretonhampstead, third Tuesday in each month 
Musbury, first Monday after Michaelmas 
Newton Abbot (Wednesday), February 27, June 24, and 

Wednesdays after September 1 1 and November 6 
Newton Poppleford, Holy Thursday, and Wednesday after 

October 18 
North Molton, Wednesday after May 12, and last 

Wednesday in October 
North Tawton (Thursday), third Tuesdays in April and 

December, and second Tuesday in October 
Okehampton (Saturday), second Tuesday after March 11, 

second Thursday in May, Thursdays after July 5 and 

August 5, Tuesday after September 1 1 , Wednesday after 

October 1 1 , and Saturday after Christmas-day 
Otterton, Wednesday in Easter Week, and Wednesday 

after October 10 
Ottery St. Mary (Thursday), last Thursdays in March and 

September, August 1 and December 5 
Paignton, Whitsun week 
Parracombe, August 18 

Plymouth (Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday), first Mon- 
days in April and November 



Plympton St. Mary ( Underwood), July 5 

Princetown, August 23 

Kackenford, July 8, and Wednesday before September 19 

Salcombo (Friday), Wliit Tuesday 

Sampford Peverell, Monday before last Wednesday in 

April 
Sand'brd, third Monday in March, and last Monday in 

July 
Seaton, Whit Tuesday 
Shecpwash, second Thursday in March, and Thursday 

before October 10 
Shute ( Whitford), Monday before Michaelmas-day 
Sidbury, Tuesday before Holy Thursday, and Wednesday 

before September 20 
Sidmouth (Saturday), Easter Monday and third Monday 

in September 
Silverton, first Thursdays in February and July 
South Brent, last Tuesdays and Wednesdays in April an^ 

September 
South Molton (Saturday), Wednesday before June 22, ar 

Wednesday after August 26 
South Zeal {South lawton), Tuesday in week after festiv^ 

of St. Thomas-a-Becket (July 7) 
Starcross, Whit Wednesday 
Stockland, Wednesday after June 11 
Tavistock (Friday), second Wednesday in each month 
Teigumouth, third Tuesday in January, last Tuesday in 

February, and last Tuesday in September 
Thorverton, last Monday in February, and Mondav after 

July 18 
Tiverton (Tuesday), June 6, October 3 ; and market second 

Tuesday in each month 
Topsham, Thursday after July 18 
Totnes (Saturday), May 12 and October 28 ; market first 

Tuesday in each month 
Two Bridges {Trincetown), Thursday after August 2 
Uffculme, first Monday in March, June, September, and 

December 
Qpottery, Wednesday before Lady-day 
Whimple, Monday after Michaelmas-day 
Winkleigh, first Wednesday in October, and Monday 

after July 8 
Witheridge, April 18, Midsummer-day, September 26, and 

November 7 
Woodbury, May 3 



ADDENDA ET COEEIGENDA. 



AsHBiTRTGN, page 106, insert ' The Ashburton Institute 
in St. Lawrence Street, established chiefly for the working 
classes, was opened in October 1878. There are reading, 
smoking, recreation and refreshment rooms, and there is a 
good supply of newspapers and magazines. Working 
men pay 1^. weekly, others 2d., and the excess in the 
expenditure is met by voluntary subscription. Mrs 
AVhiddon is housekeeper, J. Mortimer, Esq., secretary, and 
J. Bickford, Esq., treasurer'; page 107, insert * A School 
Board was formed on July 11, 1878, and consists of 
Robert Tucker, Esq. (chairman), Rev. J. W. Lay, M.A., 
and Messrs. E. J. Sawdye, P. F. S. Amery, J, Tozer, AV. 
R. Whiteway, and H. Steele. Henry M. Firth, Esq., is 
their clerk.' 

AsHPRiNGTON, page 111, line 3, for ' Westbourn,' read 
' Washbourne.' 

Aylesbbaee, page 122, to list of members of the School 
Board, add ' the Rev. Charles E. Littledale.' 

Babnstaple, page 142, in Directory, to Toller John 
Henry, for 'deputy coroner,' read * coroner ' ; page 129, 
to Holy Trinity Church, line 9, for ' The church contains 
a good organ by Holditch, London,' read * A new organ 



has been built by Mr W. G. Vowles, of Bristol, at a 
cost of £500 ' ; page 126, Town Council, for Mayor—' C. 
S. Willshire, Esq.,' read ' W. Avery, Esq. ; ' in North Ward, 
to W. Avery, G. Brown, and J. E. Baylis, for ' 1878,' read 
' 1881 ' ; in South Ward, to W. Fletcher, for ' 1878,' read 
' 1881,' and for 'J. L Knill and J. D. Young, 1878,' insert 
'J. G. Hiern and J. Martin, 1881:' 

BiDEFORD, page 151, to Town Council, for Mayor — 
'James Joce, Esq.,' read ' Thomas Pollard, Esq.' 

Bishop's Teignton, page 163, in Director)/, insert 
* Carpenter C. F. proprietor of Health Resort.' 

Brixham, page 181, insert 'The Local Board District 
was formed on December 9, 1862. Mr C. Clarke, sur- 
veyor, sanitary inspector, collector, and water bailiff; G. 
C. Searle, Esq., medical officer of health, and C. T. Adams, 
Esq , treasurer' ; page 182, to the Markets, omit ' are well 
supplied with provisions'; page 182, insert 'On the 
night of January 10, 1866, a fleet of 64 British and 
foreign merchant vessels was anchored in Torbay, and on 
the 11th upwards of 40 vessels were driven from their 
anchors, and wrecked or stranded. More than a hundred 
lives are believed to have been lost, and in the churchyard 



AddeiKla et Oorrig-enda, 



15 



is a monument to 29 men who were buried there. It was 
erected by the Brixham Sailors' Eelief Committees, who 
applied to the purpose the surplusof a sum of £3211 9s, bd., 
which had been subscribed for the widows and orphans.' 
In -OiVec^ry, pages 184 to 188, omit ' Wilson Thomas ' ; 
insert 'Nanscawen Richard Hawkins, chief officer of 
Coastguard; h 14 Fore street'; omit 'Turner & Co.'; 
insert ' Tanner Bros, clothiers, 68 Bolton street,' and 
• Tanner Joseph (Bros.) ; h 68 Bolton street'; omit ' Price 
Kev Recs Charles ' ; insert ' Pool Rev John, curate ; h 
King s quay.' 

BucKFASTLEiGH, iu Directory, page 196, insert 'Hole 
Captain William Henry.' 

CoLEBiDGE, page 231, to School Board, to 'Richard 
Densham,' add 'jun.'; for 'Killand,' read 'Kelland'; and 
for 'F. J. Isaac,' read 'William Leach.' 

CoivrpTON GiFFORD, in Directory, page 237, to 'Holmes 
Rev Peter,' add '(Exors. of).' 

Dartingtox, page 255, insert, ' The old church, being 
Very much dilapidated, is now being taken down, and a 
new church is now being erected in a more central posi- 
tion, near the Parsonage House. The foundation stone 
was laid on July 2, 1878, and it is expected that the 
edifice will be completed in the spring of 1879. Mr. 
Pearson, of London, is the architect. The tower of the old 
church will be allowed to stand.' 

Dartmouth, page 258, to Post Office information, add 
'There is now an additional day mail to London at 10.10 
a.m. ;' page 255, insert, ' On July 23, 1878, the Prince and 
Princess of Wales visited Dartmouth and the "Britannia" 
training ship;' page 257, insert 'On September 14, 1878, 
a destructive fire broke out on the premises of Messrs. 
Redway & Son, Sand Quay.' 

Devonport, page 273, for Deputy-Commissary-General 
*W. H. H. Scott,' read ' Charles Mills Molony;' page 272, 
line 47, after 'water,' insert 'In October, 1878, a serious 
landslip occurred, the ridge of rock which separates the 
new dock and the No. 4 or North Dock having given way;' 
page 271, Town Council, to W. H. Ching, J. H. Filmer, 
£. G. L. Street, Wm. Mogg, J. Beer and R. Williams, for 
'1878,' read ' 1881 ' ; f or ' Wm. Crossing, 1878,' read ' John 
Perry, 1881'; for 'John McKay, 1878,' read 'William 
Whitby, 1881.' 

Devonshire History, page 38, to List of School Boards, 
add 'East Down, five members, elected October, 1878; 
Ashburton, seven members, elected July 11, 1878.' 

Devonshire Trades Directory, in Corn Millers, page 
922, for Blatchford ' Geo.,' read ' Geo. W. ; ' for ' Carthen' 
John, read ' Carthew ;' for Chaffe Nicholas * F,' read ' S ;' 
page 923, insert 'Harris Russell, Parkwood road, Tavi- 
stock ; ' and ' Johns William, Taviton mills, Tavistock ; ' 
page 924, for Norman ' John,' read ' John J. ; ' for Rice 
' Henry,' read ' Thomas Henry ; ' insert ' Tarr Peter, 
Heanton Punchardon, Barnstaple;' to Uglow John, for 
' North Rewe, Exeter,' read ' Culm John, Rewe, Exeter ; ' 
in Appraisers, page 865, insert ' North Edward, Hemyock, 
Wellington (Somerset) ;' in Auctioneers, page 867, insert 
'Parsons Samson, Lower square, Holsworthy;' in J5feCi^- 
s?/w<A5, page 881, for Jackson 'J.'cSc Son, read 'G. ;' in 
Booksellers, page 885, insert 'Searle William, 7 Fleet 
street, Torquay (^See Advertisement)'; in Etigr aver s, -pagQ 
935, to Searle W. for ' Higher ter.' read ' 7 Fleet street'; 
in Estate Agents, page 936, to Lidstone F. B. for ' 25 South 
street,' read ' 16 Queen street'; in Fire, ^r. Offices, page 
990, in Royal, to F. B. Lidstone, for ' 25 South street,' read 
* 16 Queen street.' 

East Down, page 311, insert ' A School Board has been 
formed, and consists of the Rev. Thomas F. Arthur (chair- 
man) and Messrs. Gerrard Gammon Granville (vice), John 
Burnell, Ebenezer Jones, and James Mayne.' 

Egg Bucklanb, in Directory, page 314, for Elliot 
'John James,' read 'James John.' 

Exeter Directory, page 418, for 'Kelly' Augustus, 
read 'Keily ' ; pages 380 and 425, for * Pasmore, Savery & 



Bladon,| read 'Pasmore, Savery & Pasmore' ; page 423, to 
Mousell Brothers, for ' 17 Sidwell street,' read 'London 
Inn square'; page 410, for ' Ellis Brothers,' read ' Ellis, 
Depree & Tucker.' 

Exeter History, page 336, insert ' The " Deer Stalker," 
a group in bronze by Mr. E. B. Stephens, which has been 
exhibited at the Royal Academy, has been presented to 
the city, and erected on a granite pedestal in front of 
the green in Bedford Circus' ; page 331, insert ' The cor- 
poration is considering a proposal to form a large drainage 
area down the whole valley of the Exe, and to construct a 
sewer to receive the drainage of Tiverton, CuUompton, 
Crediton, Exeter, Topsham, Lympstone, and Exmouth, 
and finally discharge the whole in the sea at Straight Point, 
Exmouth. The estimated cost is £200 000 ' ; page 346, to 
St. James' Church, insert ' A new chancel with north and 
south aisles and choir, and priests' vestry, was completed 
in November, 1878. The East window is filled with painted 
glass in memory of the late rector (Rev. A. Buckeridge) ' ; 
page 332, to City Council, for Mayor ' H. D. Thomas, Esq.' 
read ' W. H. Ellis, Esq.' ; and for Sheriff ' W. Cotton, Esq.' 
read ' Samuel Ward, Esq.' 

Exmouth, page 441, line 10 from bottom, for 'Alexan- 
der,' read ' Alexandra.' In Directory, pages 443-8, to 
Assembly Rooms, for ' Henry H. Cooper,' read ' W. Tre- 
hane ' ; for Benmore Mr. George ' Philip,' read ' Phillips ' ; 
to Bickford J. T. omit ' stamp distributor' ; forBIackmore 
'Mr,' read 'Mrs'; for Bremridge 'Mr,' read 'Mrs'; to 
Burridge Folliott, for ' 8 High street,' read ' and victualler, 
North Country Inn, High street; ' omit ' Colmer G. R.' 
and ' Cooper H. H.' ; for 'Dipstall' Mr. E, read 'Dips- 
tale'; omit ' Halse John'; for 'Humphryes' Wm. read 
'Humphries' ; for 'Lancabeer' John, read 'Langabeer'; 
to ' Lipscomb R. H. ' add ' (on Thursdays) ' ; insert 
' Percell Rev. W. H. D'Olier, vicar of Littleham-cum-Ex- 
mouth, Trefusis terrace'; to Perriam Frederick, painter 
&c., for '15 Parade,' read 'The Cross'; omit * Rocke 
Rev. T. J.' ; to Rolle Estate Office, add '(on Thursdays) ' ; 
for ' Slowman ' Mr. read ' Sloman ' ; for ' Webber — ,' read 
' Webber Mrs Charlotte.' 

Frithelstock, page 452, line 8, after ' John How, Esq.,' 
insert ' Mrs. Pulman ' ; line 10, after ' tower,' insert ' and 
has four good- toned bells'; line 11, for 'Martin,' read 'Mar- 
tyn ' ; line 12, omit ' who has a good parsonage house ' ; 
line 15, for '£220,' read '£420'; and for 'sixty,' read 
'eighty'; in Post Office information, for ' Farringdon,' 
read ' Torrington' ; and after 'Wall Letter Box,' insert 
' at Stone.' In Directory, omit * Abbott Miss Mary ' ; page 
453, omit ' Friendship Joshua ' ; insert 'Walters — , car- 
penter, Frithelstock Stone.' 

Great Torrington, page 457, to Town Council, for 
Mayor, ' James Baldwin, Esq.' read ' Henry Leverton 
Mallett, Esq.' 

Halberton, page 462, to list of members of School 
Board, add ' Mr. W. T. Twose,' who was elected on Sep- 
tember 19, 1878, vice Mr. James Gonham. 

Harberton, page 465, insert ' A new Wesleyan Chapel 
to accommodate 110 persons, has been erected at a cost of 
£320, and was opened on August 29, 1878.' 

Heanton Punchardon, page 471, to Sir F. M.Williams, 
Bart., add ' Exors. of,' he having died on September 3, 1878. 

HoNiTON, page 484, to Town Council, for Mayor, 'John 
Knight, Esq.' read ' F. C. Glanvill, Esq.' 

Huntsham, page 489, line 1, for ' 5 miles from Dulver- 
ton,' read ' 4 miles from Morebath ' ; line 7, omit ' ivy- 
mantled'; line 13, after 'screen,' insert 'now placed 
against the east wall of the chancel'; line 14, for 'and 
bear the date 1534,' read 'and the pulpit bears the date 
1534' ; line 16, after 'built,' insert ' partly out of money 
left,' and for ' Rev. D.' read ' Rev. Dr. Troyte ' ; to Post 
Office, for ' 5.50 p.m.' read ' 6.' In Directory, for Troyte 
Chas. ' Acland,' read 'Arthur'; to White Wm. for 'High 
road,' read ' High wood.' 

Ipplepen, page 502, to School Board, for 'Messrs. 



16 



A.<l<leiida et Corrig-enda, 



Eowden, Ilillyer, and Smith,' read * Messrs, John Bowden, 
John Smith, jun. and William Sowton.' 

Jacoustowk, page 504, line 13, for '£210,' road * £220 ' ; 
line lo, for ' £174,' r^ad ' £160.' 

Kenn, page 506, lino 8, for * Carswell,' read ' Kerswell.' 
In Diredori/, omit * to ISirmiugham Wm. ; for 'Coombos,' 
road ' Coombs'; for ' Ilallott ' I'Vodk. read 'Ilollett'; for 
' Jobb,' road 'Job'; to Lee Richard, for 'Yews,' read 
' Yeos ' ; for ' Ley Mr J. IL' read ' Ley John Henry, Esq. 
J.P.' ; for 'Mann' John, road 'Mayne'; to Pago John, 
omit 'builder'; to Paul P. Z. for ' Zacharia,' read 
' Zachariah' ; to Sanford Joseph, omit .' steward to J. II. 
Ley, Esq.' and omit 'Little Woodlands'; omit * to 
Sleaman Eichard ; to Strong J., for ' Pinnicombe,' read 
'Ponnycombe' ; to Tapper George, for ' Budley,' road 
'Budleigh' ; for 'Woodland' John, road ' Woolland' ; insert 
'^Majne William, builder' ; 'Woolland Moses, farmer, 
Kerswell'; 'Whidborne, Gr. F. farmer, The Hill.' 

KiNGSBRiDGE, pago 510, in list of magistrates, line 16 
from the bottom, for ' Todd,' road 'Toll.' 

Little Tobrington, page 526, line 1, omit 'nearly'; 
line 6, after ' belong to,' insert ' Mrs Guille and Mrs 
Hawortli'; page 527, line 7, omit 'other'; line 8, after 
'family,' insert 'the Rolle family, to the Rev. P.Fisher, a 
former incumbent, and to the Rev, P. Glubb, tlie late in- 
cumbent for 50 years ' ; line 14, for ' £4,' read '£4 65.'; 
line 20, for ' E.' read ' A. E.' Dayman ; to Post Office 
information add ' Letters are received at 8.30 a.m. and 
despatched at 5.30 p.m., Sundays excepted.' In Directory, 
to Oawsey H., for ' Woodland,' read ' Woodlands ' ; omit 
' Coach C ; for ' Coates ' E. A. read ' Gates ' ; to Fairchild 
J., for ' Hempshaw,' read ' Hunshaw' ; to Guard E., for 
' Horer,' read ' Omer ' ; to Heale John, add ' Cleeve ' ; for 
'Hole' Henry, read 'Heale'; for 'Johnson G. J. The 
Cross,' read 'Johnson J. G., Cross '; to Judd William, for 
Higher ' Halham,' read 'Holham'; for 'Rockley,' read 
' Rockey ' ; to Routcliff Samuel, for ' Bradridge,' read 
' Broadridge ' ; to Snow A., for 'The Firs,' read 'Frizen- 
ham ' ; for Weeks ' William,' read ' John ' ; insert 'Blake 
Mrs, infant schoolmistress,' and ' Banbery Mr, farmer, 
Cockshilly.' 

LoDDiswELL, page 527, line 10, for ' James ' Peek, Esq., 
read 'William.' 

MusBURY, page 550, line 4, for Capt. J. T. ' Hill,' read 
' Still.' 

Newton Abbot, in Directory, page 565, for ' Saltau,' 
John, Esq. read ' Soltau.' 

Parracombe, p. 596, line 19, insert ' The new church 
was consecrated on October 19, 1878.' 

Plymouth, page 611, to Parish Church of Charles, add 
' Steps are being taken to provide a vicarage house for this 
parish ; ' page 607, to list of Public Officers, add ' Borough 
Surveyor — Mr Henry Alty ;' pago 609, insert ' The statue 
of the late Alderman Alfred Rooker, which has been 
erected facing the Guildhall, was unveiled and presented, 
by the subscribers, to the town, in September 1878; ' page 
617, insert 'The Plymouth Coffee and Cocoa House Com- 
pany have opened an establishment in Bedford Street, 
which is to be called the Borough Arms ; ' page 608, to 
Guildhall, line 3 from the bottom, insert ' A fine organ, 
built by Mr. Henry Willis of London, at a cost of £2100, 
has been placed in the hall, and was opened by Dr. Stainer 
on October 22, 1878'; page 607, to Town Council, for 
Mayor, ' Joseph Wills, Esq.' read ' Edward James, Esq.' ; 
Sutton Ward, for ' T. B. Harvey, 1878,' read ' G. L. 
Tucker, 1881 ' ; and to E. H. James, for ' 1878,' read ' 1881.' 

Plympton St. Mary, Directory, in page 663, to ' Phil- 
lipps-Treby, Col. P. W.' add ' J.P.' 

Plymstock, page 671, insert 'Old Trinity Chapel at 
Oreston, has been converted into a Workmen's Hall, and 
was opened in November 1878.' 

RoBOROUGH, page 681, to 'Gurney Rev. W. W.' add 
' (Exors of).' 

Sampfobd Coxjetenay, in Directory, page 696, to Day- 



mont John and Page Richard, for 'Cliston,' read 'Clisson;' 
for Finch Mrs ' J<]mlon,' road ' Emily.' 

South Pool, page 726, line 13, for 'A. P. Hallifax, 
Esq.' read 'Admiral Parker ;' in Directory, for ' Gumming' 
Edward and Richard, road 'Cuming;' page 727, omit 
' Langlor John ; ' for ' Mitcheimore,' read ' Michelraore ;' 
to Pcitoy Ambrose, for ' Westerncombe,' read ' Wester- 
combe;' omit 'Stidworthy Richard;' to Carriers, add 
' Ann Mitcheimore, to Kingsbridgo, Monday, Wednesday, 
Friday, and Saturday 

South Tawton, in Directory, page 728, to Knapman 
John, for ' farmer,' read ' yeoman.' 

Stoke Fleming, page 733, add 'A new clock, the gift 
of Mrs. Clark, has been added to the church.' 

Stonehousb (East), page 738, line 24, after ' leases,' 
insert 'determinable on the death of three lives, but'; 
after ' fines,' insert ' on the death of each life ' ; line 25, 
omit ' by every succeeding tenant' ; line 31, for ' 1783,' 
read '1856'; page 739, line 22 from the bottom, omit 
'from which the Royal Marines practise artillery firing' ; 
page 740, line 31, for 'Furstone,' read 'Firestone'; page 
741, to list of Pillar Letter Boxes, add ' and one at St. 
George's Hall.' In Directory, page 747, insert ' Sweet 
William, tailor and outfitter, 6 Union street.' 

Sutcombe, page 749, line 1, for ' Waldon,' read ' Wal- 
dron ' ; to School Board, omit ' William Carter & Daniel 
Allin'; and insert 'Henry Copp.' In Directory, page 750, 
for ' Ogden Walter,' read ' Winfield. J.' 

Tavistock, page 757, insert 'A Musical Society was 
formed in October, 1878, of which the Rev. T. Gibbons is 
president, and Mr Vincent, conductor.' 

Teignmouth, page 769, to West Teignmouth Church, 
add ' The organ is being repaired and improved by Mr. 
Dicker, of Exeter, and will be placed in the chancel. The 
cost will be about £220. It is also intended to renovate 
the church, and it is contemplated to have a peal of bells, 
towards which £200 has been promised.' 

Tiverton, pago 784, to Blundeli's School, insert ' The 
School is about to be built at Horsdon'; page 782, to 
Councillors, Lowman Ward, omit ' Coleby E. 1878, and 
Cosway W. 1878,' and insert ' Cosway W. 1881, and 
John Chanin, 1881 ' ; to West Exo Ward, for 'Davey G. 
G. 1878,' read 'George Goss, 1881'; and to Pinkston S. 
for ' 1878,' read ' 1881 ; ' for Mayor, ' F. Snell, Esq.' read 
E. M, Winton, Esq. 

Torquay, page 802, insert 'The Torquay and South 
Devon Coffee Tavern Co. (lim.), have opened a coff«e 
tavern (the " Compton Castle") at 105 Lower Union street. 
The cost of fitting-up, &c., was nearly £500. Mr. Poor, 
of Devonport, is the manager.' 

ToTNES, page 821, to Town Council, for Mayor 'Mr 
Alderman J. Roe,' read ' J. P. F. W. Hains, Esq.' 

Wibecombe - IN - the - Moor, pago 849, line 7, for 
'Jourdan,' read 'Jordan'; line 12, for ' Nolsworthy,' 
read 'Notsworthy' ; lino 22, for 'M.A.' read ' B.A.' ; line 
26, for 'Leusden,' read 'Leusdon'; line 28, for 'Mrs C. 
R. Larpent,' read 'the Dean and Chapter of Exeter' ; line 
29, for 'Percival Jackson,' read ' F. J. Bryant'; line 31, 
for 'two,' read 'four' cottages; line 32, for '13^.' read 
' 10.S.' ; and insert 'A neiv scheme has recently been 
issued ' ; to School Board, add ' Mallaby Firth, Esq., of 
Ashburton, is their clerk' ; line 38, for 'where remains 
of the old family residence are still to be seen,' read ' in 
a mansion called North Hall, of which no traces exist at 
present.' In Directory, omit ' Andrews Eli ' ; to Blackall 
Dr, for 'Joseph,' read 'Thomas'; page 850, to Hext 
John, for ' Corundonford,' read ' Corndonford ' ; for ' Jack- 
son Rev Percival,' read ' Bryant Rev F. J.' ; omit ' Ken- 
naway Mr W.' ; insert ' Balsam Mr, Pitts park, and 
Torquay'; to Leaman John, for ' Bavenly,' read 'Baveney'; 
for ' Norsworthy ' Richard, read ' Nosworthy ' ; for 
'Waldrom' Richard, read ' Waldron,' and for 'Bonhill,' 
read ' Bunhill ' ; to Warren Charles, for ' Pondswortby,' 
read ' Ponsworth^.' . 



GENERAL HISTOEY AND DESCEIPTION 



OF THE 



COUNTY OF DEVON. 



DEVONSHIRE, the largest county in England save Yorkshire and Lincolnshire, and the most 
western except Cornwall, ranks among the first in agricultural importance, and is the ninth in amount 
of population. It has mines of copper, tin, lead, and iron ores ; inexhaustible quarries of durable 
granite, slate, lime, building stone, marble, &c. ; and is one of the oldest seats of the lace and coarse 
woollen manufactures, of which it still retains a considerable share, though greatly reduced since 
last century by the machinery and factories of the midland and northern counties. Occupying the 
whole breadth of the central portion of that great south-western peninsula of the British Island 
which juts out between the Bristol and English Channels, and having more than 150 miles of sea 
coast, and some fine navigable rivers and broad estuaries, Devonshire is one of the naost important 
maritime counties in the kingdom. It has many seaports, spacious harbours, and noble bays, and the 
great naval station, Plymouth and Devonport, is at its south-western angle, adjoining Cornwall. On 
its coast are many handsome and delightful bathing places, the principal of which are Torquay. 
Teignmouth, Exmouth, Sidmouth, Dawlish, and Budleigh Salterton, on the south-east coast, cele- 
brated for their mild and genial climates ; and Ilfracombe, and Westward Ho, on the north coast. 
Devonshire contains 30 market towns, including five parliamentary boroughs, and its large and 
handsome capital — the city of Exeter — which is a county of itself. In picturesque beauties, embracing 
all the associations of hill and dale, wood and water, fertile valleys, elegant mansions with sylvan 
parks and pleasure grounds, lofty moorland hills and dells, and extensive land and marine 
views, it yields to no county in England. In its greatest length and breadth it extends about 70 
miles east and west, and north and south ; and though of an irregular figure, it may be said to occupy 
(if we include its large bays) nearly all the area of a circle 70 miles in diameter, lying between the 
parallels of 50 deg. 12 min. and 51 deg. 14 min. north latitude ; and 3 deg. and 4 deg. 30 min. west 
longitude. The boundaries of Devon are Somersetshire and part of Dorsetshire on the north-east ; 
the Bristol Channel on the north, the river Tamar, which divides it from Cornwall, on the west ; and 
the English Channel on the south and south-east, where its coast line is more than 100 miles in extent, 
and is beautifully diversified and broken by numerous bays, estuaries, creeks, promontories, and 
headlands ; presenting in many places high rocky cliffs, fine sandy shores, pretty towns, villages, and 
villas, and busy ports and fishing stations. The north coast, including the large semicircular sweep 
of Barnstaple Bay, is more than 50 miles in extent. By 7 & 8 Vict. c. 61 (1844) every detached 
part of a county became, on October 20, 1844, for all jnirposes, part of the county to which it had 
been annexed by the Boundary Act (2 '& 3 Will. IV. c. 64 s. 26). This Act had enacted (1834) 
that every detached part of a county in England and Wales should be for election purposes part of 
the county or division by which it was surrounded, or if bounded by more than one part of that 
county with Avhich it had the longest common boundary. On October 20, 1844, by the Act which 
received the Royal Assent on August 6 of that year, Stockland and Dalwood parishes were severed 
from Dorset, and part of Bridgerule parish from Cornwall, and added to Devon ; these places had an 
aggregate area of 8568 acres and population of 1941 in 1851 ; on the other hand Thorncombe parish, 
Beerhall tithing, and Vaultershome tithing Avere severed from Devon, and the two former added lo 
Dorset, and the last to Cornwall ; the area of Thorncombe is 4896 (that of the two others is not 
known), and the aggregate population of the three places in 1851 was 2546 : thus there was a net gain 
to the county of 3672 acres, but a loss in population of 605. The County is in the Province of Can- 
terbury and Western Circuit, and had 601,374 inhabitants in 1871. The area is 1,655,161 acres, or 
2589 square miles. The Diocese of Exeter now comprises nearly all the county of Devon. 



18 



History of l>evoiisliire. 



The following table shows the houses and population of the County (proper) of Devon at each 
of the Censuses of 1801-71 :— 





♦ Houses \ 


Population 


Increase of Population 
between the Censuses 




Inhabited 


Uninhabited 


Building 


Persona 


Males 


Females 


No. 6f Persons 


Rate per 
Cent. 

12 
15 
13 

8 

6 

3 

3 


1801 
1811 
1821 
1831 
1841 
1851 
1861 
1871 


67,806 
62,171 
71,349 
81,913 
94,608 
98,387 
101,253 
105,200 


3,241 
2,473 
3,050 
4,200 
6,116 
6,014 
5,560 
6,387 


? 

765 
759 
1,381 
903 
751 
678 
647 


340,308 
382,778 
438,417 
493,908 
,532,959 
567,098 
584,373 
601,374 


156,085 
179,452 
207,936 
235,619 
252,616 
269,583 
279,411 
285,248 


184,223 
203,326 
230,481 
258,289 
280,343 
297,515 
304,962 
316,126 


42,470 
55,639 
55,491 
39,051 
34,139 
17,275 
17,001 


Increase in 70 

years 


47,394 


3,146 ? 


261,066 


129,163 


131,903 


261,066 


77 



Means of Communication — Eoads. — The highway returns show an extent of roads in Devon far 
greater than any of any other county in England, except Yorkshire. In the three years ending 
October, 1814, the turnpike roads and paved streets were estimated at 776 miles; and all other 
highways, for wheeled carriages, at 5936 miles ; the total expenditure on which was £44,658. In 
1836, there were in the county 29 turnpike trusts, the total income of which was £62,024 6s. Id., of 
which £11,187 4s. Acl was expended on improvements. In 1839, the expenditure on 6898 miles of 
highway was £37,356. The great roads which cross the county from Somerset and Dorset, to 
Cornwall, meet at Exeter. The roads which radiate from that city and the principal towns in the 
county, and the cross roads interlacing them, are very numerous. From the high fences and 
narrowness of many of the roads, together with the perpetual recurrence of hills and valleys, all 
extensive prospects are often shutout ; but on the tops of the hills, and where there are no enclosures, 
there are many delightful views over the beautiful vales and coasts in their vicinity. Devonshire 
abounds in all parts with the best materials for the formation of good roads, and for keeping them in 
good repair- The principal roads are generally in excellent condition ; but many of the others are 
narrow, with high banks and hedges, and have the disadvantage of frequent steep ascents, even where 
they might have been easily carried along the sides of the hills, or through the valleys, with but little 
loss in distance, and a great saving in labour, and the wear and tear of carriages. The turnpike 
trusts are being gradually abohshed, as Devonshire comes under the Highway Amendment Act 
of July 29, 1864. In 1869, a committee appointed by the Devonshire Chamber of Agricul- 
ture reported upon the working and efficiency of the Highway Boards throughout the county, and 
gave it as their opinion that the cost per mile under the present system considerably exceeds that 
under the old. They found that the 25 districts into which the county is now divided contain 5831 
miles of road, that the average number of miles in each district is 242, and that, generally speaking, 
the amount paid for salaries' and common charges does not vary in any very important degree, and 
amounts to about 13s. 3^d. per mile. The roads are now thoroughly macadamised, principally wdth 
broken limestone, of which there is a plentiful supply. ( See also page 29.) 

Railways. — There are in the county two old railways, or tram roads, on which waggons are 
drawn by horses. One of these is the Dartm.oor and Plymouth Tramway, which extends about 18 
miles southward from the extensive granite quarries, near Prince Town, in Dartmoor. It was made 
under an Act passed in 1819, and amended by two other Acts, passed in 1820 and 1821. It has a 
short branch to the lime works at Catdown, and to Sutton Pool, at Plymouth. The other mineral 
line is on the other side of Dartmoor, and extends about six miles, from Haytor Granite Works to the 
Stover Canal. By means of this tram road and canal immense quantities of granite were formerly 
carried down to Teignmouth for exportation, and coal, manure, &c., taken up for the use of the 
neighbourhood ; but it has now for some years been disused. 

Devonshire is intersected with railways ; the South Devon line, which is now worked by 
the Great Western, runs along the coast to Plymouth, and has branches south to Torquay and Dart- 
mouth, and north to Moreton-Hampstead. From Totnes, the Totnes and Ashburton Eailway passes 
by the banks of the river Dart, and has stations at Staverton and Buckfastleigh. From Devonport 
there is direct communication with Torrington,-by means of a railway skirting nearly the whole of the 
western side of the Forest of Dartmoor, and joining the North Devon line at Yeoford. The rail from 
Exeter to Exmouth connects those places, and the London and South Western reaches Exeter from 
Waterloo Bridge, and has a branch to Seaton, and another through Ottery St. Mary to Sidmouth. 
The Teign Valley line from Jews Bridge (near Chudleigh) is in course of construction, and railways 



History of Devonsliire. . 19 

are also contemplated from Exeter to Chagford, and from Prince Town to Horrabridge, in order to 
connect Plymouth with the Capital of the Moor. The Devonshire lines are now all virtually worked 
either by the Great Western, or the London and South "Western Company. 

The lines of communication in Mid Devon are fast returning to the ancient trunk routes, via 
Bristol to Launceston and Falmouth ; and via Exeter and Okehampton to all the mining districts. 
In a year or two the South Devon route will be left to invalids and pleasure seekers. Ashbury 
station, on the Mid Devon line, is about to be opened ; also Halwell and Holsworthy — and so all the 
ancient history of sixteen centuries will be revived. At Ashbury is the junction of the North Devon 
and the Mid Cornwall lines, and thus direct communication is afforded to London and the Midlands. 
While for centuries Broadbury Castle was held by the Keltic power against the Romans, Okehampton 
by the Saxons against the British, and Exeter by the Normans against the Saxons, in all this long 
period the stream of intercourse through Mid Devon equalled that through North and South Devon 
put together. 

Rivers. — The principal rivers of this Coimty are the Axe, Otter, Exe, Teign, Dart, Erme, 
Yealme, Plym, Tamar, Tavy, and Torridge — all of which are more or less navigable. The chief 
of the smaller ones are the Bovey, Bray, Coney, Coly, Creedy, Culm, Little Dart, Dawl, Kenn, 
Lemmon, Lyd, Lynn, Mole, Oke, East and West Okement, Sid, Tindal, Tynhay, Tale, Walden, Wray, 
and the Yeo. In Dartmoor, the great tableland of Devon, some of its principal and many of its 
smaller rivers have their sources ; all radiating from within the circuit of a few miles, on this central 
fountain head, and flowing down the slopes of its high summits to almost every point in the compass. 
Of the most important of these, the Dart — the ' Durius ' of Richard of Cirencester, in old writings 
called the ' Darant ' — (and hence the name Dartmoor), runs south-east from Okement Hill ; about 
three miles below Two-Bridges it receives the waters of a large tributary known as the * East Dart,' 
and thence under the name of the ' Double Dart ' flows in a winding course to Totnes, and at the 
end of about 35 miles gradually widens into a deep navigable estuary, and falls into the English 
Channel at Dartmouth Haven. Its course is tidal for 10| miles. The East and West Okement, 
though they rise near the same hill as the Dart, take an opposite course, and unite at Okehampton, 
whence the stream runs northward to the Torridge, a large river which rises in the north-west angle 
• of the county, and after taking a very tortuous course, flows past Torrington to Bidef ord, where it 
becomes navigable for large vessels, and, after a course of 45 miles, issues into an estuary at Barn- 
staple Bay, common to it and the Taw. Its course is tidal for about 15 miles. The Taw rises in 
Dartmoor, and flows northward past Chulmleigh, where it meets the Little Dart, and then, pursuing 
a north-west course, receives various tributary streams, among which is the Mole, from Exmoor and 
South Molton ; and after a course of about 45 miles, flows, by Barnstaple, into the Bristol Channel, 
through the same estuary as the Torridge. It is tidal in its course for 11-| miles, and large vessels 
come up to Barnstaple. The Tavy rises in the centre of Dartmoor, and flows past Tavistock to the 
Tamar, a large river which rises near the north-western extremity of the county, and flows south- 
ward to Plymouth Sound, forming, with a few slight exceptions, the boundary of Devon and 
Cornwall, in its course of nearly 50 miles, in which it is navigable to Launceston, whence a canal 
extends northward in the valley to Bude Haven, with a branch to Holsworthy, &c. There is also a 
canal from the Tamar to Tavistock. The Teign originates from two branches, called the East and 
West Teign, both rising in the most elevated district of Dartmoor. The former is the main branch, 
and flows eastward between the Dart and the Exe, from Chagford to Dunsford, and thence southward 
to Chudleigh, below which it receives the West Teign, or the Wray. Passing southward to Newton 
Bushell, the Teign turns eastward, and runs in a fine estuary to Teignmouth, about five miles below, 
where its waters are lost in the English Channel. The Plym rises in Dartmoor, and runs southward 
to Plymouth, in a course of about 15 miles. It mingles its waters with those of the Tamar, in 
Plymouth Sound. The Erme and the Avon, between the Plym and the Dart, are also considerable 
rivers, rising in Dartmoor, and flowing southward to the English Channel. The Exe, the ancient 
Isca, the most important river of Devonshire, as noticed with Exeter, has its sources in the forest 
of Exmoor, in Somersetshire, within a few miles of the Bristol Channel, and about 36 miles 
north by west of Exeter, to which it flows in a sinuous course, by Dulverton, Tiverton, and 
Exeter to Topsham, where it expands into a noble estuary, extending nearly six miles, to Exmouth, 
where it falls into the English Channel. It is navigable for ships to Topsham, and from thence there 
is a broad and deep canal to Exeter. The whole course of the Exe, including all its windings, is 
about 70 miles. Archdeacon Hale observes, ' that some few miles from where the Exe rises, towards 
the west, is a large standing lake, always full, the depth of the bottom of which is unknown.' It 
opens a subterranean passage, and breaks out again a few miles distant. Mr. Polwhele conjectures 
that this lake is the crater of an extinct volc^mo. The principal tributaries of the Exe are the 
Batiiam, Loman, Creedy, Clist, Culme, and Kenn. The Batham, rising near Clayhanger, falls into 
the Exe about a mile below Bampton. The Loman, rising in Somersetshire, passes by Up Lowman 
and Craze Lowman, and falls into the Exe at Tiverton. The Creedy, which rises near Cruwys- 

■n2 



^20 History ol" Devonshire. 

Morchard, passes near Crediton, Newton St. Cyres, &c., and falls into ihe Exe, near Cowley Bridge. 
The Clist, after passing through the six parishes to which it gives name, falls into the Exe, at 
Topsham. The Culme, rising in Somersetshire, passes Church Stanton and liemiock, through 
Culmstock and UiFculme, near Cullompton and Stoke Canon, and falls into the Exe, near Cowley 
Bridge. The Kenn rises near Dunchidiock, and, running by Kenford and Kenn, falls into the Exe, 
between Kenton and Powderham. The little river Yeo falls into the Creedy, near Crediton. 
Another Yeo (a tributary of the Dart) was anciently called the 'Ashburn' (hence Ash burton) ; it 
rises under Rippon Tor, flows through Ashburton, and meets the Dart after a course of about six 
miles, at Buckfastleigh. The Axe rises in Dorsetshire, and near Ford Abbey becomes for a while 
the boundary of the two counties ; thence it runs to Axminster, and, after passing between Colyton 
and Musbury, falls into the sea between Seaton and Axmouth. The smaller rivers Yarty and Colv 
fall into the Axe. The Otter rises in Somersetshire, near Otterford, and flows thence to Up Ottery, 
Honiton, Ottery St. Mary, and Otterton, below which it opens into a short but broad estuary, which 
terminates in the English Channel, near Budleigh- Salterton. The small river Sid rises near Sidbury, 
and, passing through Sidford, falls into the sea at Sidmouth. The IIarburn, rising on the edge of 
Dartmoor, runs near Harberton, and falls into the Dart, near Ashprington. The small rivers which 
fall into the Tamar are the Wick, Derle, Deer, Cary, Claw, Lyd, and Tavy, on the western side of 
the county. The little river Waldron, which rises near Brad worthy, runs near Sutcombe and 
Milton Damerel, and falls into the Torridge, near Bradford. The Little Dart rises near Eackenford, 
and passing near Witheridge, Worlington, and Chulmleigh, falls into the Taw below the latter place. 
The small river Bray rises near Parracombe, and passing East Buckland, King's Nympton, &c., falls 
into the Taw, near Newnham Bridge. The Lyn rises on Exmoor, and, after a course of ten miles, 
tails into the Bristol Channel, near Linton. 

Navigable Kivers, Creeks, and Canals. — The Exe is navigable for large vessels up to Topshara, 
whence there is a canal for sloops and barges up to Exeter. The Teign is navigable to Newton 
Bushell, between which and King's Teignton it is joined by the Teigngrace Canal. The Dart is 
navigable from Dartmouth to Totnes. A fine estuary runs inland about five miles, from Salcombe to 
Kingsbridge, and is navigable for sloops and barges. This estuary has several navigable creeks, 
branching from each side, and affording the adjacent parishes the means of importing lime, sand, 
and other manures, and of exporting their produce. The Yealm is navigable for sloops and small 
brigs, to Kitley Quay. The Tamar is navigable to New Quay, twenty-four miles from Plymouth, for 
vessels of 130 to 140 tons, and up to Morwellham Quay, for vessels of 200 tons. The Plym is 
navigable at Catwater, near its mouth, for men of war ; and vessels of forty or fifty tons go up as far 
as Crabtree. The Torridge becomes navigable for boats at Wear GifFord, and for ships of large bur- 
then at Bideford. The Taw is navigable to Barnstaple, for vessels of 140 tons, and up to New 
Bridge for small craft ; but large vessels can anchor within three or four miles of Barnstaple. Exeter 
Canal is noticed with Exeter ; and the Grand Western Canal with Tiverton. The latter was in- 
tended to pass through a great part of Devon, but only extends to Tiverton. In 1792 an Act of 
Parliament was passed for making the Stover Canal, from the Railway of Haytor Granite Works, 
near Bovey Tracey, to the Teign, near Newton Abbot ; with a collateral cut to Chudleigh. The 
former was finished in 1794, but the latter not till 1843. (See Chudleigh and Newton Abbot,) The 
Tavistock Canal, to Morwellham Quay, on the Tamar, was constructed under the powers of an Act 
passed in 1803, but was not completed till J 817, as noticed with Tavistock. In 1819 an Act of 
Parliament was obtained for making the Bude Canal, from Bude Haven, on the Cornish coast, to the 
Tamar Valley, and thence eastward to Thornbury, &c., in Devon; and southward, doAvn the valley, 
to Launceston. At Burmsdon, a branch of this canal proceeds to Moreton Mill, and to a large 
reservoir on Longford Moor ; and from Veale a branch extends to Vorworthy. There are inclined 
planes, and a tunnel of considerable length, in its route to Thornbury. One of its chief objects is to 
facilitate the introduction of Welsh coal into Devon. 

The Climate of Devonshire is so mild on the southern coast that, in flourishing gardens, orange 
and lemon trees, myrtles, &c., grow in the open air, with little shelter during the winter. The 
laurels and bays of Devon are held to be the most beautiful evergreens in the world. Broad-leaved 
myrtle trees have grown here to the height of thirty feet, with branches spreading nearly from the 
roots, where the stalk or trunk was from 1-^ to 2 feet in circumference. Swallows have been seen 
feeding their young in the latter part of September ; and martins flying, during mild weather, at 
Christmas. The mean annual temperature, from eleven years' observation, was found to be 52 deg. 
5 rnin. ; but from its advanced position in the ocean, the climate of Devon is unquestionably a moist 
one, especially in the vicinity of the mountainous districts, where the air is often cold and damp. 
Even the mild south-eastern parts of the county are often pervaded by the ' Devonshire drizzle,' which 
is a rain so light as to deposit itself in a thick dew, attended by a grey cloudy sky ; but these drizzles 
seldom continue for an entire day, and the accompanying warm temperature takes from them the 
usual injurious effects of damp weather in colder climates. Indeed, the climate of Devon is con- 



History of* I>evoiisliijfe. 



21 



sidered by medical men to be so healthy and auspicious to invalids, that a residence within its 
bounds is generally advised, in preference even to Lisbon or the South of France. Epidemics occa- 
sionally prevail, and in 1849 the cholera was very fatal at Plymouth, Devonport, and some other 
places. 

County Divisions. — The division of the country into counties is of very ancient date, these 
divisions being mentioned in the laws of Ina, King of Wessex, in the seventh century. In the later 
Anglo-Saxon times we find a shire mote (or county court) held twice a year, and presided over by the 
alderman, or earl, and the bishop, its functions being judicial. The sheriff was the officer appointed 
by the king to cany out the decrees of the court, to levy distresses, take charge of prisoners, &c. 
The sheriff was at first only an assessor, but he afterwards became joint president, and, finally, sole 
president. This court survived the Norman Conquest, and Mr. Hallam thinks (' Middle Ages,' vol. ii. 
p. 277) it greatly contributed to fix the liberties of England by curbing the feudal aristocracy. The 
lord lieutenant of the county formerly had tlie management of the militia, yeomanry, and the volun- 
teers, and he ' still recommends persons for commissions or first appointments to the rank of cornet, 
- ensign, or lieutenant in those Ibrces ; and he is still charged with the duty of raising the militia by 
means of the ballot, whenever such a course may become necessary. He also recommends those of the 
gentry whom he deems fit to hold the appointments of deputy lieutenants or county magistrates. But 
his other powers and duties have been considerably diminished by the Regulation of the Forces Act, 
1871, as many have by that Act reverted to the Crown, and are now exercised by the Secretary for 
the War Department.' The Lord Warden of the Stannaries of this county and Cornwall has many of 
the powers of a lord lieutenant. 

Parliamentary Divisions, &c. — The county, by the Representation of the People Act, 1867, is 
now divided into North, South, and East Devon, and each division returns two members. Barn- 
staple is the capital of the Northern Division, and the other polling-places are Bideford, Crediton, 
Cullompton, Great Torrington, Ilfracombe, South Molton, and Tiverton ; Exeter of the Eastern 
Division, and the other polling-places are Ashburton, Honiton, and Newton Abbot ; and Plymouth 
of the Southern Division, and the other polling-places are Kingsbridge, Okehampton, and Tavistock. 
(The hundreds in each division are shown in the table on page 22.) The following table shows 
the territorial extent of each division, the number of houses, population, and electors in 1871 (ex- 
cluding represented city and boroughs) : — 





Acres 


Houses 


Population 


Electors 


Inhabited 


Uninhabited 


Building 


Persons 


Males 


Females 


East Devon . 
North Devon . 
South Devon . 


420,714 
652,346 
543,587 


31,724 

27,234 
19,977 


1,988 
1,688 
1,202 


217 
164 

79 


160,788 
130,775 
101,898 


73.950 
63,766 
60,431 


86,838 
67,009 
51,467 


10,199 
9,883 
8,160 

1 



Exeter is a represented city and returns two members. Plymouth, Devonport, Barnstaple, Tiverton, 
and Tavistock are Parliamentary boroughs, and the four first return each two members. The 
boroughs of Plympton, Okehampton, and Beeralston, together sending four members, were disfranchised 
by the Reform of 1832, previous to which the county sent twenty-six representatives. Tavistock, 
by the Act of 1867, lost one of its members, and by that of 1868 (the Scottish Reform Act), Ash- 
burton, Dartmouth, and Honiton were disfranchised. The Borough of Totnes has also ceased to 
return any members, and the total number of representatives from this county to the House of 
Commons is now 15. 

County Voters. — In the North Division there are now 9613 electors, in the South 8115, and 
in the East 10,376. Total, 28,104. The present members of Parliament are, for the Northern 
Division, Sir Stafford Northcote (Chancellor of the Exchequer) and Sir Thomas Dyke Acland; for 
the Eastern District, Sir Lawrence Palk and Sir J. H. Kennaway; and for the South Sir Massey 
Lopes and Mr. J. Carpenter Garnier. 

Borough Voters. — The City and County of the City of Exeter is at present representeJ by 
I\Ir. Arthur Mills and Mr. J. G. Johnson. There are 6645 electors. 

Plymouth has a constituency of 4750, and the members are Messrs. E. Bates and Sampson S. 
Lloyd. Devonport, represented by Messrs. John H. Puleston and George Edward Price, has 3560 
voters. Tiverton, with Sir J. H. Amery and the Right Honble. Wm. M. Massey for its members, 
contains 1378 electors. Barnstaple is represented by Messrs. T. Cave and S. D. Waddy, and their 
constituents number 1606. Finally, Tavistock last returned Lord Arthur Russell, and the borough 
contains 838 electors. The total number of borough voters, inclusive of the Shire of the City of 
Exeter, is 18,777. 

The following enumeration of the 33 hundreds and the 11 municipal boroughs which the county 



22 



Hifeitory oi' I>evoiisliire. 



comprises shows their territorial extent, and their inhabited and uninhabited houses, houses building, 
and pojDulation (males and females) in 1871. In this table the municipal cities and boroughs, whether 
recognised by the Municipal Corporations Keform Act of 1835, or incorporated since 1835, are ex- 
cluded irom the hundreds in which they are locally situated, and given separately ; but the municipal 
incorporations of Bradninch, Okehampton, and Plympton Earl's, not being under the Municipal 
Corporations Act (5 & 6 Will. IV. c. 76), are returned in the hundreds in which they are respec- 
tively situated: — 



Hnndrrrls &lc Area in 


Houses 


Population | 


J-LlliiU.lCLii:3> UvVa 


Acres 


Inliabited 


Uninhabited 


Building 


Persons 


Males 


Females 


*Axminster .... 


47,679 


2,141 


89 


__ 


10,693 


5,293 


5,300 


Bampton 






28,757 


1,373 


85 


4 


6,419 


3,243 


3,176 


§Black Torrington 






145,202 


3,505 


194 


10 


1,787 


8,953 


8,834 


Braunton 






70,804 


3,205 


207 


36 


15,297 


7,242 


8,055 


*Cliston 






15,471 


745 


19 


4 


3,630 


1,804 


1,826 


§Coleridgo 






50,218 


2,397 


143 


2 


11,108 


5,391 


6,717 


*Colyton 






28,487 


1,685 


75 


11 


8,063 


3,737 


4,326 i 


Crediton 






37,216 


2,385 


150 


8 


10,715 


5,153 


5,562 1 


*East Budleigh 






53,739 


4,978 


311 


40 


23,403 


10,357 


13,046 i 


§Ermington . 






50,288 


2,091 


117 


7 


10,250 


5,098 


5,152 1 


*Exminster . 






48,250 


4,118 


283 


70 


21,111 


9.358 


11,753 i 


Eremington . 






31,384 


1,184 


47 


7 


5,854 


2,822 


3,032 


Halberton . 






8,744 


568 


24 


1 


2,698 


1,336 


1,362 


Hartland 






31,718 


860 


95 


7 


4,139 


2,074 


2,065 


Hayridge . 






46,528 


2,610 


139 


6 


11,958 


5,888 


6,070 


*Haytor 






62,583 


9,085 


639 


64 


51,445 


22,699 


28,746 


Hemyock 






28,288 


1,044 


78 


5 


4,837 


2,424 


2,413 


§Lifton 






133,300 


2,803 


145 


8 


15,212 


8,200 


7,012 


North Tawton 






59,415 


2,257 


147 


7 


11,131 


5,488 


5,643 


*Ottery St. IVIaiy 






9,942 


904 


36 


8 


4,110 


1,918 


2,192 


§Plympton 






83,877 


2,066 


81 


13 


11,159 


5,304 


5,855 


|Roboroiigh 






57,231 


3,790 


327 


23 


26,983 


12,697 


14,286 


Shebbear 






73,250 


3,194 


230 


42 


15,717 


7,470 


8,247 


Shervvill 






47,648 


860 


45 


7 


4,295 


2,131 


2,164 


South Molton 






63,584 


1,769 


104 


3 


8,653 


4,437 


4,216 


§Stanborough 






63,608 


3,175 


145 


13 


15,327 


7,405 


7,922 


§Tavistock . 






19,279 


1,399 


57 


2 


8,909 


4,218 


4,691 


^Teignbridge . 






58,520 


2,839 


193 


9 


13,850 


6,748 


7,102 


Tiverton 






6,049 


177 


7 


— 


915 


476 


439 


West Budleigh 






17,367 


591 


50 


1 


2,714 


1,347 


1,367 


Winkleigh . 






9,118 


299 


21 


1 


1,402 


686 


716 


Witheridgo 






79,797 


1,952 


126 


3 


9.709 


4,977 


4,732 


*AVonford . 






94,888 


6,048 


393 


22 


30,090 


14,259 


15,831 


*ExETEii City 


1,664 


5,868 


341 


61 


34,650 


15,422 


19,228 


Boroughs 
















Barnstaple .... 


1,750 


2,318 


62 


18 


11,659 


5,211 


6,448 


Bideford 






3,196 


1,355 


70 


19 


6,969 


3,224 


3,745 


§Dartmouth 






(a) 1,847 


831 


57 


3 


5,338 


2,555 


2,783 


§Devonport 






1,760 


4,269 


269 


34 


49,449 


25,208 


24,241 


*Honiton 






3,066 


677 


35 


2 


3,464 


1,649 


1,815 


§Plymouth 






1,395 


7,289 


533 


49 


68,758 


31,578 


37,180 


South Molton 






6,264 


855 


36 


— 


3,978 


1,881 


2,097 


Tiverton 






17,491 


2,172 


97 


5 


10,024 


4,508 


5,516 


Torrington 






3,456 


727 


27 


7 


3,529 


1,550 


1,979 


*Totnes (part of) (b) 







126 


14 


. . 


605 


266 


339 


§Totnes (part of) (^>) 




1,034 


616 


44 


5 


3,468 


1,563 


1,905 


Total . 


1,655,161 


105,200 


6,387 


647 


601,374 


285,248 


316,126 



Notes akd References. — (a) The areas of the parishes which are c7iUrely within the borough of Dartmouth 
amount, according to the computation of the Tithe Commission, to 1918 acres (including 150 acres of water). A part 
of the parish of Stokefleming, the area of which is not known, is also within the borough. According to the compu- 
tation of the Ordnance Survey Department, however, the aggregate area of the borough, excluding water, is 1847 
acres, as stated above. 

{h) The area of that part of Totncs borough in East Devon is not known ; it is included in that of the hundred 
of Haytor. 

Marked * are in the Eastern Parliamentary Division of the County, § in the Southern, and the rest in the 
Northern Division. 



History of I>evoiisliire. 




Hundreds. — The Teutonic races very early divided their territory into Hundreds (see Tacitus, 
Germ. 6 and 12) ; but we cannot tell what constituted a Hundred, though some writers have 
conjectured that it consisted of 100 families. The Court of the Hundred (hundred mote), which 
was held by its own hundred men under the writ of the sheriff, was a court of justice for all suitors 
in the hundred. But all important cases were tried by the county court (shire mote), and in 
course of time the jurisdiction of the court of the hundred was restricted to the trial of petty 
offences and the maintenance of a local police, until it was finally superseded by the petty sessional 
divisions. Every man whose rank and property did not afford an ostensible guarantee for his good 
conduct was obliged, after the reign of Athelstane, to find a surety. This surety was afforded by the 
TEOTHING or TYTiiiNG, which smaller division we find in the later Anglo-Saxon times, and in the south 
of England. The members of the tything formed as it were a perpetual bail for one another's 
appearance in case of crime, with apparently an ultimate responsibility if the criminal escaped or if 
he was not able to pay the penalty incurred. 

The towns not under the Municipal and Corporation Act are Bradninch, which has a corporation 
with a jurisdiction co-extensive with the borough ; Okehampton, which has also a mayor and 
corporation ; and Plympton Earls, which, although it possesses an ancient charter, has of late years 
refrained from electing a mayor or other officers. Tavistock (which is still), and Ashburton (which 
has been until recently a parliamentary borough), are governed by port-reeves, elected annually by 
the freeholders sworn for that purpose at the court leets of the lords of the respective manors. The 
boroughs mentioned in Domesday were Exeter, Barnstaple, Okehampton, Totnes and Lydford. 
Apart from those already mentioned, the towns of next importance in Devonshire are Torquay, 
with a population of 21,657; Brixham, 4941; Exmouth, 5614; Teignmouth, 6751; Crediton, 
4222 ; Cullompton, 2205 ; Dawlish, 3622 ; Ilfracombe, 4721 ; Newton Abbot, 6082 ; Topsham, 
2514; Ottery St. Mary, 4110 ; Sidmouth, 3360; Lynton, 1170; Northam, 4330; Paignton, 3590 ; 
St. Mary Church, 4472, and many smaller towns. 

Civil Parishes and Townships, and Extra-Parochial Places. — By a civil parish or town- 
ship is meant a place (by whatever designation it may be called) Avhich has its own overseers, and in 
which a poor rate is separately levied. In Devon, with a very few exceptions, they are identical 
with the ancient ecclesiastical parishes. Extra-parochial places are those which are not included in 
any parish or township, either for ecclesiastical or poor law purposes. These places are found usually 
have been the sites of religious houses or of ancient castles, the owners of which were able in former 
mes to prevent any interference on the part of the civil authorities within their limits : the royal 
rests, and some tracts of land acquired in recent times, either by reclamation from the sea, or by 
e drainage of fens, also had like exemptions. Most of these places have, under 20 Vict. c. 19 and 
1 & 32 Vict. c. 122, been formed into new parishes or annexed to adjacent parishes for poor law 
poses ; a few, however, still remain. Many of the ancient ecclesiastical parishes into which the 
county Avas divided at an early period have been divided for ecclesiastical purposes ; some of these 
new ecclesiastical districts comprise parts of two or more ancient parishes. 

The Poor Law. — In feudal times the poor were supported by their lords, and later they were 
allowed to beg, and were chiefly supported by the monastic and other religious institutions. The 
dissolution of the religious houses by Henry VlII. deprived the poor of this means of support, and 
greatly increased their numbers. Voluntary collections were first ordered in their behalf under 27 
Henry VIII. c. 25 (1536), and the first compulsory assessment was made by 43 Elizabeth c. 2 (1601). 
This law was, until recent times (1834), the text book of the English poor law. The overseers of 
each parish were directed to provide work for indigent poor, and workhouses were first established by 
9 Geo. I. c, 7. These Avorkhouses, which were a kind of manufactory, at length pauperised the indepen- 
dent workman, encouraged improvident marriages, and set a premium on immorality. Labourers' 
wages were frequently paid in part from the relief fund, and thus a portion of the work of the 
farmers was done at the expense of the parish. In 1832 the Poor Law Commissioners were appointed, 
and in 1834 they made their report. Since this time the poor rates, which had risen rapidly, have 
again fallen, as shown in a subsequent page. 

Unions, Registration Districts and Eegistration County. — By the Act for the Amendment 
and better Administration of the Laws relating to the Poor (4 & 5 Will. IV. c. 74 s. 26 (1834), the 
Legislature in 1834 entrusted to the Poor Law Commissioners the power of forming new districts 
called UNIONS without any such reference to coimty limits as was observed in the constitution of the 
analogous hundreds, sessional divisions and sub-lieutenancy sub- divisions. These unions having 
staffs of ofiicers and rating powers were in 1836, by 6 & 7 Will. IV. c. 86, made the basis of the regis- 
tration districts in which the births, deaths, and marriages have been since registered. These districts 
are identical in Devon with the poor law unions or incorporations, except that Lundy Island, which 
is in the Bideford district, is not in any union. And as the districts consist of sub-districts, the sub- 
districts of parishes or townships, so the districts were grouped together to form the union or registra- 
tion counties, which differ somewhat from the coimty proper. 



24 



History of r>evoiisliiire. 



The area of the county proper Avithin the limits as left by Acts 2 & 3 Will. IV. c. G4 (1832), 
and 7 & 8 Vict. c. 61 (1844), is 1,055,101 acres, that of the union or registration county 1,643,343 
acres; the area of places annexed to the county to form the registration county is 49,169 acres, and 
of places severed 60,987 ; thus showing a loss to the county of 11,818. Of the acres of the county 
proper in other registration counties, 27,057 are in that of Cornwall, and 33,930 in Somerset ; of the 
acres of other counties proper included in the registration county of Devon, 17,284 are in Dorset, 
11,394 in Cornwall, and 20,491 in Somerset. The population of the county proper in 1871 was 
601,374, and of the union county 606,102 ; the population of the places annexed to the county 
proper to form the union county was 14,022, and of places severed 9294, showing a gain of 4728 to 
the union county. Of the population of the county proper in other registration counties 30G9 were 
in Cornwall, and 6225 in Somerset ; of the population of parts of other counties proper in Devon 
union county, 6627 were in Dorset, 7056 in Cornwall, and 339 in Somerset. The parishes annexed 
or severed will be specified in the notes to the following table : — 





Area in 


Population 


Slalcs 


Females 


Houses 


in 1871 


Rateable 




Building 


















Value 






1801 


1861 


1871 


1871 


1871 


Inliabited 


and 
Empty 




§ Axminster 


61,159w 


14,452 


19,758 


20,059 


0,538 


10,521 


4,120 


226 


£ 
105,527 


Barnstaple 


140,729w 


21,556 


36,293 


37,406 


17,513 


19,893 


7,710 


438 


180,659 


Eidftford . 


63,864w 


12,284 


17,790 


19,506 


9,172 


10,334 


3,944 


359 


62,098 


Crediton . 


91,866 


18,070 


20,274 


19,406 


9,535 


9,871 


4,192 


291 


111,882 


East Stonehotiso 


190 


3,407 


14,343 


14,585 


6,844 


7,741 


1,340 


43 


14,284 


Exoter (/) . . 


1,664 


17,412 


33,742 


34,652 


15,423 


19,229 


5,869 


402 


153,103 


1 Holsworthy 


82,519 


7,568 


9,876 


9,427 


4,779 


4,648 


1,871 


84 


41,918 


Iloniton . 


80,887w 


15,692 


22,729 


22,291 


10,572 


11.719 


4,698 


245 


122,215 


Kingsbridge . 


73,455m; 


15,206 


19,394 


19,706 


9,525 


10,181 


4,171 


241 


1 15,367 


Newton A.bbot 


ll7,524w 


27,115 


59,063 


68,203 


30,146 


38,057 


12.438 


940 


351,313 


Okehampton . 


126,797 


15,006 


18,580 


19,249 


9,721 


9,528 


3,817 


215 


91,354 


^ Plymouth 


1,491 


16,040 


62,599 


68,833 


31,640 


37,193 


7,291 


582 


184,356 


Plympton St. Mary . 


74,543?o 


12,581 


20,502 


22,190 


10,559 


11,631 


4,202 


244 


137,587 


f South Molton . 


143,998 


14,625 


19,532 


18,975 


9,643 


9,332 


3,824 


262 


107,087 


Stoke Damerel (g) . 


1,760 


23,747 


50,440 


49,449 


25,208 


24,241 


4,269 


303 


75,362 


St. Thomas (/) 


130,141w 


28,946 


48,405 


49,308 


22,787 


26,521 


9,926 


698 


284,430 


I TaA'istock 


I59,317w 


12,320 


35,265 


31,240 


15,605 


15,635 


5,793 


442 


130,339 


Tiverton . 


103,053 


28,572 


30,875 


29,726 


14,271 


15,455 


6,377 


358 


176,894 


Torrington 


81,472 


12,661 


16,876 


16,334 


7,793 


8,541 


3,326 


216 


72,108 


Totnes . 

Union County . 


97,914 


24,963 


32,942 


35,557 


16,937 


18,620 


6,984 


532 


198,870 


1,643,343 


312,223 


589,278 


606,102 


287,211 


318,891 


106,162 


7,121 


2.716,75? 


t Chard (a) 


4,689 


740 


815 


757 


386 


371 


151 


5 


4,987 


t Dulverton (b) . 


3,449 




430 


447 


235 


212 


95 


4 


4,137 


I Launceston (c). 


27,057 


1,161 


3,034 


3,069 


1,559 


1,510 


575 


28 


12,418 


t Taunton (d) . 


4,980 


730 


961 


822 


404 


418 


187 


21 


4,411 


t Wellington (e) . 

Parishes in other "1 
union counties/ 


20,812 


4,721 


4,435 


4,199 


2,152 


2,047 


884 


67 


29,907 


60,987 


7,352 


9,675 


9,294 


4,736 


4,558 


1,892 


125 


55,860 


§ Axminster 


1,704,330 


349,575 


598,953 


615,396 


291,947 


323,449 


108,054 


7,246 


2,772,6K 


17,284 


4,686 


6,681 


6,627 


3,100 


3,527 


1,384 


98 


25,066 


I Holsworthy . 


5,261 


403 


486 


469 


245 


224 


75 


1 


2 664 


t South Molton . 


20,491 




323 


339 


173 


166 


56 


15 


4,617 


1 Tavistock 


6,133 




7,090 


6,587 


3,181 


3,406 


1,339 


98 


13,623 


t Tiverton . 

Parts of other counties "( 
in union county . / 

County Peoper . 


... 


4,178 




... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


49,169 


9,269 


14,580 


14,022 


6,699 


7,323 


2,854 


212 


45,970 


1,655,161 


340,308 


584.373 


601,374 


285,248 


316,126 


105,200 


7,034 


2,726,64? 



Notes and Eeferences. — Marked * is »n incorporation ; t arc partly in Somerset, § Dorset, and J Cornwall. 
For the parishes of these counties proper in Devon union county in 1871 and now, see the detailed account of each 
union; tormerly Tirerton registration district or union comprised Dulverton, which is now a separate district in 
Somerset The parishes, &c.. in other union counties in 1871 were («) Yarcombe ; (b) Morebath; (c) North Petherwin, 
Virginstow, Broad woodwidger, St. Giles in the Heath, Werrington, and Northcott; (d) Church Stanton ; and (e) Burks- 
combe, Clayhidon, Culmstock, Hemyock, and Holcombe Rogus; {/) most of H. Leonarls parish, formerly in St. 



History of Uevoiissiliii'e. 25 

Assessments, Kental, &c. — The annual rental of the land in Devon assessed to the property tax 
in 1811, was £1,217,547, but the annual value of real property (land, buildings, &c.), was assessed 
to the same tax in 1815, at £1,897,915. The parochial assessments of the county in 1823 amounted 
to £227,425, of which £175,412 was levied on land, £47,401 on dwelling-houses, £2624 on mills 
and factories, and £1927 on manorial profits. In 1803 the parochial assessments amounted to 
^179,359, of which £148,565 was expended on the poor. In 1821, these assessments amounted to 
£272,939, of which £234,097 was expended on the poor. In 1839, after the formation of the large 
unions, and the erection of extensive workhouses, the sums collected in poor rates in the county 
amounted to £214,500. The poor rates levied amounted to £318,175 for the year ended Lady Day, 
1874 ; and £320,203 in 1875. The gross estimated rental of the union county on Lady Day, 1875, 
was £3,110,173, and its rateable value, £2,616,112. The receipts for the year ended Lady Day, 
1876, were, £317,720 from poor rates; and £21,948 Treasury subventions, and £7133 other receipts 
in aid of poor rates ; total, £346,801. The expenditure for the same period was : expended in relief 
to the poor, and purposes connected therewith — in maintenance, £26,662 ; out-relief, £118,644 ; 
maintenance of lunatics in asylums or licensed houses, £21,727; workhouse or other loans repaid, 
and interest thereon, £1185 ; salaries and rations of officers (including the sums repaid by Her 
Majesty's Treasury) and superannuations, £22,969 ; other expenses of, or immediately connected 
with relief, £10,499; total relief to the poor, £201,686; cost of proceedings at law or in equity 
(parochial and union), £698. Expended for purposes unconnected with relief to the poor : payments 
for or towards the county, borough, or poll :e rate, £55,602 ; payments by overseers to Highway 
Boards, under 27 & 28 Vict. c. 101, s. 33, £48,457; contributions by the overseers to the Rural 
Sanitary Authority, £2175 ; contributions by the overseers to the School Board, £12,380 ; payments 
•on account of the Kegistration Act, namely, fees to clergj^men and registrars, outlay for register 
offices, books, and forms, £2240 ; vaccination fees, £1840 ; expenses allowed in respect of parlia- 
mentary or municipal registration, and cost of jury lists, £1287. Expended for purposes partly 
connected with, and partly unconnected with relief to the poor: payments under Parochial Assess- 
ment Act and Union Assessment Committee Acts, £671 ; money expended for all other purposes, 
£12,616 ; grand total expenditure, £339,652. The guardians disbursed £8510 in medical relief to 
the poor (included in items given above), consisting of salaries to ihe medical officers, extra medical 
fees paid to them under the General Consolidated Order, and the cost (if any) of medical and surgical 
appliances and drugs. The balance of loans contracted under orders of the Local Government Board 
on March 25, 1876, was £6586. The expenditure in relief to the poor for the year ended Lady Day, 
1875, was £206,663, thus showing a decrease of £4977, or 2*4 per cent. The cost of in-maintenance 
for the half year ended Michaelmas, 1876, was £14,477, and of outdoor relief, £58,152; total, 
£72,629 ; while the cost of in-maintenance for the corresponding half year of 1875 was £13,334, and 
of outdoor relief, £60,709 ; thus showing a decrease of £1414, or 1'9 per cent. 

Return of Paupeks. — The number of paupers in the union county in 1871 was 29,131. The 
proportion of paupers in England and Wales on July 1, 1876, on the population of 1871 (22,706,031), 
was as 1 in 32, or 3*1 per cent., the number of persons relieved being 707,375. In the registration 
county of Devon there were on that date : Indoor paupers — able-bodred, males, 44 ; females, 241 ; 
children under 16, 350 : not able-bodied, males, 728 ; females, 630 ; children under 16, 671 : lunatics^ 
insane persons, and idiots, males, 126 ; females, 179 ; children under 16, 14; vagrants relieved in the 
workhouse, 8; total in workhouses, 2991. Outdoor paupers — able-bodied, males, 374; females, 
1947; children luider 16,4552, not able-bodied, males, 4277; females, 9753; children under 16, 
1496 : lunatics, insane 2)Sj'sons and idiots, males, 414 ; females, 684; children under 16, 14 ; total out 
of workhouses, 23,511 ; deduct 53 persons, who received both indoor and outdoor relief, and the net 
total of persons relieved is 26,449. This is a decrease of 1390, or 5*0 per cent, on the number 
relieved on July 1, 1875. In the above return children relieved with 'able bodied' parents are 
classed as ' able bodied,' and children relieved without their parents, or relieved with parents who are 
'not able bodied,' are classed as 'not able bodied.' The number of adult [i.e. paupers aged 16 and 
upwards] able bodied paupers relieved on July 1, 1876, was, indoor, 285; outdoor, 2321; total, 
2606 ; while on the corresponding day of the previous year there were 345 indoor paupers, and 2646 
outdoor ; total, 2991, showing a decrease of 385, or 12*9 per cent. 

Vaccination. — There are 167 public vaccinators in the union county. In the year ended Sep- 
tember 29, 1876, there were 11,974 successful primary vaccinations of persons under one year of 
age, and 703 aged one year and upwards; total, 12,677. The number of successful re-vaccinations 
was 60; the number of births registered during the year, 17,939. Of the 17,898 births registered in 
1874, there were on January 31, 1876, 15,736 persons successfully vaccinated; 19 insusceptible of vac- 
cination ; 1493 dead unvaccinated ; 189 vaccination postponed; leaving 461 persons unaccounted for. 

Thomas's union, was added to Exeter incorporatic'ii on Lady-day, 1878 ; the returns, however, are those of the old 
limits ; {g) Stoke Damerel is a separate parish, maintaining its poor under a local Act. 



26 History of Devonsliire. 

Principal Occupations. — The following are the principal occupations of the union county, and 
the number of inhabitants engaged in each as returned in 1871. Males. — Civil service 718, police 
729, army officers (effective) 318, army retired and half-pay officers 264, navy officers (effective) 788, 
navy retired and half-pay officers 183, clergymen 877, Protestant ministers 330, Roman Catholic 
priests 30, barristers 62, solicitors 381, law clerks 328, physicians and surgeons 518, dentists 76, 
chemists and druggists 519, authors, editors, journalists 36, painters, artists 94, sculptors, 8, engravers 
59, photographers 138, musicians, music masters 252, schoolmasters 550, teachers, professors, lecturers 
412, civil engineers 108, innkeepers, hotelkeepers, publicans 1679, beersellers 1,14, domestic servants 
4655; merchants 272, bankers 58, brokers, agents, factors 283, auctioneers, valuers, house agents 117, 
accountants 488, pa^vnbrokers 78, coach, t^c. proprietors 222, shipowners 85, pilots 102, farmers, 
graziers 10,313, farmers' sons, brothers, grandsons, nephews 4491, farm bailiffs 230, land surveyors, 
estate agents 131, nurserymen, seedsmen, florists 147, gardeners 3066, horse proprietors, dealers 19, 
farriers, veterinary surgeons 150, cattle, &c. salesmen 115, fishermen 1634; booksellers, publishers 
163, bookbinders 94, printers 737, musical instrument agents, dealers 46, lithographers, lithographic 
printers 37, "watchmakers, clockmakers 433, philosophical instrument makers, opticians 27, engine 
and machine makers 887, agricultural implement machine makers 42, millwrights 168, coachmakers 
478, wheelwrights 921, saddlers, harness, whip makers 503, shipbuilders, shipwrights, boat builders 
2032, sail makers 194, architects 108, surveyors 61, builders 802, carpenters, joiners 6998, brick- 
layers 279, marble masons 134, masons, paviours 5979, plasterers 630, paperhangers 22, plumbers, 
painters, glaziers 2325, cabinet makers, upholsterers 1071, carvers and gilders 115, manufacturing' 
chemists, &c., 42, dyers, scourers, calenderers 75, v/oolstaplers 25, Avoollen cloth manufacture 259, 
worsted manufacture 197, silk, satin manufacture 73, llax, linen manufacture 39, lace manufacture 
316, drapers, linen drapers, mercers 1470, hairdressers, wig makers 251, hatters, hat manufacture 126, 
tailors 3302, shoemakers, bootmakers 5782, rope, cord makers 473 ; cowkeepers, milk sellers 913, 
butchers, meat salesmen 1761, fishmongers 223, corn, flour, seed merchants, dealers 174, millers 1151, 
bakers 2021, confectioners, pastry cooks 179, greengrocers, fruit, vegetable dealers 202, maltsters 252, 
brewers 381, wine and spirit merchants 257, grocers, tea dealers 1607 ; tallow chandlers 111, tanners 
504, curriers 273, brush, broom makers 178, timber, wood merchants and dealers 158, sawyers 1077, 
coopers, hoop makers, benders 369, basket makers 341, thatchers 711, paper manufacture 415; coal 
miners 24, copper miners 623, tin miners, 215, lead miners 126, iron miners 32, coal merchants, 
dealers 282, stone quarriers 458, earthenware manufacture 256, tin plate workers, tinmen 332, brass 
manufacture, braziers 108, iron manufacture 425, whitesmiths 148, blacksmiths 3485, ironmongers, 
hardware dealers 465. 

Female Occupations. — Schoolmistresses 1411, teachers, governesses 1597; innkeepers, hotel 
keepers, publicans 459, beersellers 32, lodging-house, boarding-house keepers 888, domestic servants 
38,523; capitalists, shareholders 541, farmers, graziers 608, farmers' daughters, granddaughters, sisters, 
nieces 4393, cabinet makers, upholsterers 254 ; w^oollen cloth manufacture 742, Avorsted manufacture 
79, silk, satin manufacture 313, flax, linen manufacture 30, lace manufacture 4342, draper, linen 
drapers, mercers 1378, fancy goods manufacture, dealers 173, tailoresses 1294, milliners, dressmakers 
11,436, shirt makers, seamstresses 2275, ladies' outfitters 266, glovers 2428, bootmakers, shoemakers 
578, laundry keepers 5724, cowkeepers, milk sellers 128, butchers 112, fishmongers 187, bakers 301, 
confectioners, pastry cooks 95, greengrocers, fruit, vegetable dealers 264, grocers, tea dealers 821 ; 
paper manufacture 334. 

Relative Ages of Husbands and Wives. — In 1871 there were 101,406 husbands and wives 
enumerated in the union county as resident together. The ages generally are nearly equal, 69,971 
husbands and 75,460 wives being between the ages of 25 and 55 ; but there a,re the following remark- 
able exceptions : — 4 husbands Avere aged 17, and one of them had a wife aged 17 ; 15 husbands were 
aged 18, 5 of whom had wdves aged 18 ; 60 husbands were aged 19, 4 of whom had wives aged 19, 
18 aged 19, and 1 aged 30 ; 233 husbands were aged 20, 2 of Avhom had wives aged 17, and 3 had 
wives aged 35 ; one husband of the age 25-30 had a wife of the age 65-70 ; 2 husbands of the age 
35-40 had Avives of the age 70-75; 1 husband of the age 95-100, had a Avife of the same age 
period ; 1 husband of the age 50-55 had a Avife aged 17. 

Petty Sessional Divisions. — These divisions for holding special and petty sessions are in 
general based upon the hundreds and other old county sub-divisions. By the authority of various 
Acts of Parliament (9 Geo. IV. c. 43, 10 Geo. IV. c. 46, 6 Will. IV. c. 12) the justices at quarter 
sessions may alter and re-arrange these sessional divisions. The county justices are appointed by 
the croAvn on the recommendation of the lord-lieutenant. The mayor and ex mayor of every 
municipal borough are justices of the peace of and for such municipal borough. The boroughs of 
Barnstaple, Bideford, Dartmouth, Devonport, Exeter City (a county of itself), Plymouth, South 
Molton and Tiverton, have commissions of the peace and a separate court of quarter sessions ; but 
Totnes borough has a commission of the peace only. The folloAving is an enumeration of the 
divisions shoAving their territorial extent, and their inhabited houses and population in 1871 ; — 



Histoi*:^ ol' Devoiisliire. 



27 



BOEOTJGHS. 

Barnstaple . 
Bideford 
Dartmouth . 
Devonport . 
Exeter City . 
Plymouth . 
South Molten 
Tiverton 

Totnes 

Divisions. 

Axminster . 

Bideford 

Braunton 

Crediton 

Crockernwell 

Cullompton . 



^<=^«^ Houses population 



1,750 
3,196 
1,847 
1,760 
1,664 
1,395 
6,264 
17,491 



43,875 
60,664 

145,363 
64,687 
71,080 

119,409 



2,318 


11,659 


1,355 


6,969 


831 


5,338 


4,269 


49,449 


5,868 


34,650 


7,289 


68,758 


855 


3,978 


2,172 


10,024 


742 


4,073 


2,736 


13,432 


2,629 


12,723 


5,291 


25,271 


3,417 


15,497 


2,113 


10,179 


5,558 


26,075 



Ermington and Plympton 

Great Torrington 

Hatherleigh . 

Holsworthy . 

Honiton 

Lifton . 

Midland Kohorough 

Ottery 

Paignton 

Roborough 

South Molton 

Stanborough and Cole 

ridge . 
Tavistock 
Teignbridge . 
Wonford 
Woodbury 

Total . 



Acres 



75,458 
64,720 
65,275 
80,680 
55,195 
70,791 
47,710 
34,331 
23,998 
190 
160,771 

116,467 

106,475 

105,565 

73,329 

33,761 



1,655,161 



Inliab. 
Houses 



4,050 
2,767 
1,927 
1,875 
2,430 
1,816 
1,691 
2,719 
6,590 
1,340 
4,456 

5,638 
3,199 
8,213 
5,627 
3,419 



105,200 



Population 

20,794 

13.684 

10,117 

9,335 

11,740 

9,159 

9,053 

12,709 

38,992 

14,585 

22,283 

26,823 
18,514 
40,553 
28,923 
16,035 



601,374 



* The area of the entire borough of Totnes is not known 
Stanborough and Coleridge Petty Sessional Division. 



it has been included in the area given for the 



m 



The following is an enumeration of the parishes, tithings, and places in each division : — 
Axminster. — Axminster, Axmouth, Colyton, Combpyne, Dalwood, Kilmington, Membmy, Mus- 

Kousdown, Seaton and Beer, Shute, Stockland, Uplyme. 
Bideford. — Abbotsham, Alwington, Buckland Brewer, Bulkworthy, Clovelly, East Putford, 
Hartland, Landcross, Littleham, Monkleigh, Newton St. Petrock, Northam, Parkham, Welcombe, 
Woolfardis worthy, Westleigh. 

Braunton. — Arlington, Ashford, Atherington, Berrynarbor, Bishop's Tawton, Bittadon, Bratton 
Fleming, Braunton, Brendon, Challacombe, Combmartin, Countisbury, East Down, Fremington, 
Georgeham, Goodleigh, Heanton Punchardon, Highbray, Horwood, Ilfracombe, Inston, Kentisbury, 
Landkey, Loxhore, Lynton, Martinhoe, Marwood, Morthoe, Newton Tracy, Parracombe, Pilton, Sher- 
will, Stoke Rivers, Swimbridge, Tawstock, Trentishoe, West Down. 

Crediton. — Bow, Cheriton Fitzpaine, Clannaborough, Colebrooke, Crediton, 'Down St. Mary, 
Kennerleigh, Morchard Bishop, Newton St. Gyres, Poughill, Puddington, Sandford, Sherwood, Sho- 
brooke, Stockleigh English, Stockleigh Pomeroy, Upton Helions, Washford Pyne, Woolfardisworthy, 
Zeal Monachorum. 

Crockernavell.— Bridford, Chagford, Cheriton Bishop, Drewsteignton, Dunsford, Gidleigh, 
Hittisleigh, Lustleigh, Moreton, North Bovey, Spreyton, South Tawton, Tedburn St. Mary, Throwleigh. 

Cullompton. — Bampton, Bickleigh, Broadhembury, Bradninch,Burlescombe, Biitterleigh, Cadbury, 
Cadeleigh, Calverleigh, Clayhanger, Clayhidon, Cruwys Morchard, Cullompton, Culmstock, Halberton, 
Hemlock, Hockworthy, Holcombe Rogus, Pluntsham, Kentisbear, Loxbeer, Morebath, Okeford, Pay- 
hembury, Plymtree, Sampford Peverell, Silverton, Stoodleigh, Templeton, Thorverton, Tiverton, 
UiFculme, Uplowman, Washfield, Willand. 

Ekmington and Plimpton. — Aveton GifFord, Bigbury, Brixton, Cornwood, Ermington, Harford, 
Holbeton, Kingston, Modbury, Newton Ferrers, Plympton Maurice, Plympton St. Mary, Plymstock, 
Revelstoke, Ringmore, Ugborough, Wembury, Yealmpton. 

Great Torrington. — Alverdiscott, Beaford, Buckland Filleigh, Dolton, Dowland, Frithelstock, 
Great Torrington, High Bickington, Huish, Huntshaw, Langtree, Little Torrington, Merton, Peters 
Marland, Petrockstow, Roborough, Shebbear, St Giles in the Wood, Wear GifFord, Yarnscombe. 

Hatherleigh. — Ashbury, Beaworthy, Belstone, Broadwood Kelly, Exbourne, Hatherleigh, 
Highampton, Honeychurch, Iddesleigh, Inwardleigh, Jacobstow, Kigbeare Hamlet, Meeth, Monk 
Okehampton, North Lew, Okehampton, Sampford Courtenay, Sheepwash. 

Holsworthy. — Abbot's Bickington, Ashwater, Black Torrington, Bradford, Bradworthy, 
Bridgerule East, Bridgerule West, Clawton, Cookbury, Halwell, Hollacombe, Holsworthy, Luffincott, 
Milton Damerell, Northcot Hamlet, Hamilton, Pancrasweek, Pyworthy, Sutcombe, Tetcott, Thorn- 
bury, West Putford. 

Honiton. — Awliscombe, Branscombe, Buckerell, Church stanton, Combe Raleigh, Cotleigh, Dun- 
keswell, Farway, Feniton, Gittisham, Honiton, Lupitt, Monkton, Northleigh, Offwell, Shapcombe, 
Sheldon, Southleigh, Upottery, Wid worthy, Yarcombe. 

Lifton. — Bradstone, Bratton Clovelly, Bridestowe, Broadwood Widger, Coryton, Dunterton, 



28 HiHtory of I>evoii»liire. 

Germansweek, Kelly, Lewtrenchard, Lifton, Maristow, North Petherwin, St. Giles in the Heath, 
Sourton, Stowford, Thrushelton, Virginstowe, Werrington. 

Midland Kodorougii. — Bickleigh, Buckland Monachorum, Compton Gifford, Egg Buckland, 
Laira Green, JNIeavy, St. Budeaiix, Shaugh, Sheepstor, Tamerton Foliott, Walkhampton, Weston 
Peverell. 

South JNIolton.- — Anstey (East), Anstey (West), Ashreigney, Bishop's Nympton, Bondleigli, 
Brushford, Buckland (East), Buckland (West), Burrington, Charles, Chawleigh, Cheldon, Chittle- 
hampton, Chulmleigh, Coleridge, Creacombe, East Worlington, Eggesford, Filleigh, Georgenympton, 
Kingsnyrnpton, Kuowstone, Lapibrd, Loosebear tithing, Mariansleigh, IVIeshaw, Holland, North 
Molton, North Tawton, Nymet Kowland, Rackenford, llomansleigh, Eose Ash, Satterleigh, Soutli 
Molton, Thelbridge, Twitchen, Warkleigh, Wemb worthy. West Worlington, Winkleigh, Witheridge. 

Ottekv. — iVylesbeare, Dotton, Harpford, Newton Poppleford tithing, Ottery St. Mary, Kock- 
beare, Salconibe Kegis, Sidbury, Sidmouth, Strete Raleigh tithing, Talaton, Venn Ottery, Whimple. 

Paignton. — Babbacombe, Brixham, Churston Ferrers, Cockington, Kingsweare, Marldon, Paign- 
ton, St. Mary Church, Stoke Gabriel, Tormoham. 

RoBOROUGii. — Stoke Damerel, East Stonehouse, Vaultershome {Cornwall). 

Stanbohough and CoLEiuDGE. — Ashprington, Berry Pomeroy, Buckland-tout- Saints, Blackawton, 
Buckfastleigh, Charleton, Chivelstone, Churchstow, Cornworthy, Dartington, Dittisham, Dodbrookc, 
Dean Prior, Diptfbrd, East Allington, East Portlemouth, Halwell, Ilarberton, Kingsbridge, Little- 
hempstone, Loddiswell, Malborough, Morley, North Huish, Rattery, Sherford, Slapton, Stokenhaui, 
Stoke Fleming, South Brent, South Pool, South Milton, South Huish, Thurlestone, Townstall, AVest 
Alvington, Woodleigh. 

Tavistock. — Beer Ferris, Brentor, Lamerton, Lidford, Lidford Forest Quarter ol Dartmoor, 
Mary Tavy, Milton Abbot, Peter Tavy, Sampford Spiny, Sydenham, South Tavistock, Whitchurch. 

Teignbridge. — Abbotskerswell, Ashburton, Bickington, Bishopsteignton, Bovey Tracey, Broad- 
hempstone, Buckland-in-the-Moor, Chudleigh, Coffinswell, Combe-in-Teignhead, Dawlish, Denbury, 
Haccombe, Hennock, Highweek, Holne, Ideford, Ilsington, Ipplepen, Kingskerswell, Kingsteignton, 
Manaton, Ogwell (East), Ogwell (West), St. Nicholas, Staverton, Stokeinteignhead, Teigngrace, 
Teignmouth (East and West), Torbryan, Trushard, Widdicombe in the Moor, Wolborough, Woodland. 

WoNFOKD. — Alphington, Ashcombe, Ashton, Bramford Speke, Broadclyst, Christow, Clyst St. 
Lawrence, Clyst Hydon, Doddiscombsleigh, Dunchideock, Exminster, Heavitree, Holcombe Burnell, 
Huxham, Ide, Kenn, Kenton, Mamhead, Netherexe, Pinhoe, Poltimore, Powderham, Rewe, *St. 
Leonard, St. Thomas-the-Apostle, Shillingford St. George, Stoke Canon, Topsham, Upexe, Upton 
Pyne, Whitstone. 

Woodbury.— Bicton, Clyst St. George, Clyst Satchfield, Clyst Honiton, Clyst St. Mary, Colaton 
Raleigh, East Budleigh, Farringdon, Littlehani and Exmouth, Lympstone, Otterton, Sowton, Withy- 
combe Raleigh, Woodbury. 

The Police Divisions were formed in pursuance of Acts 3 & 4 Vict. c. b8, and 19 & 20 Vict. c. 
69, the latter of which rendered it compulsory to establish a police force in every county of England 
and Wales ; and the police established under the first Act were required to be consolidated into one 
county force. There are 13 of these divisions in Devonshire, each consisting of one or more petty 
sessional divisions ; but the following 7 boroughs have their own police — Barnstaple, Bideibrd, 
Devonport, Exeter, Plymouth, Tiverton, and Totnes. The Town Council o£ South Molton agreed to 
place themselves under the county police by a majority of one in December, 1877. The boroughs of 
Bradninch, Dartmouth, Great Torrington, Honiton, Okehampton, Plympton Earl, and Plympton St. 
Mary are attached to the county police force. The head-quarters are in Exeter, and Captain G. de 
Courcy Hamilton, is chief constable ; William G. Cunningham, Esq., deputy chief constable ; and 
superintendent William Mitchell, chief clerk. The divisions with their superintendents, number of 
stations and sergeants are : — 

(A) Barnstaple, John Baird, superintendent; 19 stations; 8 sergeants. 

(B) South Molton, John Wood, „ 14 „ 2 „ 

(C) CuUompton, R. G. Collins, „ 20 „ 2 „ 

(D) Honiton, Charles Dore, ., 24 ,, 3 „ 
(Exe) Exeter, W. G. Cunningham, „ 2G „ 3 „ 

(E) Chudleigh, J. C. Moore, „ 19 „ 3 „ 

(F) Torquay, H. Stoddard, „ 17 ,, 3 ,, 

(G) Kingsbridge, Hugh Vaughan, ., 24 „ 3 ,, 
(H) Stonehouse, Capt. E. Frutton, ,, 17 ,, 3 „ 
(K) Tavistock, Wm. Pickford, „ 14 „ 2 „ 
(L) Ilolsworthy, D. Barbor, „ 12 „ 2 „ 
(M) Great Torrington, P. Ronsham, „ 12 ,, '"^ » 
(N) Bow John Sargent, „ IG „ 1 >j 



laistory ot' Devoiisliii'c. 



29 



County Expp:nditure and Judicial Statistics. — The County Rates are levied in Devon on a 
valuation made under a special Act of Parliament passed some years ago. The valuation for county 
assessment in 1874 was £2,266,764, and for police £2,248,000. The county rates amounted in 1800 
to £7031, in 1810 to £23,159, in 1830 to £12,783, in 1838 to £18,459, and in 1849 to upwards of 
£24,000, exclusive o£ Exeter, and the boroughs having separate quarter sessions, viz. Barnstaple, 
Bideford, Dartmouth, Plymouth, Devonport, Tiverton, and South j\Iolton. For the year ended 
Michelmas, 1874 the county rate was l^d., and the police rate 2^-tZ. in the pound. The receipts from 
county rate Avere £11,563 ; by police rate £22,325 ; Government subvention in aid of police, prose- 
cutions, &c. £8361 ; on account of prisons, lunatics, &c. £1374 ; fines, fees, and other receipts, 
£4049 ; loans on security of rates, £15,200 — total receipts, £62,872. The expenditure for police, 
prisons, prisoners, prosecutions, and reformatories, was £38,553 ; for lunatics and lunatic asylums, 
£7117 ; shirehalls and judges' lodgings, £248 ; militia storehouses, £129 ; county bridges, £1065 ; 
registration of voters, £221; salaries of county officers, £2605 ; interest of debt and principal paid 
off, £1840 ; all other charges, £1680 — total, £53,458. The number of persons committed or bailed 
for trial in 1875, in Devon, was 217 (159 males, 58 females) : of these 77 were acquitted, 1 was 
detained as insane, 1 was sentenced to penal servitude for 15 years, 15 for 7 years, 2 for 5 and 6 
years, 2 were sentenced to imprisonment for 2 years and above 1 year, 25 for 1 year and above 6 
months, 43 for 6 months and above 3 months, 34 for 3 months and above 1 month, 10 for 1 month 
and under, 4 detained in reformatories or industrial schools, and 3 were fined or discharged on 
sureties. The number of each sex committed or bailed for trial was 159 males and 58 iemales in 
1875, 156 males 57 females in 1874, 206 males 60 females in 1873, 208 males 75 females in 1872, 
241 males 86 females in 1871, 236 males 74 females in 1870, 305 males 84 females in 1869, 308 
males 72 females in 1868, 321 males 89 females in 1867, 263 males 89 females in 1866— total for 
the five years 1871-5, 970 males and 336 females, and for the five years 1866-71, 1433 males 408 
females. 

There are 24 Turnpike Trusts in the county, of which the following enumeration shows their 
receipts, expenditure, debts and assets for the year ended December 31, 1874 : — 



Turnpike Trusts 


Receipts 


Expenditure 


Debts 


Assets 




£ 


s. 


d. 


£ 


s. 


d. 


£ 


s. 


d. 


£ 


s. 


d. 


Ashburton 


1031 


13 


4 


1073 


8 


8 


14538 


13 


8 


476 


3 


2 


Axminster 


851 


17 


6 


765 


1 


4 


1200 








296 


18 


5 


Barnstaple 


3672 


19 





3606 


1 


8 


8095 


10 





171 


15 


10 


Bideford 


2449 


16 


6 


2565 


6 


10 


1988 


6 


6 


127 


15 


5 


Braunton, and Braunton and Ilfra- \ 
combe .... J 


723 


12 


2 


590 


11 


5 


10377 








446 


12 


2 


Combmartiu ..... 


630 


17 





481 


3 


6 


7247 


10 





673 


10 


1 


Combmartin and Ilfracombe . 


324 


1 


7 


292 


17 


3 


6685 


14 





244 


19 


1 


Countess Weir Bridge (c) 


284 


19 


10 


1023 


12 


11 


_ 


_ 






— 




Exeter 


6250 


11 


4 


6628 


2 


4 


21693 


15 


7 




— 




Great Torrington .... 


1591 


1 


5 


1632 


18 


7 


4476 


10 





116 


12 


5 


Honitou 


652 


18 


11 


760 


17 


1 


4850 








48 


2 


10 


Honiton and Ilminster . 


165 


12 


8 


160 


4 


2 


11307 


2 


6 


38 


14 


1 


Honiton and Sidraontli . 


269 


17 


2 


194 


10 


4 


1100 








112 


12 


8 


Kiugsbridge and Dartmouth . 


2703 


6 


5 


2702 


2 


2 


8789 


12 


6 


627 


18 


2 


Modbury 


984 


17 


2 


897 


12 


9 


25768 


18 


2 


590 


11 


4 


Moreton Harapstead 


170 








227 


4 


5 


1537 








51 


8 


3 


Plymouth and Exeter Koad . 


133 








141 


6 


3 


1410 








87 


14 


3 


Plymouth and Tavistock 


1010 


10 





982 


5 


7 


2578 


10 


11 


107 


15 


2 


Sidmouth and Cullompton 


143 


15 





325 


16 


8 


14380 


4 


5 


49 


19 





South Molton .... 


1275 


5 





1106 


19 


1 


25754 


18 


11 


826 


4 


10 


Teignmouth 


055 








852 


5 


6 


24297 


4 


6 


•44 


1 


9 


Tiverton 


2206 


19 


10 


2736 


1 


1 


21550 








901 


14 


9 


Torquay {e) 


5398 


19 





5911 


19 


3 




— 






— 




Totnes and Bridgetown Pomeroy\ 
and Totnes Bridge . . J 

Total .... 


2605 


4 


6 


2451 


12 


10 


25149 


8 


' 


625 


6 


4 


£36486 


15 


4 


£37810 


1 


8 


£244836 


5 


10 


£7366 


10 






(e) Local Act expired November 1, 1874. 

HiGnwAY Districts. — The Highway Act has only been partially adopted in this county. At 
the time of the census of 1871 there were 25 districts, 15 of which were identical with the petty 
sessional divisions, the remaining ten being comprised within five of such divisions (See also p. 18.) 

The following enumeration of the districts shows their rateable value in 1874, their mileage, 
and their receipts and expenditure for the year ended December 31, 1874 : — 



so 




history oi' Devontsliire. 






















District 


Rateable 
Value 


■■ '■'" ■/' '• ' ' ■""■■ 

Mileage 


Receipts 


Expenditure 


Parish 
Highways 


District 
Roads (late 
Turnpilces 




£ 


M F 


M V 


£ 


5. 


d. 


£ 


.<;. d. 


Ashburton 


45683 


239 


2 


1426 


15 





1554 


14 3 


Axminstor . 






71327 


213 5 


— 


1347 


14 


4 


1269 


1 6 


Barnstaple . 






63508 


238 6 


— 


2223 


18 





2048 


16 4 


Bideford . 






36149 


228 6 





1313 


16 





1534 


6 7 


Chiilmleigh . 






58725 


264 1 


6 


2398 


10 


7 


2326 


4 9 


Crediton 






82598 


213 4 


— 


2269 


18 


8 


2305 


6 3 


Crockernwell 






53132 


276 4 


16 3 


2045 


14 


11 


2017 


8 4 


Cullompton 






99695 


291 5 


— 


1935 


16 


11 


1648 


2 1 


Ermingtou and Plymp 


ton . 




111268 


303 


12 


2779 


6 


10 


2923 


8 7 


Great Torrington 






45561 


226 4 





1471 


10 





1422 


17 9 


Hatherleigh 






37755 


188 2 


17 7 


1794 


9 


6 


1741 


13 3 


Holsworthy 






35231 


272 1 


— 


1945 


3 


6 


2079 


3 8 


Honiton 






37505 


224 6 





1024 


10 





1006 


13 8 


Ilfracombe . 






54723 


210 5 


18 1 


1180 


12 


7 


1232 


9 11 


Kingsbridge 






83016 


283 2 


— 


3030 


8 


7 


2966 


19 1 


Lifton 






51223 


184 2 


16 4 


1692 


10 





1719 


5 8 


Midland Eoboragh 






56784 


171 4 


2 


2111 


14 


2 


1965 


4 3 


Newton Abbot . 






98392 


271 7 


32 5 


1907 


8 


2 


1938 


2 5 


Ottery 






33313 


97 6 


_ 


621 


15 





679 


3 6 


South Molten 






64305 


293 


8 6 


2650 


6 


10 


2760 


7 7 


Tavistock . 






75791 


262 


48 


3567 


15 


11 


3666 


6 11 


Tiverton 






66383 


226 4 


11 5 


2019 


7 


6 


2029 


2 6 


Totnes 






70246 


221 


— 


1717 


13 


11 


1735 


14 7 


Wonford . 






150767 


262 1 


2 6 


2569 


7 


6 


2752 


5 7 


Woodbury . 




, , 


54915 


169 


— 


1172 


10 





1130 


3 4 


Total . 


£1657995 


5833 3 


189 3 


£48118 


14 


5 


£48353 


2 4 


Lieutenancy Si 


JE-DlVISI 


ONS h 


ave been co 


nstituted f( 


)r the purp 


ose of 


raisi 


no: the Militia quotas. 



At present the Militia consists solely of persons who voluntarily enlist. But the 18th section of the 
Act 15 & 16 Vict. c. 50 provides that this quota may be raised by means of the ballot, whenever the 
voluntary enlistments fall short of the required number. The application of the ballot is, however, 
annually suspended by Parliament. The lieutenancy of a county is empowered by 23 & 24 Vict. c. 120 
to alter existing or constitute new sub-divisions as may appear convenient. The general law respect- 
ing the Militia does not apply to the miners of Devon and Cornwall, but the Militia of the Stannaries 
of these counties are regulated by 42 Geo. III. c. 72, in which Act lieutenancy sub-divisions are 
mentioned. The city of Exeter forms a sub-division of itself. The Bideford sub-division includes 
the borough of Bideford, and Bideford petty sessional division, exclusive of Lundy Isle. The 
Braunton sub-division includes Barnstaple borough, and Braunton petty sessional division. 
The Cullompton sub-division includes Cullompton petty sessional division and Tiverton borough. 
The Midland Eoborough sub-division includes Midland Roborough petty sessional division and 
Plymouth borough. The Paignton sub-division includes the Paignton petty sessional division and the 
parishes of Berry Pomeroy and Littlehempston. The Roborough sub-division includes Roborough 
petty sessional division and Devonport borough. The South Molton sub-division includes the 
borough of South Molton, the South Molton petty sessional division, and the parishes of High 
Bickington, and Puddington, and Washford Pyne. The Stanborough and Coleridge includes the 
boroughs of Dartmouth and Totnes, and the Stanborough and Coleridge petty sessional division ex- 
cept the parishes of Berry Pomeroy and Littlehempston. The Crediton sub-division includes Lundy 
Island and the Crediton petty sessional '^division, except the parishes of Puddington and "Washford 
Pyne. The Great Torrington sub-division. Great Torrington petty sessional division except High 
Bickington parish, the remaining twelve sub -divisions, Axminster, Crockernwell, Ermington, and 
Plympton, Hatherleigh, Holsworthy, Honiton, Lifton, Ottery, Tavistock, Teignbridge, Wonford, and 
Woodbury, are identical with the petty sessional divisions bearing the same names. 

County Courts are held at Exeter, East Stonehouse, Crediton, Okehampton, Newton Abbot, 
Torquay, Tavistock, Totnes, Chui'ston, and Kingsbridge, of which Matthew Fortescue, Esq., is the 
judge ; at Tiverton, Wellington, South Molton, Chard, Honiton, Taunton, Torrington, Barnstaple, 
Bideford, and Axminster, of which Mr. Serjeant PetersdorfE is the judge ; and at Launceston and 
Plolsworthy, of which Montague Bere, Esq., Q.C., is the judge. The parishes in each district, with 
the registrar and high bailiff, will be noticed in the histories and alphabet of the towns in which they 
are held. For the purposes of the Bankruptcy Act, 1869, Axminster, Crediton, Honiton. and Newton 



History of I>evoiisliii*e* 



31 



Abbot and Torquay County Courts are attached to Exeter ; Tavistock, Totnes, Kingsbridge, and Oke- 
j hampton to East Stonehouse (including Plymouth and Devonport) ; and Bideford, South Molton, and 

STorrington to Barnstaple. East Stonehouse, Exeter, and Barnstaple have jurisdiction in Admiralty, 
and at each of these places is established a District Registry of the High Court of Justice. 

Local Board Districts, &c. — In April, 1871, Local Boards under either the Public Health Act 
of 1848, or the Local Government Act of 1858, had been established in six municipal boroughs and 
sixteen towns, namely, Bampton, Bideford, Brixham, Lower Dartmouth, Dawlish, Devonport, Exeter 
(city), Exmouth, Ilfracombe, Lynton, Northam, Okehampton, Ottery St. Mary, Paignton, Plymouth, 
St. Mary Church, St. Thomas the Apostle, Sidmouth, South Molton, Teign mouth, Torquay, Wool- 
borough. Three municipal boroughs (Barnstaple, Honiton, Tiverton), and one town (Crediton), have 
Improvement Commissions ; and three towns (Ashburton, Cullompton, and Topsham) have neither 
municipal authorities, local boards, nor improvement commissioners. By the Public Health Act, 
1872, ' Boroughs, Improvement Act districts, and Local Government districts, whether incorporated 
or constituted before or after the passing of this Act, are, under certain provisions, and with a few 
exceptions, specified in the Act, styled "Urban Sanitary districts." ' 

Ecclesiastical Divisions. — The Sees of Credition and Cornwall, united in the year 1042, were 
separated in 1877, after a union of 835 years. This separation, which had long been felt necessary, 
is in a great measure due to the exertions of the present Bishop of Exeter, who cheerfully resigned a 
portion of his income to provide funds for the proper maintenance of the new bishopric. The Bishop 
also, about two years since, altered the Ecclesiastical Divisions of the county, with the view of 
making the rural deaneries more uniform in size, with a convenient and easily accessible centre as a 
place of meeting ; the re-arrangement is based on the Poor Law unions. To carry out this plan, the 
names of several ancient deaneries have been altogether lost, as they have become annexed to others ; 
thus, in the archdeaconry of Exeter, Dunkeswell has become united to Honiton, the deanery of 
Plymtree has been suppressed, and the new one of Ottery created. In the archdeaconry of Barnstaple 
no deaneries have been suppressed, but some of the parishes have been changed from one to another 
{e.g., Winkleigh, from the deanery of Torrington to that of Chulmleigh). In the archdeaconry of 
Totnes, besides similar changes, the deanery of Three Towns (comprehending the churches of 
Plymouth, Devonport and Stonehouse) has been created, and the ancient deanery of Lamerton has 
been altogether suppressed. The following are the new divisions for this county : — 

RURAL DEANERIES OF THE DIOCESE. 

ARCHDEACONRY OF EXETER. 

Archdeacon. — Ven. Henry Sanders, M.A., Sowton, near Exeter. 

1. — Deanery of Aylesheare. 
Tlural Dean — Rev. Prebendary Acland, M.A., Broadclyst, Exeter. 



Aylesbeare V. 

Bicton R. 

Broadclyst V. with St. Paul's 

Westwood 
Budleigh, East V. 
Clyst St. George R. 
Clyst Honiton V. 
Clyst Hydon R. 
Clyst St. Mary R. 
Clyst St. Lawrence R. 



Exeter — 

AllhallowS) Goldsmith-street, 

R. 
AUhallows on the Walls R. 
Bedford Chapel 
Exwith V. 
Holy Trmity R. with Wy- 

nard's Church 
St. John's Hospital School 

Chapel 
St. David V. with St. Michael 
and All Angela C. 



Colaton Raleigh V. 

Countess Wear V. 

Farringdon R. 

Littleham V., with Exmouth C. 

Lympstone R. 

Newton Poppleford V. 

Otterton V. 

Pinhoe V. 

Poltimore and Huxham U.R. 

2. — Deanery of Christianity. 

Rural Dean — (vacant). 

Exeter — 

St. Edmund R. 

St. James R. 

St. John with St. George U.R. 

St. Lawrence R. 

St. Martin R. 

St. Mary Arches R. 

St. Mary Major R. with St. 

Mary Magdalene C. 
St. Mary Steps R. 
St. Olave R. 
St. Pancras R. 



Rockbeare V. 
Re we R. 
Sowton R. 
Stoke Canon V. 
Topsham V. 
Whimple R. 
Withecombe Raleigh V. 
Woodbury V. 
Woodbury Salterton V. 



Exeter — 

St. Paul R. 

St. Petrock with St. Kerrian, 
U.R. 

St. Sidwell R. 

St. Stephen R. 
Heavitree V. with Whipton 

Chapel & Liverydoie , Chapel 
St. Leonard R. 
St. Thomas the Apostle V. with 

Oldridge P.C. 



32 



History of Devonsliire. 





3. — Deanery of Cadhury. 


Rural Dean— 


-Rev. F. J. Coleridge, M.A., Cadbury, Tiverton. 


liow with Broad Nymet U.K. 


Cheriton Fitzpaine R. 


Sandford V. 


Brampford Speke V. with Cow- 


Down St. Mary R. 


Shobrooke R. 


ley C. 


Hittisleigh R. 


Stockleigh English R. 


Cadbury V. 


Kennerleigh R. 


Stockleigh Pomeroy R. 


Colebrooke V. 


Morchard Bishop R. 


Thorverton V 


Crediton V. with the Chaplaincy 


Netherexe V. 


Upton Hellions R ^^m 


thereof and Posbury Chapel 


Newton St. Cyres V. 


Upton Pyne R. ^H 


Clannaborough II 


Poughill R. 


Woolfardisworthy R. 3^H 


4.- 


- Deanery of Dunheswell and Jlomton. ^^| 


Rural Dean- 


-Rev. J. G. Copleston, B.A., OfFwell, Honiton. ^^| 


Axminster, V. with Kilmington 


Dunkeswell V. 


Rousdon R. ^^| 


C. and Membury C. 


Dunkeswell Abbev, Holy Trinity 


Seaton V. and Beer C. ^^M 


Axmouth V. 


P.C. 


Sheldon V. ^^ 


Awliscombe V. 


Honiton R. with St. Paul's 


Shute V. I 


Church Stanton R. 


Chapel 


Stockland V. with Dalwood C. 


Clayliidon R. 


Luppit V. 


Uplyme R. 


Colyton V. 


Monkton V. 


Upottery V. 


Combpyne R. 


Musbury ]l. 


Wid worthy R. 


Combe Raleigh R. 


Northleigh R. 


Yarcombe V. 


Cotleigh R. 


OfFwell R. 





Bradscombe V. 
Broadhembury V. 
Buckerell V. 
Escot V. 
Farway R 
Fen i ton R 
Gittisham R. 



5. — Deanery of Ottery. 
Rural Dean — Rev. T. Mozley, M.A., Plymtree, Cullompton. 



Harpford V. with Fen-Ottery C. 
Ottery St. Mary V. 
Peyhembury V. 
Plymtree R. 
Salcombe Regis V. 
Sidbury V. 



Sidmouth V. 

All Saints Chapel 
Southleigh R. 
Talaton R. 
Tipton V. 
Westhill V. 



G. — Deanery of Kenn. 
Rural Dean — Hon. & Rev. Prebendary Courtena}^, M.A.,Powderham, Exeter. 



Alphington R. 

Ash ton R. 

Ash combe R. 

Bishopsteiguton V. 

Bridford R. 

Cofton V. 

Cheriton Bishop R. 

Cristow V. 

Dawlish V. with St. Mark C. 



Doddiscombsleigh 1 
Dunchideock with 

U.R. 
Dunsford V. 
Exminster V. 
Holcombe Burnell V 
Ide V. 
Kenn R. 
Kenton V. 



Shillingford 



! Luton V. 
Mamhead R. 
Powderham R. 
Starcross V. 
Tedburn St. Mary R. 
Teignmouth East Y. 
Teignmouth West V. 
Whitstone R. 



7. — Deanery of Tiverton Wes,t. 
Rural Dean — Rev. S. H. Berkeley, M.A., Morebath, Tiverton. 



Bampton V. with Petton Chapel 

Cadeleigh R. 

Calverleigh R. 

Cruwys Morchard R. 

Loxbeare R. 

Morebath V. 

Oakford R. 



Puddington R. 

Stoodleigh R. 

Templeton R. 

Tiverton— St. Peter with St. 

George's Church 

Clare Portion R. 

Pitt Portion R. with Cove C. 



Prior's Portion R. 

Tidcombe Portion R. with 
Chevythorne C. 

West Exe 
Washfield R. 
Washford Pyne R. 



liistory of* Devonsliire. 



33 



8. — Deanery of Tiverton East. 
Eural Dean — Rev. H. Bramley, UfFculme, CuUompton. 



Bickleigh E. 
Blackborough R. 
Burlescombe V. 
Bradninch V. 
Butterleigh R. 
Clay hanger R. 
CuUompton V. 



Culmstock V. 

Halberton Y'. 

Hockworthy V. 

Hemyock R. with Culm Davey 

Chapel 
Holcomhe Rogus V. 
Huntsham R. 



Kentisbeare R. 
Sampford Peverell R. 
Silverton R. 
UfFculme V. 
Uploman R. 
Willand R. 



ARCHDEACONRY OF BARNSTAPLE. 

Archdeacon. — Ven. Henry Woolcombe, M.A., The Close, Exeter. 

1. — Deanery of Barnstaple. 
Rural Dean — Rev. J. T. Pigot, M.A., The Vicarage, Fremington. 



Ashford V. 
Atherington R. 
Barnstaple V. 

Holy Trinity V. 

St. Mary Magdalen V. 
Bishopstawton V. 
Bittadon R. 
Braunton V. 



Down "West V. 
Fremington V. 
Georgeham R. 
Heanton Punchard R. 
Horwood R. 
Ilfracombe V. 

St. Philip and St. James V. 
St. Matthew Lee P.C. 



Instow R. 

Marwood R. 

Morthoe V. 

Newport V. 

Newton Tracey R. 

Pilton Y. 

Tawstock R. with Harracott C. 

Westleigh V. 



2. — Deanery of Chuhnleigh. 
Rural Dean — Rev. J. T. Hyde, M.A., Wemb worthy. 



Aishreigney R. 
IBrushford"'V. 
iBundleigh R. 
jBurrington Y. 
IChawleigh R. 
Cheldon R. 



Chulmleigh R. 

Coleridge Y. with Nymet Row- 
land R. 
Eggesford R. 
Lapford R. 
Thelbridge R. 



Wembworthy R. 
Winkleigh Y. 
Worlington, East R. 
Worlington, West R. 
Zeal Monachorum R. 



3. — Deanery of Hartland. 
Rural Dean— Rev. C. W. Sillifant, M.A., Wear GifFord, Bideford. 



IJAbbotsham Y. 
Alwington R. 
Appledore Y. 
Bideford R. 
Buckland Brewer Y. 
^Buck's Mills Y. 



Clovelly R. 
Hartland Y. 
Landcross R. 
Littleham R. 
Lundy Island R. 
Monkleigh Y. 



Northam Y. 
Parkham R. 
Wear GifFord R. 
Welcombe Y. 
Woolfardisworthy Y. 



Rural Dean- 



4. — Deanery of Holswortliy. 
-Rev. G. W. Thornton, M.A., The Rectory, Holswortliy. 



[Abbotsbickington Y. with Bulk- 

! worthy C. 

Ashwater R. 

Black Torrington R. 

Bradford R. 

Bradworthy Y.w.Pancraswyke C. 

Bridgerule Y. 



Clawton Y. 
Halwell R. 
Holswortliy R. 
Hollacombe R. 
Luffincott R. 
Milton Damerel 
bury, C. 



R. with Cook- 



Putford West 

Putford C. 
Pyworthy R. 
Sutcombe R. 
Tetcott R. 
Thornbury R. 



R. with East 



Arlington R. 
Berry narbor R. 
Bratton Fleming R. 
Brendon R. 
Challacombe R. 
Combe Martin R. 
Countisbury Y. 



5. — Deanery of Slierw ell. 
Rural Dean — Rev. R. Martin, M.A., Challacombe, Barnstaple. 

Martinhoe R. 



Down, East R. 
Goodleigh R. 
Highbray R. 
Kentisbury R. 
Landkey Y. 
Loxhbre R. 
Lynton Y. 



Parracombe R. 

Sherwell R. 

Stoke Rivers R. 

Swymbridge Y. with Travellers' 

Rest Chapel 
Trentishoe R. 



34. 



History of" DevoiisKire. 



6. — Deanery of Southmolton. 

Kev. Prebendary Karslake, B.A., Meshaw, Southmolton 

Chittlehampton V. Northmolton V. w. Twitchen C 

Creacombe R. 

Georgenympton R. 

Kingsnynipton R. 

Knowstone with MoUand V. 

Mariansleigh V. 

Meshaw R. 



Rural Dean 

Anstey, East R. 

Anstey, West V. 

Bishops Nyrapton V. 

Buckland East, w. Filleigh U;R. 

Buckland West R. 

Charles R. 

Chittlehamholt V. 



Romansleigh R. 

Rose Ash R. 

Southmolton V. 

Warkleigh with Satterleigh U.R, 

Witheridge V, 



7. — Deanery of Torrington. 
Rural Dean — Rev. 11. Barnes, M.A., Langtree, Torrington. 



Alverdiscott R. 
Beaford R. 
Bickington, High, R. 
Buckland Filleigh R. 
Dolton R. 
Dowland V. 
Frithelstock V. 
Giles, St., in-the-Wood V 



Huntshaw R. 
Huish R. 
Iddisleigh R. 
Langtree R. 
Meeth R. ♦ 
Merton R. 

Newton St. Petrock R. 
Peters Marland V. 



Petrockstow R. 

Roborough R. 

Shebbear V. with Sheepwash C 

Torrington, Great, V. 

Torrington, Little, V. 

Yarnscombe V. 



AKCHDEACONRY OF TOTNES. 

Archdeacon. — Ven. Alfred Earle, M.A., West Alvington, Kingsbridge. 

1. — Deanery of Tpplepen, 

Rural Dean — Rev. John Hewett, M.A., Babbacombe. 



Babbacombe V. 

Brixham V. with Churston Fer- 
rers C. 
Brixham, Lower, V. 
Collaton St. Mary V. 
Ipplepen V. 
Kingskerswell V. 
Kingswear V. 



Mary Church, St., V. with Cof- 

finswell C. 
Nicholas, St., V. 
Paignton V. with Marldon C. 
Petrox, St., V. with Chapel of 

Ease 
Stokeinteignhead R. 
Stoke Flemino^ R. 



Townstal V. with St. Saviour's C 
Torquay — 

Tor Mohun, w. Cockington V 

Ellacombe V. 

St. John V. 

St. Luke V. 

Torwood R. w. St. Matthias C 

Upton R. 



Rural Dean — 

Abbotsker swell V. 

Ashburton V. with Buckland C. 

Bickington V 

Bovey, North, R. 

Bovey Tracey V. with St. John's 

Chapel 
Chagford R. 
Chudleigh V. 
Combeinteignhead R. 
Denbury R. 



2. — Deanery ofMoreton. 
Rev. W. Thornton, M.A., North Bovey, Moreton. 



Haccombe R. 

Hennock V. with Knighton C. 

Highw^eek R. with St. Mary's 

Chapel 
Ideford R. 
Ilsington V. 
Kingsteignton V. 
Leusden V. 
Lustleigh R. 
Manaton R. 



Moreton Hampstead R. 

Ogwell East with West U.R. 

Teigngrace R. 

Torbrian R. 

Trusham R. 

Widdecombe in the Moor V. 

Wolborough R. with St. Leonard 



Newton Abbot 
Paul's C. 
Woodland V. 



C. and Si 



Rural Dean — Rev. 

Ashbury and Northlew U.R. 
Beaworthy R. 
Belstone R. 
Bratton Clovelly R. 
Bridestowe R. with Sourton C, 
Broadwoodkelly R. 
Drewsteignton E. 
Exbourne R. 
Gidley R. 



[3. — Deanery of Okehampton, 
George Woollcombe, M.A., The Rectory, Highampton. 



I 



Hatherleigh V. 
Highampton R. 
Honeychurch R. 
Inwardleigh R. 
Jacobstow R. 
Monk Okehampton R. 
Okehampton V, with St. James's 
Chapel 



Sampford Courtnay R. wit] 

Sticklepath C. 
Spreyton V. 
Tawton, North, R. 
Tawton, South, V. with 

Zeal Chapel 
Throwleigh R. 
Week, St. German's, V. 



Sout: 



Hisstory o±" I>e>^oiisli.tre. 



35 



4. — Deanery of Plympton. 
Rural Dean — Rev. C. C. Bartholomew, M.A., Cornwood, Ivybridge. 



jBickleigh V. 

[Brixton V. 

Corn wood V. 

Egg Buckland V. 

Erminojton V. with Kingston C. 

Harford R. 

liolbeton V. 



Hooe, V. 

Ivybridge V. 

Modbury V. with Brownstone C. 

Newton Ferrers R. 

Plympton St. Mary V. 

Plympton St. Maurice V. 

Plymstock V. 



Revelstoke R. 
Shaugh V. 
Sheepstor V. 
Tamerton Foliot V. 
Ugborough Y. 
Wembury V. 
Yealmpton V. 



Rural Dean- 



5. — Deanery of Tavistock. 
-Rev. W. H. D. Purcell, M.A., Sydenham Damerel, Tavistock. 



Bere Ferrers R. with Bere 

Alston C. 
Buckland Monachorum V. 
Bradstone R. 
Brent Tor V. 
Cory ton R. 
Dunterton R. 
Horrabridge V. 
Kelly R. 



Lamerton V. with North Brentor 

Chapel 
Lewtrenchard R. 
Lifton R. 

Lydford R. with Princetown C. 
Maristow V. with Thrushelton C. 
Meavy R. 
Milton Abbot V. 
Sampford Spiney R. 



Stowford R. 
Sydenham Damerel R. 
Tavistock V. 
St. Paul V. 
Tavy St. Mary R. 
Tavy St. Peter R. 
Walkhampton V. 
Whitchurch V. 



Rural Dean- 

\ Budeaux, St., V. 
Stoke Damerel, R. 
Devonport — 

~ ockyard Chapel 
t. Aubyn P.C. 
t. James V. 
t. John C. 
t. Mary V, 
St. Paul V. 
St. Stephen V. 



Rural Dean- 



6. — Deanery of Three Towns. 
-Rev. C. T. Wilkinson, M.A., St. Andrew, Plymouth. 



St. Michael P.C. 
Plymouth — 
All Saints V. 
Charles V. 
Christ Church Y. 
Compton GifFord, Emmanuel 

P.C. 
Holy Trinity Y. with St. 

Saviour's Churcli 
St. Andrew's Ch. 



St. Andrew Y. with Penny- 
cross C. 

St. James Y. 

St. Luke P.C. 

St. Peter Y. 
Sutton on Plym Y. 
Stonehouse, East, Y. 

St. Matthew P.C. 

St. Paul's Chapel 



7. — Deanery ofTotnes. 
-Rev. R. Bartholomew, M.A., The Yicarage, Harberton. 



Ashprington R. 
Berry Pomeroy Y. 
Brent, South, Y. 
Buckfastleigh Y. 
Broadhempston Y. 
Corn worthy Y. 

Dartington R. with St. Barnabas 
Chapel 



Dean Prior Y. 
Diptford R. 
Dittisham R. 
Halwell Y. 
Harberton Y. 
Harbertonford Y. 
Holne Y. 
Landscove Y, 



Little Hempston R. 
Morleigh R. 
North Huish R. 
Rattery Y. 
Staverton Y. 
Stoke Gabriel R. 
Totnes Y. 



8. — Deanery of Woodleigh. 
Rural Dean — Rev. J. Power, M.A., Dodbrooke, Kingsbridge. 



Allington, East, R. 

Allington, West, Y. with South 

Milton C. 
Aveton GifFord R. 
Blackawton Y. with Street C. 
Bigbury R. 
Charleton R. 



Churchstow Y. w. Kingsbridge C. 

Dodbrooke R. 

Loddiswell Y. with Buckland 

Tout Saints C. 
Malborough & South Huish P.C. 
Pool, South, R. 
Portlemouth R. 



Ringmore R. 

Salcombe Y. 

Slapton Y. 

Stokenham Y. with Chivelstone 

C. and Sherford C. 
Thurlestone R. 
Woodleigh R. 



Miscellaneous Divisions. — There are 484 civil parishes or townships (in which a poor rate is 
levied separately) and extra-parochial places; one such civil parish (Axminster) extends into Dorset- 
shire. Devon is the Western division for the localisation of the forces, and has 34 sub- districts. At 



36 History of* I>evotisliii*^. 

the time of the census there were 26 head post offices, 273 sub-post offices (including town receiving 
offices), 247 pillar letter boxes, 131 telegraph offices, 3 collectors of Inland Revenue districts, 10 
supervisors' districts, 55 divisions and rides, 5 surveyors of taxes' districts, and G ports or dis- 
tricts into which the coast had been divided by Her Majesty's Customs Department (Barnstaple, Bido- 
ford, Dartmouth, Exeter, Plymouth, and Teignmouth.) 

Manufactures. — The manufacture of woollen cloths in Devon appears to have been derived from! 
Flanders and the Low Countries. No mention is made of fulling mills in this county in Domesday] 
Survey, but they' are referred to in the charters of Edward I. A manufactory of either lace ori 
woollen was formerly to be found in most parts of the county, but both have greatly declined herej 
during the present century, owing to the amazing extension of machinery and the factory system, in; 
the Midland and Northern Counties, which have nearly annihilated these branches of industry in their 
primitive seats, where the old domestic system was adhered to. There are still a few large woollen 
mills and several thousand looms in different parts of the county employed in making serges, blankets, 
and other coarse woollen cloths. Cloth was woven at Exeter and Chudleigh in the reign of Edward 
I. Dartmoor wool, however, was at that time exported ; but Edward III. prohibited the exportation 
of wool, and encouraged the immigration of foreign weavers, many of whom settled in this county. 
In the 15th. century, friezes, Tavistocks, or western dozens, and other sorts of coarse cloths, were ex- 
ported by the Devonshire merchants to Brittany. In the reign of Edward IV. an Italian taught the 
English the art of weaving kerseys ; and in the early part of the 16th century 'Devonshire kerseys' 
were an important article of commerce to the Levant. The woollen manufacture was greatly ex- 
tended here in the reign of Elizabeth, as noticed with Exeter, and continued to flourish, till the close of 
last century. The market for wool and cloths, which had been long at Crediton, was removed to 
Exeter in 1538. Totnes produced a sort of coarse cloth, called Pynn- whites, not made elsewhere. 
Crediton was famous for fine spinning. Barnstaple and Torrington furnished bayes, fryzadoes, &c., 
and Pilton, cottons and lining, ' so coarse a stuiFe, that there was a voe (a woe) pronounced against 
them in these words : — Woe unto you, ye Piltonians, that make cloth without wool.' Many, other 
places contributed to the great Exeter mart, which ranked next Leeds in 1759, and exported no fewer 
than 330,414 pieces of cloth in 1768, but its trade suffered considerably during the American war. 
In 1789, the East India Company bought here 121,000 pieces of serges, &c. ; of which 600 pieces 
of broads were made at Crediton, and the rest chiefly at Ashburton, Tavistock, Modbury, North 
Tawton, and Newton Bushell. While they had the monopoly of the tea trade, they were enabled to 
force their serges or long ells on the Chinese in exchange, and they were induced to do this on several 
occasions, at the request of Government, in order to relieve the weavers and manufacturers of this 
country in times of distress. From 1795 to 1805, this company annually purchased here from 
250,000 to 300,000 pieces. In 1838, there were still in the county 39 woollen mills, and more than 
3,000 looms employed in weaving serges. Of the latter there were in and around Ashburton, 660 ; 
Okehampton, 530; Cullompton, 500; Buckfastleigh, 700; Exeter, 300; Totnes, 230; South and 
North Molton, 200; Crediton and North Tawton, 150; and Tavistock, 100. The manufacture of 
blankets has been introduced into Devonshire since the expiration of the East India Company's trading 
monopoly, and many of the women of Devon, previously employed in weaving serges, have since been 
employed in glove making, &c. Since the repeal of the prohibition to export English wool, great 
quantities have been exported from Devonshire, chiefly to France, for the manufacture of finer articles 
than serges. In 1838, there were in Devon three flax mills and three silk mills. The latter are at 
Church Stanton, Aylesbeare, and Ottery St. Mary, and employ upwards of 400 hands. From 1755 till 
1835, there was a celebrated carpet manufactory at Axminster. Bone or thread lace, commonly 
called Honiton lace, is extensively made in the town and neighbourhood of Honiton, and in many 
other parts of the county, and gives employment to many thousand women and children, as noticed 
with Honiton. At Tiverton and Barnstaple are two extensive lace factories, employed in making 
bobbin-net, &c. (See Tiverton.) The former was established in 1815, and the latter in 1822. 
Blond lace is also made here, and there are in the county several potteries, many large malting and 
tanning establishments, several large foundries and machine works, &c., &c. Although the woollen 
trade has very much declined in this county, yet there are still extensive mills, amongst the principal 
of which are those situated at Buckfastleigh, North Tawton, and Chagford. At Ashburton Messrs. 
Berry alone represent the once numerous body of clothiers, and it is due to their perseverance, and 
to that of Messrs. Ilamlyn, of Buckfastleigh, that the branch still exists in the valley of the Dart. 
Although they have extensive sorting shops, &c., within the Borough of Ashburton, yet the Messrs. 
Berry do not actually carry on their manufacture within the ancient borough, and a calamitous fire 
which occurred on the 19th of November 1877, the same day which witnessed the similar destruction 
of Lamerton Church, burnt to the ground their largest mill, which was situated at iBuckfast, and 
which was a very extensive erection of five storeys, and filled with the newest and best machinery. 
There is a strong probability (although there is no absolute proof) that the woollen manufacture was 
very greatly encouraged, if not actually introduced, in the Dart valley by the Cistercian Monks, who 



History of Devonshire. 



S7 



jiDlonised the neighbouring Abbey of Buckfast. Paint works, for the manufacture of paint without 
'hite lead, have been recently established on the banks of the Yeo (tributary of the Dart), within 
le parish of Ashburton. (For number of persons engaged in the chief occupations, see page 26.) 

Fisheries. — Great quantities of salmon and salmon-trout are taken in the principal rivers of 
)evon ; but those taken in the Exe and Dart are the most esteemed. Salmon-peal are found in the 
'avy, Tamar, Erme, Dart, Mole, and Otter, and lamprey in the Exe and Mole. The Salmon-Weir 
1 the Tavy, near Buckland Abbey, is a work of considerable magnitude, thrown across the river in a 
art where two projecting rocks serve as buttresses to the masonry, which is built somewhat arch- 
aise, to resist the pressure of the waters in times of flood, when they collect from the slopes of 
>artmoor, and rush down with great impetuosity. Turbot, plaice, soles, whiting, mullet, mackerel, 
ilchards, gurnet, flounders, herrings, sprats, crabs, lobsters, and other fish abound in the Channels 
pposite both coasts. Brixham, in Torbay, is the largest fishing port in Devon, an^ after it rank 
'Jy mouth, Teignmouth, Lympstone, Topsham, Dartmouth, Salcombe, and Ilfraeombe. There are 
xtensive oyster beds at Starcross, Newton-Ferrers, Lympstone, and Topsham: The torpedo, or 
lectric ray, has occasionally been taken in Torbay and the river Dart. The opah, or king-fish, is 
ery rare, but one was taken at Brixham, in 1772, weighing 140 lbs., and its flesh ' looked and tasted 
ke beef.' The sepia, or cuttle-fish, is frequently taken in nets by fishermen off Teignmouth and 
lapton Sands. Dartmouth, Teignmouth, Torquay, Bideford, Topsham, and Plymouth, formerly 
2nt many vessels to the Newfoundland fishery, but that trade has considerably declined, and only the 
iree first-named places are now partially engaged in it. The principal rivers are now under the 
apervision of boards of conservators, and licenses for salmon fishing (and in many instances for 
out fishing also) are issued by them, at various rates, according to the abundance of the fish. 
I almon passes have been constructed on many of the weirs, but much improvement is still necessary 
1 those provisions on many streams, particularly at Totnes. . The small streams on Dartmoor abound 
^ith trout, and the writer killed 1137 with his own rod there in about six weeks o£ 1877, the largest 
f which weighed 2 lb. 1-J oz. 

Education, &c. — The schools of Devonshire are very numerous, and they have been greatly 
icreased of late years, and Science and Art classes under the Department at South Kensington have 
een recently freely established. Since the Elementary Education Act was passed in 1870, School 
loards have been formed in many of the towns and villages, and new schools have been erected by 
lem. There are still in the county many endowed grammar and charity schools and a great 
umber of elementary schools, supported by subscriptions and the weekly payments of the 
cholars. According to the 24th Eeport of the Science and Art Department, 52 Science Schools 
7ere examined in May 1876, and there were 54 Science Schools in existence in January 1877. 
)rawing was taught in 70 Elementary Schools, of which 27 were National and Church of England, 
9 Board, 3 Wesleyan, and 21 Charity and other Schools; 29 Art classes were aided by the Depart- 
fient, and there were 3 unaided. There were 6 Schools of Art in the county and 1 Training College 
xamined in drawing in May 1877. ' The Elementary Education Act, 1876,' 39-40 Vict. c. 79 
August 15, 1876], which came into operation on January 1, 1877, provides for the appointment of 
School Attendance Committee for every borough and parish for which a School Board has not been 
lected. 

The following list of the School Boards formed in the county to March 31, 1877, gives the 
:umber of members, and the date of formation. (For further particulars see the parish or parishes 
br which they have been constituted.) 



Board 


No. of 
Members 


When formed 


Board 


No. of 
Members 


When formed 


(c) Abbottskerswell . 


5 


March 27, 1875 


Brixham 


7 


April 1, 1874 


Alphington . 


5 


March 31, 1875 


(c) Broadhempstone with 


5 


April 3, 1875 


(c) Ashwater 


5 


May 1, 1875 


"Woodland (contrib.) 


2 




* Axminster . 


5 


March 16, 1874 


Broadwoodwidger 


5 


July 6, 1874 


(c) Aylesbeare, Harpford, 






Buckfastleigh 


5 


March 29, 1871 


&VennOttery(U.D.) 


7 


June 14, 1875 


(c) Buckland Brewer . 


5 


May 31, 1875 


(c) Bampton 


5 


March 31, 1875 


(c) Cadeleigh . 


5 


April 5, 1875 


Barn&taple . 


7 


Feb. 25, 1871 


* Cliarles (or S. Molton) . 


5 


June 17, 1872 


Bideford . - . 


7 


Jan. 16, 1871 


(c) Chawleigh (U.D.) 


5 


Feb. 19, 1873 


(c) Bishops Nymptom 


5 


Nov. 26, 1874 


(c) Cheriton Bishop . 


5 


Jan. 13, 1875 


(c) Blackawton . 


5 


Aug. 21, 1874 


(c) Cheriton Fitzpaine and 






(c) Bow (or Nymet Tracey) 


• 5 


Jan. 12, 1875 


Stoekleigh English 






(c) Bratton Clovelley 


5 


July 31, 1874 


(U.D.) . . . 


5 


April 26, 1875 


Braunton 


5 


Aug. 19, 1871 


(c) Chivelstone . 


5 


Nov. 26, 1874 


Bridford 


5 


Aug. 11, 1875 


Christow 


5 


March 17, 1875 



38 



History or T>cvoiiHliire. 





Board 


No. of 
11 embers 


When formed 


Board . 


No. of 
Members 


When formed 


Chulnilcigh . 


5 


March 20, 1871 


Modbury 


7 


Sept. 29, 1875 


(c) ChurcluStanton . 


5 


May 7, 1875 


Morotonhampstetul 


5 


Aug. 22, 1874 


Clawton, Tetcott, and 






(c) Morthoo 


5 


Feb. 17, 1875 


Luffingeot (U.D.) 


5 


Aug. 31, 1874 


(c) Musbury 




5 


Nov. 12, 1875 


(e) Clayhidon . 


5 


March 23, 1875 


(c) Newton St. Cyras 




5 


Jan. 12, 1875 


Clovelly 


5 


Feb. 12, 1873 


North Molton 




5 


May 26, 1874 


(c) Coffinswcll&Haccombe 


5 


Nov. 14, 1874 


North Petherwin 




5 


Feb. 20, 1873 


Cok'brooko . 


5 


Nov. 13, 1873 


North Tawton 




5 


Feb. 21, 1872 


* Coloridge 


f) 


Sept. 16, 1872 


Okehampton. 




5 


Jan. 9, 1872 


Colyton 


5 


May 23, 1874 


(c) Ottery St. Mary 




5 


Nov. 23, 1873 


(c) Crediton 


7 


Aug. 20, 1874 


Paignton 




5 


Jan. 29, 1874 


(c) Culmstock . 





June 26, 1874 


Parkham 




5 


April 12, 1873 


Dartmouth . 


5 


Jan. 25, 1871 


Plymouth . 




13 


Jan. 31, 1871 


Dawlish 


7 


Oct. 26, 1874 


Plymstock . 




5 


June 21, 1871 


(c) Denbury (U.D.) . 


5 


March 29, 1875 


(c) Romansleigh and Mari- 






Devonport . 


11 


Jan. 24, 1871 


ansleigh (U.D.) 


5 


April 19, 1875 


(c) Doddiscombsleigli 


5 


May 17, 1876 


(c) Pose Ash 


5 


Jan. 13, 1875 


Drewsteignton 


5 


July 1, 1871 


(c) St. Giles in the Heath 




1 


Dunsford 


5 


May 24, 1871 


(U.D.) . . . 


5 


March 25, 1875 ! 


(c) East and West Putford 






St. Leonard . 


5 


July 22, 1874 


(U.D.) . . . 


5 


Nov. 21, 1874 


St. Nicholas . 


5 


Oct. 24, 1874 


(c) Ea,st and "West Teign- 






St. Thomas the Apostle 


7 


Feb. 28, 1871 


mouth (U.D.) . 


7 


Jan. 16, 1875 


(c) Sampford Courteney 


5 


Aug. 21, 1874 


(c)East and West Wor- 






& Honeychurch with 






lington (U.D.) . 


5 


April 1, 1874 


Belstone (contrib.) . 


2 




(c) East Anstey . 


o 


Feb. 8, 1875 


(c) Shaugh Prior 


5 


Dec. 28, 1874 


East Stonehouso . 


7 


June 16, 1874 


(c) Shebbear (U.D.) . 


5 


Oct. 1, 1874 


(c) Erm and Avon (U.D. 






(c) Shorford 


5 


April 7, 1875 


[see Bigbury descrip.] 


7 


April 29, 1873 


(c)Shute . . . . 


5 


Jan. 4, 1875 


Ermington . 


5 


Feb. 28, 1872 


Slapton 


5 


July 8, 1874 


Exeter. 


9 


Jan. 31, 1871 


South Brent . 


5 


Aug. 20, 1874 


Exmouth 


7 


March 22, 1875 


(c) South Leigh . 


5 


Jan. 12, 1875 


Garmansweek 


5 


March 30, 1874 


South Tawton 


5 


Aug. 1, 1872 


Great Torrington . 


5 


Feb. 16, 1871 


Spreyton 


5 


April 3, 1876 


Halberton . 


7 


April 20, 1871 


* Stoke Fleming (extra 






(c) Halwell and Beaworthy 






municipal) 


5 


March 2, 1874 


(U.D.) . . . 


5 


April 23, 1875 


Stoke Gabriel 


5 


Aug. 27, 1873 


(c) Halwell and Morleigh 






(c) Stokeinteignhead . 


5 


April 10, 1875 


(U.D.) . . . 


5 


April 29, 1875 


(c) Stokenham . 


5 


Aug. 22, 1874 


Hartland . 


7 


Aug. 26, 1874 


Stoke Rivers 


5 


Feb. 3, 1875 


Hatherleigh . 


5 


April 29, 1874 


(c) Sutcombe 


5 


Nov. 26, 1874 


(c) Heanton Punchardon, 






Tavistock . 


7 


March 14, 1874 


Ashford (U.D.) 


5 


Nov. 24, 1874 


! (c) Tedburn St. Mary 


5 


Nov. 18, 1874 


(c) Hemioek 


5 


March 16, 1875 


! (c) Throwleigh and Gid- 






(e) Hennock 


5 


March 13, 1875 


leigh (U.D.) . 


5 


Jan. 11, 1875 


Hitti sleigh, with . 


5 


Sept. 30, 1874 


Tiverton 


9 


July 2, 1874 


Bow or Nymet Traccy 


2 




* Topsham 


6 


April 17, 1872 


Crediton . 


2 




Totnes .... 


5 


Jan. 31, 1871 


Drewsteignton (conts.) 


2 




Uffculme . 


5 


June 26, 1872 


Holbeton 





Nov. 7, 1871 


Ugborough . 


5 


July 16, 1874 


(c) Horwood and Newton 






Upottery 


5 


April 8. 1872 


Tracey(U.D.) . 


5 


Feb. 4, 1875 


(c) Wcmbury . 


5 


July 18, 1874 


(c) Instow .... 


5 


Nov. 23, 1874 


* West Leigh . 


5 


Oct. 10, 1872 


(c) Inwardleigh . 


5 


Feb. 20, 1877 


Whitchurch . 


5 


Feb. 2, 1874 


Ipplepen 


5 


Sept. 16, 1872 


W i d d ec m be-i n-th e- 






Kenton 


5 


Feb. 9, 1873 


Moor 


7 


May 1, 1875 


(c) Lapford and Nymet 






AVilland 


5 


July 17, 1872 


Eowland (U.D.) 


5 


Nov. 24, 1873 


(c)Winkleigh . 


5 


March 31, 1874 


(c) Littleham and Land- 






j (c) Woolfardsworthy, near 






cross (U.D.) . 


5 


Jan. 9, 1875 


; Bideford . 


5 


Dec. 19, 1874 


(c) Lustleigli with . 


5 


Nov. 13, 1875 


(c) Woolfardsworthy . 


5 


May 3, 1876 


Bovoy Tracey (cont.). 


2 




AVashford Pyne and 






(c) Lydford 


5 


Jan. 12, 1875 


Kenncrleigh (U.D.) 


5 . 




(c) Marwood 


5 


Dec. 8, 1874 


with Thelbridge (con- 






(c) Membury 


5 


Jan. 18, 1875 


tributory) 


2 




Milton Damerel . 


5 


Nov. 24, 1874 


Zeal Monachorura. 


5 


Feb. 3, 1875 



* Notes. — U.D. signifies United District. An asterisk* is prefixed to the name of each Board formed under 
sec. 12 (v.), and (c) to that of each Board formed compulsorily under sec. 10 or 40 of the Elementary Education 
Act, 1870. 



History of Devoiisliire. 39 



Charities, &C. — The Parliamentary Commissioners commenced to issue their reports of the 
;harities in 1815 : the Keports occupy four octavo volumes, and those pertaining to the City of Exeter 
I, fifth ; and their substance will be found to be incorporated at subsequent pages in the accounts of 
,he charities of each town or parish. Many of the abuses noticed by the Commissioners have since 
)een rectified. In Exeter, Plymouth, Totnes, Ashburton, and many other towns, are valuable public 
ibraries, and in the two first are important literary institutions, and throughout the county there are 
Hany and various friendly societies for the benefit of the working classes. In the parvise of Totnes 
jhurch there is a very curious and interesting library, a catalogue of which has been lately published 
n a work entitled * Asliburton and its Neighbourhood,' by Mr. C. Worthy of Ashburton ; it is supposed 
;o have originated in the gift of one Gabriel Barber in 1619, and a very large proportion of the 334 
trolumes of which the collection consists were printed at a date anterior to this. Some of the books 
ire in a tolerable state of preservation, but others are in a "very dilapidated condition, which is the 
aaore to be regretted since they include several rare and very valuable works. 

Amongst the charitable institutions of the county may be particularly noticed — the County 
Lunatic Asylum at Exminster ; the Institution for Idiots at Starcross ; the North Devon Infirmary at 
Barnstaple; the Devon and Exeter Hospital founded 1741, and containing over 200 beds and a good 
medical library ; the South Devon and East Cornwall Hospital at Plymouth : the Asylums for the 
Blind and those also for the Deaf and Dumb ; the British Seaman's Orphan Home, established in 
1860 at Brixham ; and the Royal British Female Orphan Asylum, established at Devonport in 1839 
for the support of the orphan daughters of sailors and soldiers. At Bovey Tracey there is a fine 
building, with a very beautiful chapel, for the reception of Fallen Women within the county, in order 
that they may be established in some respectable calling to enable them to earn their livelihood. 
This establishment is supported by voluntary contributions, and is in the care of members of the 
Clewer Sisterhood ; it was commenced in 1861, and formally opened in 1863, but the foundatioji stone 
of the permanent building was laid by the Earl of Devon in 1865 ; it receives 72 inmates. The Lord 
Bishop of the Diocese is the visitor, and the business is managed by a large and influential local 
committee, consisting of sundry gentry and beneficed clergy of the diocese. 

Ancient History. — Devon was called Dunan by the Cornish Britons ; Deuffneynt by the Welsh ; 
and Devnascyre by the Anglo-Saxons. It is supposed that it was inhabited at a very remote period, 
and that its inhabitants had commercial transactions in tin, &c., with the Phoenicians and Greeks. 
Polwhele says that its aborigines were the Danmonii ; but Whitaker supposes the latter were the 
Belgic invaders, and that the first inhabitants were the Cimbri, some of whom, after the invasion of 
the Belgge from Gaul, emigrated to Ireland, and others continued in the north- west parts of Devon- 
shire. Ca3sar tells us that when he landed in Britain, he found the Belgas occupying the sea-coast ; 
but Richard of Cirencester says the Cimbri were on the north, and the Danmonii on the south coast 
of Devon. The county was included with Cornwall, under the name of Danmonium, which is sup- 
posed to be derived from the Phoenician words dan or dun, a hill, and moina, mines ; or from Welsh 
words signifying deep valleys. Westcote thus accounts for the name of Devonshire : — ' I would call it 
^^ Avonshire,^' De-avonshire, and so by contraction '' Denshire." Avon in the old British language is the 
name for fleet waters : as wells, mills, brooks, streams, and rivers ; and this province abounds more 
with waters and rivers than any other that I have read of. I am induced to believe it may, with as 
good reason, take name from them as from mines, valleys, or Danes. De-avon also, or Devon, the 
county of rivers, requires less alteration of letters than any other.' Westcote also objects to the 
derivation of Devon from Deuffneynt, &c., because the Welsh have another and more ordinary and 
more significant name-word for valleys, viz., * Lhan.^ This conjecture, however, is not substantiated 
by the name given to Devonshire in ancient Welsh MSS. Under the Roman domination, Devon was 
included in that large and important division of the island called Britannia Prima ; and by the Saxons 
it was made part of the kingdom of Wessex, and so continued till the incorporation of the Saxon 
kingdoms into one monarchy, in the time of Egbert ; as will be noticed with Exeter, as most of the 
momentous events relating to the general history of Devon are necessarily incorporated with the histoiy 
of that city. There has been nothing peculiar in the government of Devonshire, except that of the 
Stannary haws, which have been in force from a very early period in the mining districts. 

The Stannary Parliaments were anciently held in the open air, on an elevated spot called 
Crockerntor, in Dartmoor. Polwhele, who wrote about 1795, says that the president's chair, the 
jurors' seats, &c., cut in the rude stone, remained entire nearly till that period, though it had been 
customary for a very long time only to open the commission and swear in the jury on the site of the 
ancient court, and then to adjourn to the court house of one of the stannary towns, viz., Ashburton, 
Chagford, Plympton, and Tavistock. The stannary prison was a miserable dungeon at Lidford 
Castle. The custom of opening the court at Crockerntor has been many years disused. The table 
and seats of Moorstone were destroyed by the workmen of the late Sir Francis BuUer, unknown 
to him, and the fragments used for some buildings then in process of erection. The Judge's Seat, 
however, may still be seen inside a gate opposite the entrance to a farm called Brownberry, on the 



40 History of* r>evoiisliir»e. 

road between Ashburton and Prince-Town. It is not known when the last Parh'ament was held i 
at Crockerntor. They were not convened at regular periods, but only when the Lord Warden of the i 
Stannaries saw fit. Prince, who wrote in 1697, mentions Crockern as the place where the Stannary i 
parliament was wont to be held. Probably the latest (which may have been adjourned from ', 
Crockerntor) was that convened in 1703, when Lord Granville was Warden, and the Hon. Samuel I 
Ivolle, Vice- Warden, and on this occasion the * Parliament of Tinners' was summoned to meet at i 
eight o'clock in the morning of September 23. The courts of the Stannaries, however, remained (and ;; 
in a modified form continue to do so in Cornwall) ; one of the latter was held at Ashburton in 1757 ' 
(when John Hill, of Ashburton, proclaimed one pair of tin bounds called Broomshill), and ther(; 
were many subsequent courts held here even after most of the tinners had left the district. In the 
Stowe library, there was a black-letter tract with a woodcut, dated 1618. This book is entitled 
* True relation of the Accident at Chagford, in Devonshire,' and contains the following memo- 
randum : — * These five persons next in order following were slayne by the iiiU of part of the market- 
house of Chagford, upon tin court daie sitting of the court, presently after dinner, on Friday, the 
sixth daie of March, 1617 : John Cann, John Lillycrop of Crediton ; Gregorie Hele, of Colebrooke ; 
William Adams, of Gidleigh ; and Timothy Mole of Ashburton.' Sir Richard Strode, of Newnham, 
M.P. for the borough of Plympton in 1512, endeavoured to procure an Act for the protection of the 
western harbours from the injuries caused by the stream works. He himself had an interest in 
the tin mines of the country, and he thus rendered himself peculiarly obnoxious to the Stannators, 
who prosecuted him for imputed crimes against the Stannary laws in the court at Crockerntor, and 
fined him in heavy penalties, which he refused to pay. He was therefore thrown into the prison 
of Lidford Castle, which was described in the order of Parliament, by which he obtained redress for 
his ill-treatment as ' one of the most hainous, contagious, and detestable places in the realm ' ; he 
was kept in this dungeon for more than three weeks, and fed only on bread and water. But, as 
Lysons remarks, ' this case of daring outrage gave occasion to the establishment and maintenance 
of some of the most important privileges of Parliament.' 

It may be as well, in the first place, to refer to the fabled colonisation of this country by Brutus, 
the Trojan (since that hero is stated to have first landed in Devon), albeit the credit of the story is 
chiefly supported by Geoffrey of Monmouth, a writer who has always been regarded as simply a 
^ manufiicturer of history,' and who was regarded, even by his contemporaries, as utterly unreliable. 
His history of Britain was published in the reign of Henry II. (1154-1189), and in it he relates that 
Brutus, son of Silvius, and grandson of ^neas, having, whilst hunting, accidentally killed his father, 
fled his country, and made his way to Greece. Having collected a number of followers, he freed 
from captivity the descendants of Hellenus, the son of Priam, defeated an unknown king of Greece (sic), 
called Pandarus, whose daughter he married, and then set sail with all his forces in 324 ships, and 
landed on a deserted island named Leogetia, where he discovered a temple dedicated to Diana, whose 
oracle desired him to proceed * to a western island beyond Gaul, where he would found another 
Troy and give rise to a race of kings by whom the world would be subdued.' He first over-ran 
Gaul, and then proceeded to this island, where his subsequent history, as related in early chronicles, 
is too well known to need repetition here ; sufficient, that he is said to have landed at Totnes in this 
county A.M. 2855, B.C. 1108, and 334 years before the first Olympiad, and to have lefl; his name to 
Britain. This preposterous fable is related at large by Holinshed, and occupies five chapters in 
his second book ! 

In accounting for the name of the country, one possible origin appears to have been over- 
looked. Why may not the first settlers in this country have been emigrant ' Brutii ' ? — a people 
who resided in the remotest parts of Italy, and who were at one time shepherds to the Lucanians, 
and who received the name by which they were afterwards known for their stupidity and cowardice 
in submitting without opposition to Annibal in the second Punic War, B.C. 218. Nothing trust- 
worthy is known of the history of this country until its invasion by Julius Csesar, in the year B.C. 55. 
The Phoenicians of Cadiz are supposed to have traded Avith Devon and Cornwall for tin, &c., 
some centuries before the Christian era. The Ancient Britons in the south of England had made 
some little progress towards civilisation when Csesar invaded the island. They were divided into 
various tribes and nations, and the commonly-received opinion is that their religion, which formed 
part of their free monarchial government, was Druidical. The British Druids exercised their 
utmost authority in opposing thei invasion of the Romans, who, fired with equal resentment, deter- 
mined to secure themselves by exterminating the Druidic Order. In ancient times, Devonshire pro- 
duced greater quantities of tin than Cornwall, and the m.ethod of mining was then of the simplest 
description, by ' shoding and streaming.' There are numerous stream works on Dartmoor and its 
vicinity, which have been forsaken for ages. In the parishes of Manaton, Kingsteignton, and Teign- 
grace, are many old tin works of this kind. It has been considered that the Druids were nu- 
merous in Devonshire, and that they were conversant with Dartmoor Forest and the neighbourhood, 
and that this is made evident from the cromlechs, logan-stones, rock basins, stone pillars, circles, 



History of IDcvonsliirc 41 

cairns, rocking stones, rude bridges, &c., still to be seen in the wild solitudes of the forest, and in the 
surrounding parishes of Drewsteignton, Manaton, Okehampton, &c. These will be described under 
the heads of the parishes in which they occur, but it is right to mention that many who have carefnlly 
investigated these subjects are of opinion that there are no satisfactory indications of Druidism in the 
county, and are disposed altogether to doubt its existence there. For instance, Dr. McCulloch and 
others consider that the rock basins have been formed by the action of water, air, and frost. Many 
look upon the cromlechs as merely sepulchral monuments, and that the logan-stones (which are clearly 
inartificial) were applied to Druidical purposes, is purely a matter of conjecture. History, however, 
tells us that the religious and civil jurisdiction of the Druids prevailed all over Britain, and that they 
dispensed justice, not imder any written code of laws, but on what they professed to be equitable 
principles — all their verdicts being determined by such sense as the assembled delegates entertained of 
impartial justice, and on discordance of opinion in the congress, appeal was made to the Arch-Druid, 
whose sentence was decisive. They worshipped in temples and in deep groves ; and were not much 
addicted to idolatry as some authors have asserted, but adored the God of nature, and rendered Him 
praise on the yearly succession of the seasons, which they kept as solemn festivals. Though they 
dealt largely in allegory and symbolical representations, they practised but little priestcraft, and held 
not the ignorance of their votaries in the bonds of superstition ; but they clearly explained the mys- 
teries and symbols used in their ceremonies to the initiated. To remove from the people all 
possibility of sophistry and innovation, their maxims of justice were taught orally; and the sons of 
chief personages were disciples in their ethic schools, where the rules of moral life were inculcated as 
the foundation of human wisdom. They studied medicine and the virtue of plants, of which the 
mistletoe was their chief specific ; and they held nothing so sacred as the mistletoe of the oak, which 
they gathered with great pomp and ceremony on a certain day, appointed for their greatest festival. 
In their civil government, capital offenders were sentenced to death, and publicly sacrificed on the 
altars of their temples ; while those convicted of minor crimes were excluded from public worship, 
and excommunicated from all civil and religious benefits, till they had washed out, with the tears of 
repentance, the stains with which their guilt had branded them. Julius C^sar said the Druids incul- 
cated the immortality and transmigration of the soul, and discoursed Avith youth much about the 
heavenly bodies. Much information is obtained respecting the Druids from ancient and authentic 
writers, who had the best means of inquiry ; and although many of their descriptions relate to the 
Continent, they are not less applicable to Britain, for it appears certain that the religious principles 
and the practice of both were similar. This we learn from Caesar, who affirms, moreover, that such 
of the Gauls as were desirous of becoming thoroughly conversant with the principles of their 
religion were accustomed to travel for that purpose into this country, so that it might seem that 
Druidism in Britain was the parent stock, ' Disciplina in Britannia reperta atque in Galliam translata 
esse existimatur.' Great numbers of the Druids were massacred by the Eomans in the unsuccessful 
revolt of the Britons under Queen Boadicea, and from that period their power and splendour rapidly 
disappeared. It is a commonly received opinion that the wild solitudes of Dartmoor are the 
great store-houses of Druidical and other British remains in Devon, and it is even conjectured that 
the ancient oaks of Wistman's or Wiseman's Wood, near Bairdown, or the Hill of Bards, amidst the 
gigantic tors and the rude British remains of Dartmoor Forest, are the ' posterity ' of a Druidical 
grove. This extensive forest is popularly believed to have been one of the last retreats of the Druids 
of Danmonia, and their favourite place of resort. 

Ancient British roads ran from Exmouth to Woodbury, and thence to Taunton in Somersetshire ; 
from Exeter to Molland, from Crediton to Haldon, from Exeter to Okehampton, and from Beaton to 
Molland. In the ancient tin streams in and near Dartmoor various celts and Roman coins, rings, 
brooches, &c., have been found. In the museum of the Torquay Natural History Society there is a 
celt or chisel, probably of bronze, Avhich was ploughed up about the year 1873 on a portion of Bovey 
Heathfield; it is 4 ft. 8 in. long, and its transverse sections are rectangular parallelograms, having the 
angles slightly rounded off. Very interesting remains have been frequently discovered in Kent's 
Cavern, near Torquay, which of late years has undergone a careful and elaborate exploration. Antique 
bronze wristlets were found some years ago on the wrists of a skeleton dug up in the earthwork near 
Lower St. Columb ; and near the remains of the Phoenician smelting houses was found a block of 
' Jew's tin,' much corroded, and betraying marks of such great antiquity, that it is supposed to be the 
most ancient in existence. 

As noticed with Exeter, the Eomans had their chief station in this county at Exeter, from which 
they had roads diverging mostly in the lines of the British track ways. The principal of these passed 
through the whole length of Devonshire from north-east to south-west, and was called Ikeneld Street. 
It entered this county from Dorsetshire, a little east of Axminster, whence it proceeded by Shute Hill, 
Dalwood-down, Honiton, &c., to the large entrenchment at Hembury Fort. (See Payhembury.) From 
the latter it passed by Colestock, Talewater, Tallaton Common, and Larkbeare to Streetway-head, where 
it is still known by the name of the Old Taunton Road. It crossed the river at Exeter, a little belolv 



42 History of Devoiisliire. 

Exe Bridge, and went over Ilaldon Hill, near Ugbrooke, where there is a strong British camp. Below 
Newton Abbot it crossed the Teign by a foi-d still called Hacknieldway. Aiter leaving another 
]^ritish camp on its left, it passed over Ford Common to Totnes, which was a station of the ancient 
]5ritonR. This ancient road was joined at Streetway-head by that from Exmouth, which passed 
through the great camp at Woodbury. An undoubted Roman road came from the central parts of 
Somersetshire towards Exeter, under the name of the Port-way : its high crest is particularly visible 
at Uifculme Common ; it is still the turnpike road from Taunton to Exeter. These roads and many 
others, the traces of some of which have altogether perished, were probably in existence long before 
the Roman invasion, and the conquerors adopted such of them as were mo^^t convenient for their own 
purposes, raising their crest always, and altering their line in some instances, according to their usual 
practice ; but, owing to local circumstances, antiquarians have found much difficulty in identifying 
them, and in fixing the sites of the stations in this county ; and their opinions are so much at variance, 
that we shall dismiss the subject by referring the reader to the histories of those towns and parishes 
where there are remains or appearances of them. J 

Though vestiges of numerous fortifications and encampments show that Devon was a seat oil 
warfare at a very early period, the earliest military transaction on record (if we except the untrust- 
worthy statement made by Geoffrey of Monmouth, relative to the leaguer of Exeter by the forces of 
Vespasian, a.d. 43) is the defeat of the Britons, in G14, by Cynegilsus, King of the West Saxons. 
Matthew of Westminster tells us that in the year 633 Exeter was garrisoned by Brien, the nephew of 
Cadwallo, the last British king, and that it was besieged in that year by Penda, King of Mercia. 
Cadwallo is stated to have returned to his kingdom, from which he had been driven by the successes 
of the Saxons, to have collected an army, and to have conquered Penda in a battle near Exeter, and 
as the result of this victory, to have relieved the town. The Danes appear to have been in Devon- 
shire during portions of the years 876, 877, and 878 ; we learn both from the Saxon Chronicle, and 
from Matthew of Westminster, that they wintered at Exeter in the two latter years, and in the last 
they were besieged there by Alfred the Great, and compelled to a truce. In the ensuing year they 
landed on the northern coast, and were defeated, with the loss of their favourite standard — the raven. 
In 894 they attempted to besiege Exeter, but withdrew on the approach of Alfred. In 1001 they 
were equally unsuccessful in their attack upon that city, but pillaged the surrounding country, and 
retired with the spoil. Subsequently, however, they gained possession, and nearly destroyed it. 
The Domesday Survey states (according to Lysons, ' Mag. Brit.' vol. vi. p. 7),that not long before that 
survey was taken, several manors on the southern coast were laid waste by the Irish. In 1067 Exeter 
stood a regular siege before it surrendered to William the Conqueror. On the accession of William 
Rufus it was laid waste by the partizans of Robert, Duke of Normandy. In the fifteenth century 
the French made several attacks upon the maritime towns, burning and plundering Teignmouth, 
Plymouth, and others ; in 1404 they were repulsed by the country people near Dartmouth. The 
Lord of Pomiers burnt several towns here in 1457. During the civil wars between the houses of 
York and Lancaster Devonshire was much disturbed, though no battle Avas fought within its limits. 
In 1497 Perkin Warbeck besieged Exeter, but the siege being raised by the Earl of Devon, Warbeck 
proceeded to Taunton. In 1549 serious disturbances arose in this county in consequence of the 
change of religion. They first originated at Sampford Courtenay, and ere long the rioters were joined 
by Sir Thomas Pomeroy, Mr. Coffifi, of Portledge, and others, and the rising took the form of a 
regular rebellion, and on July 2 the rebels laid siege to Exeter, which was at length relieved by Lord 
Russell on August 6. When the civil wars between Charles I. and the Parliament commenced, this 
county was controlled by committees, and the majority of the inhabitants were attached to the Par- 
liament. Plymouth was fortified by the townsmen against the royalists. Exeter was garrisoned by 
the parliamentarians, and a cavalry body, raised in the county, was stationed at Fitzford, near 
Tavistock. After the defeat of the parliamentarians, a cessation of hostilities was agreed on ; but the 
treaty was soon broken off, and the county again disturbed by internal broils. In 1644 the Earl of 
Essex fixed his head-quarters at Tiverton, and having secured Barnstaple for the Parliament, marched 
into Cornwall, and v/as followed by the King. In October Ilfi-acombe and Barnstaple surrendered to 
the royal forces. In 1645 the clubmen of Devon declared for the Parliament, and from this time the 
royalists experienced great reverses. In the midst of their disasters. Sir Thomas Fairfax, commander- 
in-cliief of the parliamentarian army, entered the county, and soon reduced every town and fortress. 
lie took Exeter, after a long siege, in April, 1646. Pursuing his victorious career, he stormed the 
church and castle of Tiverton, and attacked and defeated Lord Hopeton's army at Torrington. This 
victory appears to have given the death-blow to the royalists' power in the West, and the last garrison 
which held out for the King was Charles-fort, at Salcombe-Regis. The latest event of great national 
importance, which took place in Devonshire, was the landing of William, Prince of Orange, at Torbay, 
in 1688, preparatory to the * glorious revolution' which placed him upon the throne. (See Exeter.) 

Norman Conquest. — The circumstances which led up to the Battle of Hastings are too well 
known to need repetition here. The result of that combat, which was fought on October 14, 1066, 



Hi«toi'y oF I>evoiisliii'e. 43 



was to place the illegitimate son of Duke Robert of Normandy, by Arlotta, the skinner's daughter of 
Falaise, upon the throne of England, and he was no sooner seated upon it than he showed that his 
policy was to root out the Anglo-Saxon nobility, and to degrade the native inhabitants of the humbler 
classes to the rank of miserable slaves; though in this work he was obstinately opposed in some parts 
of the kingdom, especially in the North. Conscious of the detestation in which he was held, he 
entertained perpetual jealousy of the English. He built and garrisoned strong castles to keep them 
in awe ; and, ' in the wantonness of his power, obliged them to extinguish their fires and candles every 
evening at the ringing of a bell called the curfew.' He also caused a survey to be made of all the 
lands in the kingdom, the register of which is called Domesday Book, and was finished in 1081, after 
a labour of six years, on the model of the Book of Winchester, compiled by order of Alfred the 
Great. For the execution of the Conqueror's survey there were appointed commissioners called 
King's Justiciaries, or ' Legali Regis,' and these inquisitors (according to Sir Plenry Ellis), upon the 
'■ oaths of the sheriffs, the lords of each manor, the presbyters of every church, the reves of every 
hundred, the bailiffs and six villans' of every village, were to inquire into the name of the place, 
who held it in the time of the king's uncle (Edward the Confessor), who was the present possessor, 
how many hides in the manor, and every particular connected with it. All these particulars were to 
be triply estimated ; first, as the estate was held in the time of the Confessor, then as it was bestowed 
by King William, and thirdly, as its value stood at the foundation of the survey. There is a more 
detailed description of this county contained in the Exeter Domesday, preserved in the Chapter 
Library at Exeter, which is of the same date, atid which was copied from the returns furnished for 
the great survey itself. We find mention there of at least 38 hundreds, into which Devonshire was 
then divided. Haytor, Stanborough, and Shebbeare are not in this list, but they probably occupy 
the situations of Carswelle, Dippeforde, and Mertone, therein mentioned. (The names of the 33 
modern hundreds have been given at page 22.) Throughout ail time this book will be held in esti- 
mation, as it specifies the extent of the land in each district; the state it was in, whether meadow, 
pasture, wood, or arable : the name of the proprietor ; the tenure by which it was held ; and the 
value at which it was estimated. It afforded the Conqueror an exact knowledge of his own land and 
revenue, while the rights of his subjects, in disputed cases, were settled by it ; and to this day it 
serves to show what manor is ancient demesne, and what is not. This valuable manuscript is still 
preserved in the Chapter House, at Westminster Abbey ; and copies of it were printed in the 40th of 
George III., for the use of the members of both Houses of Parliament and the public libraries in the 
kingdom. In 1862 an admirable fac-siraile copy of the Devonshire portion of this invaluable record 
was made by the process known as ' Photo-zincography,' under the direction of Colonel Sir Henry 
James, R.E. In Devon, as in other parts of the kingdom, the Conqueror dispossessed the Saxons, 
and after appropriating part of their manors and estates to himself and family, he gave the rest to his 
Norman friends and followers, especially such as had distinguished themselves in clearing with their 
swords his way to the throne. 

Measures of Land in Domesday. — A Hide, a Yardland, a Knight's Fee, &c., contained no 
certain number of acres, but varied in different places, but it has been described to be ^ as much as 
was sufficient to the cultivation of one plough,' whence our term ploughland. The Currucuta, which 
also means ploughland, was as much arable as could be managed with one plough, and the cattle 
belonging thereto in a year, having meadow pasture and houses for the householders and cattle 
belonging to it. It appears that the hide was the measure of land in the Confessor's reign, the 
currucuta that to which it was reduced by the Conqueror's new standard. The Hide is generally 
estimated as equal to 120 acres. Money is assumed to have been thirty times its present value. 
Thus (similarly to other counties), the greatest portion of the land here had during the Conqueror's 
reign become ' spolia opima' for his Norman followers, A very large proportion of them were held 
by sub-tenants by tenure of service, and one of the latter, William Paganel, held several manors also 
in chief from the king. Soon after the Conquest the chief landed property was divided into several 
great baronies ; the principal of these was Okehampton, given to Baldwin, the sheriff, and which 
contained 92 knights' fees. [A knight's fee has been explained as ' so much inheritance as is sufficient 
yearly to maintain a knight.' In the 11th century they were considered to include 5 hides of land ; 
in the 13th a knight's fee was £15, or two hundred acres.] 

Brayns, now Bradnincii, contained 16 fees, and pertained to the Earl of Cornwall. 

Bampton, descended from Walter de Doway to the Bourchiers, Earls of Bath, to whom it 
belonged in the 17th century. 

The Bishop oe Exeter's Barony, to which 30 fees belonged, had been the property of Eadulf, 
first Bishop of Crediton, a.d. 909 ; the head of this Honour was St. Stephen's Church at Exeter. 

Totnes.— 28^ fees belonged to Juhel or Judhel. 

Barnstaple belonged to the Tracys (of which family was the knight connected with the murder 
of Thomas a Becket) ; it contained 28 fees. 



44 History of" I>evoiisliire. 

ToRRiNGTON, with 29 fees, belonged to William Fitz-Robert in the 12th century, and had 
descended to him from his Norman ancestor. 

Berry contained 31 and gV ^'^es. It was held by Ralph de Pomeroy and his descendants until 
the reign of Edward VI. when its last owner became implicated in the rebellion of 1549. 

The Devonshire Domesday commences with a notice of the houses (to the number of 300) 
owned by the king in the City of Exeter (see Exeter). Then ibllows a list of those holding 
lands in the county, commencing with the king's name, and followed by the bishops, ecclesiastical 
bodies, and landed proprietors, according to their rank, that held irom the king in chief The body 
of the record contains a list and description of the manors of the royal demesne, and of possessions 
of each owner throughout the county, with the names of the sub-tenants. The following is the list 
of the principal landowners in Devonshire in 1087, with some additional notes and explanations. 
It is a peculiarity of Domesday that a red line is drawn through the names of places, and also 
frequently through the names of persons and paragraphs demanding special attention ; this is 
equivalent to our modern method of underlining with the same object. The figures after the names 
denote the number of manors granted wholly or partially to each — 

King William, 78. — 23 of the king's manors had been ancient demesne of the Crown ' ad 
regnum pertinentes.' 18 had belonged to Brlctric, son of Algar, a Saxon noble, and had passed to 
the Crown on the death, in 1083, of queen Matilda, by whom they had been assumed. 19 had 
belonged to Earl Harold ; 8 to Ghida, mother of the Earl ; 4 to Edith, queen of Edward the 
Confessor ; 1 to Ausgar the Thane ; and 6 to Lewin, one of the sons of Earl Godwin. 

The Bishop of Exeter, 24. — At this time the Bishop of Exeter was Osbern, a brother of William 
Fitz-Osbern, Earl of Hereford, one of the principal commanders at the battle of Hastings, con- 
sidered by Sir Henry Spelman to have been the first Chief Justice of England. Bishop Osbern 
had left Normandy to reside at the court of Edward the Confessor, to ■whom he was related, and as 
chaplain to that monarch he had witnessed the dedication of the church of the Abbey of West- 
minster. He was consecrated bishop of Exeter at St. Paul's, London, March 28, 1073, as 
successor to Leofric, by Lanfranc, the Primate. Domesday Book, commenced and finished in his 
time, shows that, in addition to the possessions of the See in Devon and Cornwall, he had landed 
property besides in Surrey, Hants, Berks, Gloucester, Norfolk, and Oxfordshire. 

'Episcopus Constantiensis,' 91. — Geoffrey, Bishop of Coutances, in Normandy, was chief 
justiciary of Ireland, and had been lieutenant-general for the Conqueror at the period of his invasion of 
this country ; in all he was rewarded with 280 lordships as his share of the spoil. 

The Church of Glastonbury, 1. — The abbot and convent of Glastonbury still held the manor of 
LiM, and had done so in the time of the Confessor. 

The Church of Tavistock, 14. — The Abbey of Tavistock had been also richly endowed by the 
Saxon kings. 

The Church of Buckfastleigh, 12. — The Abbey of Buckfast was held prior to the Conquest by 
monks professing the rule of St. Benedict. Alwin was abbot there in ths Confessor's reign. About 
the year 1137 it became a Cistercian monastery. 

Ecclesia de Hortone, 4. — The Abbey of Horton in Dorsetshire possessed these manors many 
years before the Conquest in 1122. This abbey, with all its property, was given to the Abbey of 
Sherbourn in the same county. 

Ecclesia Crenburnensis, 1. — The Priory of Cranbourne in Dorsetshire had similar ancient 
poFsessions of the Manor of Losbeare or Loxbeare in the parish of Zeal Monachorum, which parish 
pertained to the Abbot of Buckfastleigh. Cranbourne Priory was afterwards annexed to the rich 
Abbey of Tewkesbury in Gloucestershire. 

Ecclesia de la Batailge, 2 Churches. — The Conqueror founded an abbey near Hastings as a 
thank-offering for his victory, and hence it has been called the Church of the Battle, or Battle Abbey. 
The abbot of Battle had two churches in this diocese, viz., Colitone, with one hide of land annexed ; 
and the Church of St. Olave in Exeter. 

The Land of St. Mary of Rotomago, 2. — One manor, the Church of St. Mary of Rouen in 
Normandy, held in Devonshire in the Confessor's reign ; King William further endowed it with 
Rowerige or Rorige, which had been the property of a Saxon, by name Olieva. 

Terra Sci. Michjslis de Monte, 3. — King Edward the Confessor by his charter, dated in 1047, 
settled a colony of Benedictine monks upon Mount St. Michael in Cornwall. After the Conquest the 
* Gilbertines ' superseded the Benedictines, and Robert, first Earl of Cornwall, and the half-brother of 
William of Normandy, attached their cell to the Abbey of St. Michael of the Mount off the Coast of 
Normandy. The possessions of the latter community referred to in Domesday were originally the 
property of Earl Harold and of the Countess Ghida, the Earl's mother. 

Terra St. Stefani de Cadon, 1. — 1 ^, ^ • .i ^i. i. r -d • i. • 

Terra Sce.TrinitatisdeCadon,1.-}T^^^^ *^^ ^^^^^•«' anciently the property of Brictnc, 
the son of Algar, Lord of the Honour of Gloucester, were respectively given by King William 



History o^ I>evoii^li.ii"e. 4;5 

(probably after the death of Queen Matilda) to the Abbeys of St. Stephen and of the Holy Trinity, 
established at Caen in Normandy. 

Tenentes Clerici de Kege, 2. — Under this head ' three priests ' are mentioned who held one 
virgate of land in ' Sudmoltone (South Molton), from the king ' in elemosina.' * Sawin,' the priest, 
is mentioned as the owner of ' Birige,' which had belonged to his uncle, ' Brisfort,' to whom this 
manor had been given by Queen Matilda. Algar, the priest, also held one hide of eleemosynary land 
within the royal manor of ' Brantono ' or Braunton. 

Terra Hugonis CoxMitis, 4. — Hugh, Earl of Chester. 

Terra Comitis Moritoniensis, 82. — Robert, Earl of Mortain in Normandy, and half-brother to the 
Conqueror. This powerful nobleman had become possessed of 797 manors and lordships in different 
parts of England, including 246 manors and two castles in Cornwall, of which county he was the first 
earl. In Devonshire 77 of his estates were held under him by sub-tenants. Seven of these had 
belonged to ' Ordulph,' Duke of Devon, and seventeen to * Etmar Atre.' 

Terra Baldwin: Vice-comitis, 181. — He was one of the sons of Gilbert, Earl of Brion (who 
was murdered in Normandy). He was made by his royal master hereditary sheriff of Devon, and 
baron of Okehampton (which was his chief seat). 164 of his manors were held under him by sub- 
tenants. (See Exeter.) 

Terra Judhel de Totenais, 107.— Judhel of Totnes, so called from his residence at the Castle of 
Totnes, was a Norman, and high in his master's favour. He had assigned to him the two important 
baronies of Totnes and Barnstaple, and he founded priories at both these places, and proof is in 
existence that he at one time contemplated retiring from the world, and embracing a religious life. 
He fell into disfavour with William Rufus, by whom he was banished. (See Totnes, &c.) 

Terra Willelmi de Moion, 1. — Ancestor of the Mohuns, his chief estates were in Somerset- 
shire, but by marriage the family afterwards became intimately connected with this county. 

Terra Willelmi Chievre, 44. — William Chievre, sometimes called Capra, owed most of his 
)roperty to the favour of the Conqueror ; but it is noteworthy that he had possessed two houses in 
Jxeter in the Confessor's time, for which he paid a customary rent of sixteen pence a year. 

Terra Willelmi de Faleise, 18. — William de Falesia. Lysons in his digest of the Exeter 
)omesday notices * Herberneford', which he supposes to be Wobernford, and appropriates it to the 
larl of Mortain. This is manifestly an error. The Exchequer Domesday shows that William du 
falesia held ' Erberneforde,' and that Alric the Saxon was its original owner. 

Terra Willelmi de Poillei, 21. — He held thirteen manors in demesne, and the remainder were 
jcupied by sub- tenants. 

Terra Willelmi de Ow, 2. — This important personage did not obtain a large reward for his 
services in the land of this county. In the Exeter Domesday his holdings are mentioned as those of 
a ' free knight.' He was a son of Robert, Earl of Ewe, in Normandy. 

Terra Walterii de Dowai, 28. — Walter de Doway was Baron of Bampton, where he 
resided. 

Terra Walterii de Clavile, 31. — Walter Claville was the ancestor of a family so called, and 
his male descendants continued to possess lands in Dorsetshire until the latter portion of the eighteenth 
century. The last heir male died in 1774. 

Terra Goscelmi, 28. — * Goscelm ' is mentioned in Lysons' account of Exeter Domesday as the 
owner of twenty-seven manors ; and ' Goscelm de Exeter' of one. The Exchequer record proves clearly, 
however, that there was but one person of this name, and in the last paragraph he is called ' Goscelm 
de Excestre,' and under this description he held in capite the manor of ' Herstanhaia.' In the twenty- 
seven previous paragraphs relating to him he is simply styled ' Goscelm.' 

Terra Ricardi filii Gilberti Comitis, 1. — Richard, son of Gilbert, Earl of Brion, and brother 
to Baldwin the Sheriff. 

Terra Rogerii de Busli, 1. — Roger de Busli was a Norman baron, whose chief estates were in 
the north ; his principal residence was at Tickhill, in Yorkshire. 

Terra Roberti de Albemarle, 17. — Robert Albemarle was the ancestor of the Damarells, who 
gave name to Milton Damarell, and Stoke Damarell. This name still occurs in Devonshire, but not 
amongst the county families. 

Terra Roberti Bastardi, 9. — Robert le Bastard, as he was usually styled, became the ancestor 
of a Devonshire family, which still flourishes, and its present representative is Mr. B. J. P. Bastard, 
of Kitley, and Buckland Court, who is a deputy-lieutenant for the county. Mr. William Bastard, of 
Kitley, was created a baronet in 1779, and the patent passed the Privy Seal, and was gazetted before 
notice of this well-deserved recognition of his public services was notified to him ; but, although he 
thought fit to decline the honour, his name has been mentioned in the list of Devonshire Baronets 
given in ' Magna Britannia,' vol. I. p. cxxi. Sir W. Pole reckons Bastard among the old families 
whose original estates had been sold. For many generations they resided at Efford, in the parish of 
Egg-Buckland, a manor mentioned in Domesday as their property. The immediate ancestor of the 



J 



4,6 Higitoi'y or OevoiiHliire. 

present representative removed from Garston, in the parish of Weat Allington, to Kitley, which latter 
place he acquired by marriage with the heiress of Pollexfen. 

Terra Eicardi filii Turoldi, 3. — liichard, the son of Turold, had three manors and a house 
in Exeter. 

Terra Kadulfi de Limesi, 4. — Ralph de Limesi was a nephew of the Conqueror, being his 
sister's son. His lands are described in Exeter Domesday as those of a free knight. 

Tejika Hadulfi 1'agenel, 10. — Ralph Paganel was sheriff of Yorkshire. Exeter Domesday 
also shows that his lands were those of a free knight. His descendant, William Paganel, married the 
granddaughter of Walter de Douay already referred to. 

Terra Radulfi de Felgeres, 2. — Ralph of Fulgeres, in Britanny. His residence was at 
Ipplepen, and his lands those of a free knight. One of his immediate descendants founded a priory 
at Ipplepen, which was made dependent upon the Abbey of Fulgeres. 

Terra Radulfi de Pomerei. 54. — Ralph de Pomeroy was Baron of Berry, and the ancestor o^ 
one of the most distinguished families in this county, who were seated at Berry until the reign 
Edward VI. 

Terra Rualdi Adored, 30. — Ruald Adobed held, amongst others, the two ancient manors 
Chempebere (Chalomer) and Radeclive, Avithin the parish of Buckland in the Moor, which have long 
since lost all manorial rights. The latter has from time immemorial been appropriated to the use of 
Buckland Church. (See Buckland in the Moor.) 

Terra Tetbaldi filii Bernerii, 28. — Tetbald Fitz-Berners, the ancestor of the Fitz-Bemers, 
or Fitz-Bernards. One of his manors was that of Holecome, anciently the property of the Saxon 
' Ailmer.' (Lysons, in his digest of Exeter Domesday, assigns this property to Ralph de Pomeroy, 
which must be an error.) His name, although somewhat corrupted, is still preserved in the name 
of the parish. (See Holcombe Burnell.) 

Terra Turstini filii Rolf, 1. — Turstin Fitz-Ralph. He may have been the ancestor of the 
Fitz-Ralphs who afterwards assumed the name of Shillingford. 

Terra Aluredi de Ispania, 3. — In addition to these manors which Alured de Ispania held in 
capite, he appears to have been the sub-tenant of eleven under the Earl of Mortain. 

Terra Aluredi Britonis, 22. — There was a Devonshire family known by the name of Brit, 
Britie or Britiza, and its members may have been his descendants. 

Terra Ansgerii, 6. — The first paragraph in Domesday in connection with Ansger proves that 
he was Ansger de Montagud, and therefore the ancestor of the baronial house of Montague. 

Terra Aiulfi, 2. — Aiulf also held lands in Dorsetshire. In the Exeter Domesday he is called 
the King's Chamberlain. 

Terra Odonis filii Gamelin, 24. — Odo Fitz-Gamelin. Was he the ancestor of the Gamlyns 
of Spalding, county Lincoln ? 

Terra Osberni de Salceid, 5.— Osberni de Salcied had a house in Exeter ; he may have 
been the father of Osberne, Bishop of Exeter, and of the Earl of Hereford, who was called William 
Fitz-Osberne. 

Terra Hervei de Helion, 2. — Although the land is entered under this head, the first paragraph 
proves that the manors were given to the wife of Hervei de Hellion ' Uxor Hervei de Helion tenet de 
rege, &c.' 

Terra Giroldi Capellani, 3. — Amongst the manors belonging to Girold the Chaplain was one 
written ' Nistenestoch,' which was probably that now corrupted into Nethercott within the parish of 
Braunton. This manor was held under him by certain canons. Lysons mentions the existence of 
the ruins of five ancient chapels at Braunton. 

Terra Girardi, 2. — The manors held by Girard had both belonged to ^ Alestan ' in the Con- 
fessor's reign. 

Terra Godeboldi, 14. — Godbold is called * Balistarius ' in Exeter Domesday. It is possible 
that he may have been so styled from holding his lands by the render of a cross-bow. 

Terra Nicolai Balistarii, 11. — Nicholas is called * Archibalistarius ' in Exeter Domesday (hence 
the name Alabaster) ; he may have been Chief Bow-bearer. 

Terra Fulcherii, 5. — Exeter Domesday describes Fulk also as ' Balistarius.' 

Terra Haimerici, 5. — Haimer is called in Exeter Domesday 'Hairaer de Arcis' (Haimer of 
the Castle). There was a very ancient family in Devonshire, who called themselves de Arches, and 
may have been descended from him ; the heiress married Dinham. 

Terr^-: Servientium Regis, 16. — The king's servants were five in number, exclusive of the 
priests of Bomine, who were probably the secular priests of Bodmin (see Leland). The land appro- 
priated to them was distributed as follows: — William Portitor, or the door-keeper (hence the 
patronymic * porter '), 1 manor; William Hostiarius, or the usher, 10; Fulk, Ansger, and Morin, 
had 1 each, and the priests of Bodmin, 2. (See White's * Leicester and Rutland,' p. 32.) 

Teiuia Tainorum Regis, 47.— The higher thanes were of nearly the same degree as barons, and 



His^toi*y of I>evoiisliire. 47 

are called in Exeter Domesday English Thanes. They were seventeen in number, and they held from 
1 to 3 manors each, with the exception o£ 'Colvin and Godwin,' who possessed 8 and 11 
respectively. To this list is added the names of three Saxon ladies : Alveva, mother o£ Earl Morcar, 
who had 1 manor ; Alfliilla, who held another ; and Godeva, widow of Brictric, Lord of Gloucester, 
who retained 2 in dower. 

Darlington was given by the Conqueror to Martin de Turon, and descended to his heirs, who 
were afterwards called Marty n. 

Plympton Barony was given to Richard Redvers by King Henry I., who also created him first 
Earl of Devon. Eighty-nine fees were included in this honour. 

Hartland became the Barony of De Dynant of Brittany. Oliver de Dynant held it in King 
Henry XL's reign. The Dynants were ancestors of the Dynhams. 

Harberton, with 32^ fees, was probably given to William de Falesia in the twelfth century. It 
belonged to the Valletorts, whose ancestor was a sub-tenant at the period of the survey. 

Hardwick was the chief seat of the Barony of Tavistock, and was held by the abbot of the 
monastery seated there by Ordulph, son of Ordgar, Duke of Devon, in 961. It contained 16|- fees. 

In addition to these Devonshire Baronies, many others in different parts of the county had lands 
held of them here, namely : — The honours of Gloucester, Tremeton, Launceston, Marshwood, Dunster, 
Odicomb, Doendon, Montacute, Worle, Stokecursy, and the Duchy of Lancaster, which pertains to 
the Crown. To this last were attached the thirty fees in Devonshire which had belonged to the 
baronial family of Brewer, by King Henry II., first Duke of Lancaster. There were nearly 100 
fees held in this county of the Honour of Gloucester, and Winkleigh was the chief seat of the barony. 
There does not exist any document to prove that any estates in the county remain in possession of 
descendants of the persons who held them at Domesday Survey ; but it is not improbable that some 
of the ancient families, who, according to the custom of that period, took their names from the places 
of their residence, in the reign of King John, or that of Henry HI., may have inherited their estates 
in direct descent from the Ralphs, Rogers, Walters, Williams, &c., who were sub-tenants in the reign 
of William the Conqueror, under Baldwin the Sheriff, and other great loi-ds paramount. In order to 
secure their newly acquired possessions, the Norman barons and chiefs built on their respective 
estates * strong and magnificent castles, which might at once secure themselves, and keep tlie 
conquered English in awe.' The largest of these castles were in the great baronies named above. 
Of some of these, as well as of several smaller fortresses in various parts of the county, there are still 
interesting remains. 

Lidford Castle, which was formerly the prison of the Stannaries, is about 48 feet square, and 
has an outwork to the north, which projects to the edge of a precipice. The ruins of Berry Pomeroy 
are exceedingly picturesque, and will amply repay a visit. There were also ancient castles at Dart- 
mouth, Afton, Compton, Gidleigh, and Winkleigh. Powderham Castle is still the principal residence 
of the Earl of Devon. There are also ancient houses at Uffculme, Buckland Abbey House (a portion 
of the ancient Abbey Church), Bradley, Newton-Bushell, Collacombe in Lamerton parish, Colyton 
Vicarage (1529), Dartlington Hall (the seat of the Champernownes), Exeter Palace, Ford House, 
Great Fulford, Sydenham (the seat of the Tremaynes), and several others of less importance ; and 
amongst the latter may be mentioned Bremridge in Sandford, the residence of the Bremridges in the 
reign of King John, and which iiltimately descended with their heiress to the family of its present 
owner, the Rev. Bremridge Melhuish. 

Dukes of Devon and Cornwall. — Asclepiedatus, a.d. 232 ; Salomon, a.d. 360 ; Conon-Merido, 
A.D. 382 ; Dionethus, a.d. 383 ; Gorolus, a.d. 492 ; Cador, a.d. 542 ; Blederick, a.d. 592. 

Dukes of Devon. — Vortiger, Alpsius (brother of Eadulf, first Bishop of Crediton), Ordgar. 

Earls of Devon. — Richard de Redvers, or Rivers, who obtained the great barony of Okehampton 
from William II., was created Earl of Devon by Henry I., and the title was held by his descendants 
till the death of Baldwin, the eighth earl, in 1262, when his sister and heiress, Isabel de Redvers, 
succeeded as Countess of Devon. She married Wm. de Fortibus, Earl of Albemarle, and left only a 
daughter, who died without issue, in 1273. Hugh Courtenay, the sixth Baron and first Viscount 
Courtenay, of Powderham Castle, being descended from the sister of Baldwin de Redvers, was created 
Earl of Devon in 1335, and died in 1340. Thomas, the sixth earl of the Courtenay family, was 
attainted and beheaded in 1461, when all his honours were forfeited. Humphrey Stafford, Baron 
Stafford of Suthwicke, was created Earl of Devon, in May 1169, but was beheaded in the August 
following, when the title again became extinct ; but it was restored to the Courtenays in 1485, when 
Edward Courtenay, grandson of Hugh, the third earl, was created Earl of Devon. He died in 1509, 
and was succeeded by his grandson, Henry, who was created Marquis of Exeter in 1525, but being 
attainted and beheaded in 1530, all his honours became forfeited. His son, Edward, restored in 
blood and honours, after a long imprisonment in the Tower, was created Earl of Devon in 1553 ; but 
dying without issue, in 1556, the title again became, as was supposed, extinct. In 1603, Charles Blount, 
eighth Baron Mountjoy, was created Earl of Devon ; but, dying without lawful issue, the earldom for 



4'8 tllstoi'y of" I>evoiasliirfc. 

the sixth time became e;xtinct. It was not revived till 1831, when William Courtenay, Viscount 
Courtenay, established his claim to the earldom, by the decision of the House of Lords, as male heir 
of Edward, who was created Earl of Devon in 155i3. lie succeeded as Viscount Courtenay in 1788 
and died in 1835, when he was succeeded by his cousin, Wm. Courtenay, who Avas born in 1777, 
and was eldest son of the late Eight Kev. Henry Keginald Courtenay, D.D., who was Bishop of 
Exeter in the early part of the present century. He died on March 19, 1859, and was succeeded 
by his son, Wm. Reginald Courtenay, eleventh earl (born 1807). lie resides at Powderham Castle, 
the ancient seat of that branch of the family from which he is descended. His only surviving son, 
Edward Baldwin Lord Courtenay, is his heir. (See Powderham.) 

The family of Courtenay took their name from the town of Courtenay, in France, and are de- 
scended from Atho, a French knight, who flourished in the reign of Eobert ' the Wise,' son of Hugh 
Capel, A.D. 996. Eeginald, the immediate ancestor of the English branch, came to England with the 
queen of Henry H., about 1151, and married the heiress of Robert de Abrincis, hereditary sheriiF of 
Devon, Baron of Okehampton, and governor of Exeter Castle. His eldest son Robert succeeded 
to those honours, and married a daughter (and eventually heiress) of Wm. de Redvers, Earl of 
Devon. His father is supposed to have been a widower at the time of his emigration, and to have 
been identical with Reginald de Courtenay, grandson of Atho, who married his only daughter, Eliza- 
beth, in the year 1150, to Peter, seventh son of Louis VI., surnamed the Fat, and imposed the name 
and arms of Courtenay on a younger son of the Royal House of France. He is also believed to have 
resigned his French estates to his daughter upon her marriage, and to have sought a new home and 
fresh lands in this country. The French and Venetians, having conquered Constantinople in 1204, 
agreed to the election as Emperor of Baldwin, Count of Flanders, who was afterwards succeeded by 
his brother Henry in 1206. Upon the death of Henry his property descended to his sister, the 
Princess Yolande, who had married Peter Courtenay, son and heir of Prince Peter of France and 
Elizabeth Courtenay, his wife ; and Peter Courtenay (as husband to the Princess) succeeded to the 
throne of Constantinople in 1216. He was followed by his son Robert three years later, and the 
latter was in his turn succeeded by his youngest brother, under the title of Baldwin II. in 1228. 
Thus three members of the house of Courtenay have worn the imperial purple. Reginald, ancestor 
of these emperors, was Baron Courtenay, by tenure, in the reign of Richard I., and one of his 
descendants was created Viscount Courtenay in 1762. Though they have suffered many reverses of 
fortune, the Courtenays have for many ages been a numerous, wealthy, and highly distinguished 
family in Devon. William Courtenay, a distinguished prelate of the 14th century, was Archbishop 
of Canterbury from 1381 till his death, in 1396. Richard Courtenay was Bishop of Norwich 
from 1413 till 1415, and like his uncle, the archbishop, was a violent opponent of Wicklilfe's 
followers. Peter Courtenay became Bishop of Winchester in 1478, and died in 1492. He and 
the principal members of his family were zealous partisans of the Lancastrians, and are said to 
have been present with the Earl of Richmond, at the Battle of Bosworth Field. The title of Duke 
of Devonshire has been held by the Cavendish family since 1694, and that of Earl of Devonshire 
since 1618, though the}^ have no other connection with the county. His Grace the present Duke of 
Devonshire resides at Chatsworth House, the splendid ' Palace of the Peak,' in Derbyshire. 

The Nobility resident in or connected with Devonshire are, the Earl of Devon, as already 
noticed ; the Duke of Somerset, owner of Berry Pomeroy Castle, now Lord-Lieutenant of the County, 
who resides at Stover ; the Duke of Bedford, who has large estates in the county, and an occasional 
seat at Endsleigh, near Tavistock ; the Earl of Mount Edgcumbe, of Mount Edgcumbe, near Ply- 
mouth ; the Earl of Macclesfield, who has estates at Buckfastleigh, &c. ; Earl Fortescue, of Castle 
Hill, near South Molton ; the Earl of Morley, of Saltram, near Plymouth ; the Right Hon. and Rev. 
the Earl of Buckinghamshire, who resides at Sidmouth ; Viscount Sidmouth, of Upottery Manor 
House ; Viscount Exinouth, of Canon-Teign House ; Baron Clinton, who resides at Heanton Satch- 
ville, Huish ; Baron Clifford, of Ugbrook Park (see Chudleigh) ; Baron Poltimore, of Poltimore and 
North Molton; Baron Blachford, of Blachford, in the parish of Cornwood; Baron Coleridge, of 
Heaths Court, Ottery St. Mary ; Baron Churston, of Churston ; Baron Ashburton, who takes his 
title from the town of Ashburton ; Baron Teignmouth, an Irish peer, whose title was taken from 
Teignmouth, in Devon, in 1797 ; Lord Kinsale, of Ringrone, near Salcombe ; and Viscount Torring- 
ton, who takes his title from Torrington, in Devon, as the Marquis of Exeter does from the capital 
of the county. The late Lord Rolle, of Bicton House, died in 1842, without issue, and this title, 
like many others which formerly existed in the county, is now extinct. 

The 23 Baronets of Devonshire are, Prideaux, of Netherton Hall ; Wrey, of Tawstock House ; 
Pole, of Shute ; Northcote, of Pynes ; Chichester, of Youlston ; Davie, of Creedy Park ; Acland, of 
Killerton House ; Carew, of Haccomb ; Duntze, of Exleigh, Starcross, and formerly of Rockbeare ; 
Baker, of Loventor, in the parish of Berry Pomeroy ; Palk, of Haldon House ; Kennaway, of Escot 
House ; Milman, of Woodland ; Lopes, of Maristow House ; Duckworth, of Weir House, Topsham ; 
Drake, of Nutwell Court ; Newman, of Mamhead ; Chichester, of Arhngton ; Elton, of Widworthy 



History of" iOevonsliire. 49 

Court ; Seale, of Mount Boone ; Farrington, of Gosford, Ottery St. Mary ; Peek, of Roosdown ; and 
St. Aubyn, of Stoke Damarell. These and the extinct baronetcies of the county are noticed in the 
parishes where their present or former seats are situated. 

Dartmoor Forest, the wildest and bleakest part of Devon, is an extensive and elevated tract of 
heath, morass, rocky tors and crags, and lofty moorland hills and dells, — stretching about 30 miles 
in length from north to south, and 14 from east to west. The towns of Okehampton, Tavistock, and 
Moreton-Hampstead are near its borders, and it extends southwards to within a few miles of 
Plymouth. It comprises about 200,000 acres, of which 53,000 acres, in the central and most 
dreary part, are in Lidford pariah. It belongs mostly to the Prince of Wales, as part of the Duchy 
of Cornwall, but the outskirts and part of the hills are appendant to the surrounding manors, many 
of which have likewise the prescriptive right of common on the Forest, on paying an inconsiderable 
sum annually to the Duchy, under the name of Venville (fen field) money. The Duchy, however, 
possesses the right of stocking the forest by agistment, and for this purpose much of it is leased in 
districts to various persons, who pasture the stock of the neighbouring parishes at low rates. The 
land of Dartmoor itself can never be materially changed for cultivation, can never ascend the sides 
of the tors, or penetrate the deep black peat soil of many of the heaths and valleys. During the 
last fifty years, however, many thousand acres of its outskirts, belonging to adjacent parishes, have 
been enclosed and cultivated, and other extensive tracts have been planted ; but the central part, 
comprising more than 60,000 acres, is still nearly in a state of nature, and many of its eminences rise 
to the altitude of from 1500 to 1800 feet. On approaching this mountainous tract, the eye is 
bewildered by an extensive waste, exhibiting gigantic tors, large surfaces covered with vast masses of 
[scattered granite, and immense rocks, which seem to have been precipitated from the steep declivities 
into the valleys. These huge and craggy fragments are spread confusedly over the ground, and have 
been compared to the ponderous masses ejected by volcanoes ; to the enormous ruins of formidable 
castles ; and to the wrecks of mountains torn piecemeal by the raging elements. Until the last ten 
years few places have been really less known, and few are more deserving of attention, than Dart- 
moor ; and though a large portion of the high road which crosses it presents an unvaried scene of 
solitariness and desolation, yet to those who pursue their investigations beyond the ordinary beaten 
track, much has been, and will be found to delight the artist, the poet, and the antiquary. The 
peculiar characteristics of Dartmoor are derived from the granite tors, which are found piled mass 
upon mass, mostly upon the summits of its numerous heights, and the wild impetuosity of its 
numerous streams, which dash through narrow channels, between craggy hills and cliffs, and 
give rise to many of the larger and smaller rivers of the county. The numerous remains of 
rude stone altars, circles, obelisks, logans, cromlechs, and kistvaens scattered over the moor, and 
the names still attached to many of the tors, such as Bel- tor, Mis- tor, Ham-tor, &c., appear to 
show that it was one of the most favoured haunts of the Druids. From its lofty elevation, it is 
peculiarly the region of mists, storms, and tempests. The peaks of its mighty tors stand up many 
hundred feet above its lofty hills, and, intercepting the moisture of the clouds, cause great quantities 
of rain to fall in and around the moor. The mist comes on at times so sudden and dense, that 
those who are overtaken in it, out of the beaten track, are sometimes lost, and even the moor men 
have great difficulty in regaining their habitations. But the climate is considered healthy, and it is 
said that persons iDorn and bred here seldom or never die of pulmonary consumption. There are 
now but few trees on Dartmoor, except the lonely Wood of Wistman, but immense trunks of oak 
and other trees have often been dug up in the peaty bogs and marshes in many of the romantic 
dells, as Avell as on some of the higher table lands. The peat is got extensively for fuel, and the 
heaths and commons afford good pasturage for sheep and cattle during summer. The delicacy 
and flavour imparted to the fiesh of the sheep by the sweet herbage of the moor is so highly 
prized, that Dartmoor mutton is sent to London and other distant markets. 

The hut circles on Dartmoor are sometimes gathered into villages ; sometimes enclosed within a 
[Bmrounding wall, and then called pounds, and frequently accompanied by numerous lines of stones, 
forming small enclosures and divisions of land. The stone rows, or avenues, are of considerable extent, 
and in great numbers ; and single, upright shafts of granite, the * maenhirion,' of Brittany, are. 
invariably of greater size and height on Dartmoor than any stones in the circles or avenues. It is to 
be remarked that although there are many hill fortresses on the immediate border, none exist on the 
moor itself. 

I Wistman, or Wiseman's Wood, is about a mile north of Two Bridges, on a lofty and steep 
lacclivity rising from the western bank of the river Dart, opposite Bairdown. It is supposed to 
;liave been one of the sacred groves of the Druids. The ascent to it is strewn all over with 
immense masses of granite, partly covered by a grove of dwarf oaks, so stunted in their growth by 
sweeping winds, that few are more than ten or twelve feet high, though their branches spread far 
and wide, and are twisted in the most fantastic manner, and in some places festooned with ivy and 
other creeping plants. Their trunks and arms are embedded in a thick covering of velvet moss, and 

D 



50 Hijstoi-y of I>evoiisliire. 



the view down the valley from some of the bare rocks is truly sublime. Crockerntor, celebrated as 
the place where the ancient Stannary parliaments were held, is about a mile from Two Bridges. On 
the summit of this tor, the chief miners of Devon were formerly obliged to meet, and hold the 
Stannary Court, as noticed at page 39. On the road from Moreton-Hampstead to Plymouth, Post 
Bridge crosses the East Dart, and adjoining it stands a venerable relic of aboriginal times, a granite 
bridge of primitive Cyclopean architecture, which must have withstood, as liowe says, ' the fury of 
the vehement Dart in his most turbulent moods for twenty or thirty centuries.' The piers, three in 
number, consist of six layers of granite slabs above the foundation ; the imposts are in general about 
15 feet long and 6 wide. The bridge can still be used, though one of the superincumbent stones, 
either by accident, or design, has become displaced, and now lies in the bed of the river. Another 
of these bridges of similar character also exists about a mile farther down the river, at ' Believer,' 
but, in the latter instance, both the central imposts have been removed, and the bridge is there- 
fore impracticable. On entering the moor from Newton Abbot, is Haytor, and the once extensive 
granite works noticed with Ilsington. In ancient times it was called Solar-tor, being dedicated 
by the Druids to the worship of the sun. On the top of the loftiest peak is one of the rock 
basins found in many of the granite-crowned tors of Dartmoor. Looking hence into the wild 
solitude of the forest, are seen dark masses of granite piled on either side ; huge blocks of the 
same, scattered on the brows of the hills ; and in the distance are seen tor upon tor, each capped with 
irregular masses of granite, assuming the most grotesque forms. But turning his back to the moor, 
the spectator sees a panorama of one of the loveliest and most fertile parts of Devon ; — the Teign 
flowing at his feet through a beautiful valley, the Exe opening out its wide estuary towards the ocean ; 
and, in the extreme distance, the waters of the channel, with the noble outline of shore from Berry 
Head to the coast of Dorsetshire. The secluded and romantic vale of Lustleigh, the Cleave, Becky 
Falls, Hountor, &c., are noticed with Lustleigh and Manaton, and the cromlechs, rocking-stone, and 
the other Druidical remains, near Drewsteignton, with that place. Until comparatively recent 
times some of the streams in the heart of the forest were crossed by ancient British bridges, of 
the most primitive construction, each consisting of several piers, composed of massive pieces of 
granite rock, placed one above another, and each pier connected with the neighbouring one by an 
enormous slab of moorstone ; thus forming a solid footway, which bore for ages the rush of winter 
torrents, and the wear of time. On the road to Tavistock, the neighbourhood of Merrivale 
Bridge affords a rich field for the exploration of the antiquary, being literally strewed with Celtic 
remains, cromlechs, track-ways, circles, and other vestiges of Druidism. Vixen Tor is a most 
picturesque object, and the tall granite crags which crown its lofty summit resemble a castellated 
tower, frowning over the valleys beneath. Dartmoor was fixed on as the subject of the first prize 
poem by the Royal Literary Society, established in 1821 ; and the prize was adjudged to Mrs. Hemans. 
It is supposed to have been a royal forest, attached to the manor of Lidford, in the time of William 
the Conqueror. In 1238, the castle of Lidford and Dartmoor Chase, or Forest, were granted by 
Henry III. to his brother Richard, Earl of Cornwall, and they were afterwards permanently united 
to the Duchy of Cornwall. The Dartmoor Military Manoeuvres were held here in the autumn of 
1873. A company has recently been formed to work the peat beds, and to convert the peat into 
fuel. (See Bridestowe.) 

Dartmoor Convict Establishment is noticed with Princetown. 



ASPECT, SOIL, AND AGRICULTURE. 



I 



The surface of Devonshire is mostly of a very unequal and undulating character, the land 
opening up into a succession of small valleys, clothed Avith verdure, and within the sheltered recesses 
of which ample opportunities are afforded for careful and successful farming. Yet the rich luxuriance 
of the soil, and the soft and pleasing varieties of the general scenery, are not always maintained, nor, even 
in Devonshire, is the climate everywhere mild. In many places the land is of a less kindly nature, 
especially as we leave the green valleys and approach the great moorland wastes of Dartmoor, &c., 
which rise in lofty elevations, and are swept by cold and cheerless winds. Owing to the great variety 
of climate and soil, a system of farming has arisen in the county which combines nearly every branch 
of practical agriculture. Dairy and tillage farming form the principal feature of this system, but the 
cultivation of orchards, the irrigation of meadows, and the breeding and feeding of stock, are also 
extensively pursued. These do not form separate occupations, but are generally combined in each 
farm, and carried out as the convenience of the farmer and the resources of the land suggest. Perhaps 
a mixed system of agriculture like this may appear little calculated to attain that degree of successful 
development which is generally supposed to follow the concentration of industry within those 
boundaries which the division of labour suggests, but such does not appear to be the practical result. 

The soils of Devon are extremely various, and may generally be characterised according to the 
rock, or stratified substances which they cover, as granitic, slatey, calcareous, arenaceous, argillaceous, 



History o±" Devonsliire. ^1 

gravelly, and loamy. The poorest is the soil covering the granite of Dartmoor, which has also the 
disadvantage of a cold, wet climate. That which lies on the slate district is more or less fertile, and 
fit for all purposes of agriculture. The most uniformly fertile soils are in the red sandstone district ; 
but the richest are those occurring in contiguity with limestone or greenstone rocks, in many parts of 
the slate district, especially in that beautiful southern district, commonly called the South Hams and 
sometimes the ' Garden of Devon,' and having for its natural boundaries Dartmoor and the heights of 
Chudleigh on the north, the river Plym on the .west, Torbay and Start Bay on the east, and 
Bigbury Bay and other parts of the coast of the English Channel on the south. The red colour 
which characterises the best soils, both in the South Hams and the eastern division of the county, 
and which seems to be closely connected with the principle of fertility, proceeds from an abundant 
mixture of iron, in a highly oxidated state. The soil of that part of the South Hams which is 
bounded by the Erme and Dart rivers is generally a rich friable loam, of a hazel-nut brown colour, 
mostly on a substratum of slate ; but that east of the Dart as far as Torbay is richer and redder, and 
generally on a substratum of marble rock. There are extensive tracts of rich meadow and arable 
lands in the valleys of the Exe, Taw, Teign, Otter, and other rivers. The Vale of the Exe, com- 
monly called the Vale of Exeter, has in its northern parts an irregular billowy surface, presenting 
eminences of considerable magnitude ; but its central and more southern parts preserve the vale 
character. Its northern boundaries are the hills that range from Clanaborough, by Halberton and 
UlFculme, to Blackdown, a dreary mountainous ridge, which, with its contiguous branches, skirts the 
eastern side of the vale. On the south-east it is bounded by the heights of Sidmouth, East Down, 
and Woodbury ; and on the west by the mountainous ridge of Haldon, and the undulating eminences 
that stretch towards Nymet or Bow Tracey. This vale is one of the most fertile parts of the county, 
and its most prevalent soils are strong red loam, shillet, or foliated clay, intersected with veins of 
ironstone, and a mixture of sand and gravel. North of Hatherleigh and Holsworthy, and eastward to 
Chulmleigh, Bradninch, &c., the soil is chiefly clay ; but north of this is a gravelly district adjoining 
both sides of Dartmoor. Towards Hartland Point, there is much clay and moorland ; a vein of black 
soil runs through Filleigh and Swimbridge ; and a narrow vein of red soil from North Molton to 
Challacombe. The rich red soil of the South Hams, which is of great depth, is sometimes worked as 
marl pits, and used most beneficially as manure for the poorer lands. The chief manures are lime 
and sea sand. Limestone is got in various parts of the county, and extensively burnt in kilns on the 
banks of the navigable canals and rivers. Of late years artificial manures have been much employed, 
and there is an increasing demand for them. 

Devon cattle, cream and cider are all equally famous, and of late years the practice of agriculture 
in all its branches has made great progress in the county, with considerable assistance from the great 
landowners, who in very many instances have permanently improved their estates ; and the rents of the 
land have of course proportionally increased, though many of the farmers complain that their crops 
are robbed by the great abundance of large trees growing in the hedgerows, and the question of the 
preservation of game and rabbits causes many dissensions between them and their landlords. The 
farmers of Devon are divided into two classes, one consisting of men with small holdings, and the other 
of men holding large farms, and who being educated as well as practical agriculturists have gradually 
introduced improved methods of developing the resources of the soil. Draining with tiles has been of 
late years extensively effected on the clays and other tenacious soils with great advantage to the crops, 
in some cases by the aid of borrowed money, the occupier paying interest at the rate of 7 per cent., 2 per 
cent, being carried to the capital account, which is repayable during 30 years. The levelling of the 
hedgerows, has of late years made great progress ; an increased breadth of meadow irrigation has been 
secured. The value of artificial manures is now generally recognised and they are most extensively 
employed, and the breeding of Devon cattle — one of the most graceful and shapely kind of the species 
in this island — has been brought to a high state of perfection, and the further development of the ' South 
Hams.' — also a provincial breed — by judicious crossing with short-horns, has been successively 
carried on. A large quantity of land is now laid out for the growth of grasses, and in the north of 

evon and on the outskirts of the moor there are now many hundred acres of green crop raised 

' ere there were under a hundred 35 years ago. 

Formerly leases for life were very common here, having been granted generally by necessitous 
landlords for nominal rents, and the value of the land at about 18 years' purchase. Of late, leases 
for lives have been discountenanced, and in their stead have been generally substituted leases for 
years. For large farms, these are usually from seven to ten years in duration; and for smaJl farms, 
six years, with a break at the end of three years, which, if not taken advantage of, extends the term 
three years more. Long terms and liberal leases still form quite the exception, but in a few instances 
terms of 21 years are granted with tenant right and compensation for unexhausted improvements, and 
freedom in the growth and sale of crops is permitted consistent with the spirit of the age. The im- 
provements in agriculture throughout the county are contemporaneous wdth the change from the old 
relations between landlord and tenant to the new ; and, though the terms of the leasee for years are 

d2 



car 

W 



52 Klistoi*y ol' 13evoiiHliire.' 

generally complained of as much too short, they are infinitely preferable to the tenancies from year to 
year, which are so prevalent in other parts of England. The rent of land in Devon appears high, 
compared with that of many other counties, but perhaps the increase is due to the greater productive- 
ness of the soil, and to small farms and great competition as well as to the mildness and salubrity of the 
climate. Over so large a tract of country, with such varieties of soil, situation and other influences, 
farms let at very different rents ; but Ave find that within a circle of three miles round Exeter, where 
there is a fine deep soil, well adapted for the growth of corn and green crops, rents range from 505. to 
£5 per acre ; and the local burdens, or ' out-goings,' as they are called, amount to about one-third more. 
The poor rates vary exceedingly in some of the parishes, and tithes form a subject of much com- 
plaint among farmers, on the ground that tlie averages which regulate them are taken from the prices 
of seven years, instead of a more limited period. 

The Devonshire tenant is at once a dairy farmer, a breeder or feeder of horses, cattle, sheep, 
pigs, and poultry, and a grower of corn and apples ; and this variety of occupation, arising naturally 
from the character of the climate and. soil of the county, has given him a tone of intelligence and 
activity which is looked for in vain in other parts of the kingdom, where a monotonous routine narrows 
tlie intellect of the dairyman. Farms here are generally of moderate size ; for although some farmers 
hold 700 or 800 acres in several separate farms, the great majority run from 50 or 60 to 200 or 250 
acres. The Ecclesiastical Commissioners have recently erected substantial stone buildings on an uni- 
form plan upon the different estates belonging to the Dean and Chapter ; but farm-buildings are often 
found collected in a village, the housing of four adjoining farms being sometimes inconveniently 
placed at their point of junction. The buildings are of every variety of character, from the antique 
and dilapidated, to the more modern and convenient. On badly-managed estates, the farmer is 
sometimes bound to uphold in repair the most ricketty old mud and wooden thatched houses, at a 
cost to himself of 10 per cent, on the rental of a small farm. The better class of farm-buildings are 
generally in the form of a square, close all round, and entered on the south side through a large arched 
door, under the granary. Immediately opposite is the barn, cider cellar, &c., which usually occupy 
one side of the square, having the corn-rick yard behind. Two sides are for the accommodation of 
cattle, the back walls being built close up to the eaves; but the front is in two stories, supported on 
strong posts, and open from the ground to the eaves ; the loAver story occupied by cattle, the upper 
kept as a store for their provender. Covered sheds for better making and protecting the manure 
from the weather are also generally adopted on all new farm-buildings. The cows are usually kept 
in loose boxes ; the fattening cattle generally tied by the neck. The fourth side of the scjuare em- 
braces the farm stable and waggon shed. The houses are generally conveniently situated outside the 
square ; and many of them on the estates of the Duke of Bedford, and other wealthy and liberal land- 
owners, have lately been rebuilt, or enlarged and improved. Steam and Avater poAver machinery are 
rapidly being brought into requisition, greatly economising labour and facilitating the general Avork 
of the farm. The improvement in agricultural implements has been remarkable during the paf't ten 
years. The larger farm-houses, many of which are fine old mansions, formerly occupied by the lords 
of the manors, are provincially called Bartons. The soil is of various character ; good turnip and barley 
land, of deep friable texture, are met Avith in continuous succession, and from these the cultivator 
reaps the best returns. The system of husbandry folloAved is the alternate one, varied by alloAving 
the land to rest one or more years m grass, as may be thought best by the farmer. There is nothing 
particular in the management of the arable land of this large county, but it is generally Avell and 
deeply tilled, not very heavily manured, but managed, on the Avhole, where the tenants have sutficient 
capital, with much skill and sagacity. TAVo-horse ploughs are universal, and light carts and Avaggons. 
TAVo-furroAv ploughs, draAvn by tAvo or three horses, have of late years also come into general use — the 
undulated surface of the land not being generally favourable to the adoption of the steam plough. 
Sixteen to twenty-four bushels of Avheat per acre may be reckoned an average produce for South 
Devon, and thirty-two bushels of barley. Stubble turnips are occasionally taken ; but the general 
practice is, a bare Avinter falloAV in preparation for a root crop. In many districts of South Devon 
the soil and climate are admirably adapted for crops of early potatoes, to be folloAved by turnips ; or 
for producing crops of rye, Avinter vetches, &c., for spring feed. The dairy management in Devon- 
shire is justly celebrated, the perfect cleanliness and freshness of the dairies forming a marked con- 
trast Avith those of many other counties. 

Fresh butter, clouted cream, cheese, and junkets are the products of the dairies, and great 
([uantities of these delicious luxuries are sent to all the towns and bathing places of the county, and 
to London and other distant markets. The value of Avatered meadoAvs is highly appreciated by the 
Devonshire farmers, advantage being taken of CA'ery little stream to increase the produce of the land. 
The Avarmth of the numerous valleys is highly favourable to rapid groAvth, and their declivities afford 
a cheap and convenient means of laying on the water. The expense of cutting the gutters is about 
£2 per acre, and the annual cost of keeping open the Avatercourses and laying on the w^ater is about 
5s. i er acre. The incrcaseLl produce is fully 100 per cent. ; but this depends chif^fly on the quality of 



History oF I>evoiiHliii»eJ 53 

the water applied, which is found to vary extremely. The cider orchard is another source of income 
to the Devonshire farmer, the value of which has decreased nearly a half within the last twenty years. 
An orchard produces 10 to 15 hogsheads an acre, the selling price of which at present is 255. to 30-?. 
a hogshead, and the cost of preparing it 55. to 85. As much as 150 hogsheads are produced on some 
farms, half of which is consumed by the farm labourers. Lysons, in the ' Magna Britannia,' remarks : 
' I find no mention when Devonshire first became noted as a cider country. Orchards are not 
mentioned in Domesday, and I have not met with any incidental mention of them in records of the 
two or three centuries succeeding to throw any light on the subject.' It is now generally considered 
that orchards and the manufacture of cider were first introduced into Devonshire by the monks, 
probably during the thirteenth century, and it appears to have been clearly proved that cider was the 
ordinary drink of the labourers on the manor of Axmouth as early as the year 1286, and that the 
orchards were first planted there by one of the abbots of ' Montburg,' in Normandy, to M^hom the 
property then belonged. The parish of Buckland Monachorum was early celebrated for this drink, 
and the orchards there doubtless originated with the Cistercians, who colonised Buckland Abbey from 
Quarr, in the Isle of Wight (one of the first houses of this order founded in England), in the year 
1278. The wages of labourers vary from 125. to I85. per week, with three pints or two quarts of 
cider daily, the men bringing in every morning their wooden bottle to receive their day's allowance. 
Task work is now much encouraged, and affords better wages to the industrious. The cottages of 
the labourers are many of them constructed of red earth, mixed with straw, commonly called cohh, 
and covered with reeds or straw thatch. When rough cast and kept dry, this kind of dwelling is 
very durable, the walls being generally from fourteen inches to two feet in thickness. The chief corn 
markets in the county are Exeter, Tavistock, Totnes, Kingsbridge, Plymouth, and 'Barnstaple. The 
Devonshire Agricultural Society was instituted in 1791, for the improvement of the soils and the 
vegetable and animal produce of the county ; and there are now in various parts of the county about 
twenty other agricultural societies, and nearly as many farmers' clubs, having for their objects, 
improvements in the cultivation of the soil and the breeding of stock, and the encouragement of skill, 
industry, and economy among the labouring poor. In some parts of the county considerable attention 
is paid to the breeding of sheep. Great improvements have taken place by the infusion of new blood 
and better feeding — the owners frequently taking their flocks long distances to feed off roots and 
grass, often obtained at great cost. The uses of oilcake, and corn, and artificial feeding are not 
unknown to Devonshire farmers. The established breed, reared chiefly on Dartmoor and Exmoor, is 
the middle wooled class, bearing a strong resemblanee to the Dorsets. But the extensive pasture 
lands are most generally appropriated to the purposes of the dairy and the fattening of the North 
Devon cattle, a very fine breed, with wide spreading horns, and of an uniformly light brown colour. 
This breed, for working and for fattening, is allowed to be one of the most perfect in the kingdom ; 
but it is not much esteemed for the dairy. The native breed of horses is very small, and resembles 
the Welsh and Highland breeds of cattle ; but all the improved breeds of cattle, sheep, and horses, 
from various parts of the country, are to be found here. Among the natural vegetable productions of 
this county is the beautiful scarlet lichen of Dartmoor, formerly extensively used as a dye for cloth, 
and in the manufacture of orchal. 

Agricultural Returns. — According to the Agricultural Returns of the Board of Trade for 1872, 
it appears that in the county of Devon there were 808,195 acres under corn crops; 156,709 acres 
under green crops; 116 acres under flax and hops; 32,145 acres of bare fallow or uncropped arable 
land; 172,771 acres under clover, sanfoin, and grasses under rotation; 400,202 acres permanent 
pasture, or grass not broken up in rotation (exclusive of heath or mountain land); 66,191 acres 
of woods, coppices, or plantations, excepting gorse land and garden shrubberies ; 25,765 acres of 
orchards, &c., arable or grass lands included in other items, but also used for fruit-trees of any kind; 
"1 acres market gardens for growth of vegetables, &c., including acreage under separate crops; 467 
res nursery gardens for growing trees, shrubs, &c. ; making a total of 1,136,329 acres under all 
nds of crops, besides which there are 518,832 acres generally uncultivated. The total number of 
live stock, as returned by occupiers of land and by owners of live stock, comprised 46,149 horses 
solely used for agriculture, &c., 195,541 cattle, 861,751 sheep, 109,485 pigs. The Returns for 1876 
show that on June 25 of that year there were 1,093,748 acres under all kinds of crops, bare fallow, 
and grass. The following were the acres under each description of corn crop: — wheat, 112,652; 
barley or bere, 77,799; oats, 90,571; rye, 361; beans, 931; peas, 1018; total, 283,332. The acres 
under green crops were — potatoes, 15,360; turnips and swedes, 84,866 ; mangold, 28,630 ; carrots, 
238 ; cabbage, kohl-rabi and rape, 17,007 ; vetches, lucerne, and any other green crop (except clover 
or grass), 6269; total, 152,370. 27 acres were under flax; 2 imder hops; 25,850 were bare fallow 
or uncropped arable land. 75,460 acres were under clover, sanfoin grasses under rotation (for hay) ; 
and 114,301 (not for hay); total, 189.761. 89,478 acres were under permanent pasture, meadow or 
grass, not broken up in rotation (exclusive of heath or mountain land), for hay ; and 352,928 not for 
hay ; total, 442,406. There were 51,753 horses, including ponies, returned by occupiers of land, of 



rA 



History of Uevoiishire. 



which 85,551 were used solely for purposes of agriculture, &c., and 1G,202 were unbroken horses of 
any age, and mares kept solely for the purpose of breeding. Tliere were 76,610 cows and heifers in 
milk or in calf; and 63,115 other cattle of two years of age and upwards; and 77,380 under two 
years of age; total, 217,111. 943,542 sheep were returned, of which 600,281 were aged one year 
and upwards, and 343,261 under one year ; and there were 90,773 pigs. 

The Great Landiioldeks of Devonshire. — The Financial Reformer publishes a list of the 
great landowners of the United Kingdom, their acreage, rental, and apparent rates of letting land. 
The information is derived from the Blue Books. The compiler summarised the holdings and calcu- 
lated the average per acre at which each landholder lets his lands. With respect to our own county 
this summary shows the following results : — 



Names 


Acres 


^ 


Total 


Average 









Total 


Average 






b 


Rental 


per acre 






b 


Rental 


ix!r acre 








£ 


s. d. 








£ 


s. d. 


Acland, Sir T. D. . 


36,586 


3 


37,486 


20 5f 


Fortescue, Earl 


30,887 


5 


28,675 


18 6| 


Asliburton, Lord . 


36,772 


5 


46,688 


25 4^ 


Lopes, Sir Massey . 


11,977 


1 


9,328 


15 6| 


Bedford, Duke of . 


87,425 


9 


141,434 


32 4A 


Mount Edgcumbe, 










Carew, Sir Walter . 


10,889 


1 


15,148 


27 9| 


Earl of . 


18,223 


2 


24,181 


26 6i 


Carnarvon, Earl of . 


25,066 


5 


32,748 


26 1 


Palk, Sir L. . 


10,109 


1 


109,275 


216 2\ 


Churston, Lord 


10,903 


3 


11,415 


20 II4 


Poltimore, Lord 


17,049 


2 


16,134 


18 11 


Cleveland, Duke of 


102,774 


9 


91,781 


17 IO4 


Portsmoutli, Earl of 


44,453 


3 


35,032 


15 9 


Clinton, Lord 


28,122 


4 


26,678 


18 11:^ 


Eolle, Hon. Mark . 


47,079 


4 


71,810 


30 6 


Devon, Earl of 


53,688 


2 


43,761 


16 3i 


Somerset, Duke of . 


25,207 


8 


37,580 


29 9f 


Egremont, Earl of . 


11,378 


3 


18,988 


33 Ah 


Stucley, Sir G. 


18,718 


2 


12,712 


13 U 



The abolition of apprenticeship, by which the young labourer had a practical training and 
became a skilled workman in husbandry, and the girls in cookery and domestic work, has been the 
means of doing away with a system happy in its results. The abandonment of this custom that had 
much to recommend it, without a suitable substitute, is much to be deplored. The pernicious eiFects 
of this system are the growing up of a race of boys and girls in a state of rebellion to their 
employers, ignorant and incapable of conducting the commonest work of the farm and household ; 
while all farm products requiring manipulation have become scarce and dear ; some have advanced 
three and four hundred per cent, in consequence. Both sexes may be seen idling their time, and 
falling into habits of vice and immorality — a burthen on society ; while the work of the farm (not ex- 
cepting ' harvest-time ') is with much difficulty carried on, and has been growing gradually worse for 
some years. 

BOTANY. 

The botany of Devonshire is, as might be expected from its physical conformation, both varied 
and interesting, and a large number of the rarer British plants are included in its flora, as the sub- 
joined list will show. Three species of flowering plants are peculiar to the county — the handsome 
blue Lobelia, L. urens^ found upon Kilmington Common, near Axminster, and locally known as ' the 
flower of the Axe'; the pretty little Triclionema Columnar, a diminutive, crocus-like plant, found 
abundantly in spring, in the sandy soil of Dawlish Warren ; and the sea knot-grass {Polygonum 
maritiinum), which was formerly found on the coast of Hampshire, but had been lost to the British 
flora for some years until it was discovered by the Eev. W. Moyle Rogers upon Braunton BurrowSj,^ 
in 1877. 9 

The following list is mainly taken from Mr. Watson's invaluable ' Topographical Botany,' ii^l 
which work the county of Devon is divided into north and south. ' South and North Devon are 
separated by an imaginary line, adapted to the watershed, commencing at the Tamar, about midway 
between Tavistock and Launceston ; passing over the ridge of Dartmoor, and joining the western 
canal at Tiverton.' Some fewrfi^itions which have been published since the issue of ' Topographi- 
cal Botany ' are incorporated in their places ; critical* forms and subspecies are usually omitted, as in 
the case of the brambles and roses. Plants which are peculiar to either the northern or southern 
division of the county are respectively indicated by the letter N. or S. following the name, and where 
a (?) is added it implies some doubt as to the accuracy of the record ; where no such letter appear^ 
the species has been recorded for both divisions. Plants in square brackets are those which rest upon 
doubtful authority for their occurrence in the county ; the italicised species are certainly introductions. 

The literature of Devonshire botany is very considerable ; many of the isolated papers bearing 
on the subject are enumerated in the ' Journal of Botany ' for 1874, and additional matter will be 
found in the subsequent volumes of that work. The most important work upon Devonshire plants 
is the ' Flora of Devon and Cornwall,' by Mr. I. W. N. Keys, of Plymouth, published (1866-70) 
in the ' Transactions of the Devon and Cornwall Natural History Society ; ' the mosses and lichens 
were added by Mr. E. M. Holmes. The Rev. T. F. Ravenshaw has issued a ' List of the Flowering 



Botany of iOevonsliire. Z 55 

Plants and Ferns of Devon ' (1860), with a supplement ; while Messrs. J. P. Jones and J. P. Kingston 
published a ' Flora Devoniensis ' in 1829. A thoroughly satisfactory Devonshire flora is, however, 
still a desideratum. 

RANUNCULACEiE. Clematis Vitalba. Thalictrum minus (S.). Anemone nemorosa. Myosurus 
minimus (S. ?). Ranunculus fluitans (S.), Drouetii, Lenormandi, hederaceus, sceleratus, Flammula, 
Lingua (N. ? S.), auricomus (N. ? S.), acris, repens, bulbosus, hirsutus (S.), parviflorus, arvensis (S.), 
Ficaria. Caltha palustris. Helleborus viridis (S.), foetidus (S.). Aquilegia vulgaris. Aconitum 
Napellus. 

BERBERACEiE. Bcrberis vulgaris. 
NymphvEace^. Nuphar lutea (S.). 

Papaverace^:. Papaver Rhoeas, dubium, Argemone, hybridum. Meconopsis cambrica, 
Glaucium luteum. Chelidonium majus. Corydalis clavicidata. Fumaria pallidiflora, confusa, 
muralis (S.), officinalis. 

Cruciferye. Cakile maritima. Crambe maritima. Raphanus Raphanistrum, maritimus (S.). 
Sinapis arvensis, alba, nigra. Brassica oleracea (S.). Diplotaxis tenuifolia (S.), muralis. Sisym- 
brium officinale, Sophia (S. ?), Alliaria. Erysimum cheiranthoides (S.). Matthiola sinuata (N.). 
Cardamine pratensis, hirsuta, sylvatica, impatiens (N. ? S.). Arabis thaliana, hirsuta (S.). Barbarea 
vulgaris. Nasturtium officinale, sylvestre (S.), palustre (S.). Cochlearia officinalis, danica, anglica. 
Draba verna, brachycarpa (S.). Thlaspi arvense. Teesdalia nudicaulis (S.). Capsella Bursa-pastoris. 
Lepidium ruderale (8.), campestre, Smithii. Senebiera didyma, Coronopus. 
Resedace^. Reseda lutea, Luteola. 
CiSTACE^.. Helianthemum vulgare, (N.), polifolium (S.). 

ViOLACE^. Viola palustris, odorata, hirta, Riviniana, Reichenbachiana, flavicornis, lactea (S.), 
tricolor, Curtisii (N.), lutea (S. ?). 

Droseracej:. Drosera rotundifolia, anglica (8.), intermedia. 
PoLYGALACE^. Polygala vulgaris, oxyptera (8.), depressa (S.). 

Caryophyllace^. Dianthus Armeria, deltoides (8.). Saponaria officinalis. Silene inflata, 
maritima, anglica, nutans (8.). Lychnis vespertina, diurna, Flos-cuculi, Githago. Moenchia erecta 
(S.). Cerastium semidecandrum (S.), tetrandrum, pumilum (S.), glomeratum, triviale. Stellaria 
aquatica (8.), media, Holostea, glauca (8. ?), graminea, uliginosa. Arenaria trinervis, serpyllifolia. 
Honkeneya peploides. Alsine verna. Sagina maritima, apetala, ciliata, procumbens, subulata, 
nodosa (N.8. ?). Spergula arvensis. Spergularia rubra, neglecta, marginata (8.), rupestris. Poly- 
carpon tetraphyllum (S.). 

iLLECEBRACEiE. Corrigiola littoralis (8.). Illecebrum verticillatum (N. ? 8. ?). Scleranthus annuus. 
PoRTULACACEiE. Montia fontana. 

Hypericace.e. Hypericum Androsaemum, perforatum, dubium, tetrapterum, baeticum (S.), 
humifusum, linariifolium (8.), pulchrum, hirsutum, montanum (8.), Elodes. 

Malvaceae. Althaea officinalis (S.). Lavatera arborea (N. ? S.). Malva moschata, sylvestris, 
rotundifolia. 

Linages. Radiola millegrana. Linum catharticum, angustifolium. 

Geraniace^e. Geranium sanguineum (8), pratense, pyrenaicum (8.), moUe, pusillum (S.), 
rotundifolium (8.), dissectum, columbinum, lucidum, Robertianum. Erodium cicutarium, moschatum^ 
maritimum. Oxalis Acetosella. 

ILICACE.E. Ilex Aquifolium. , 

CELASTRACEiE. Euonymus europ^us. 
Rhamnace^e. Rhamnus [catharticus S. ?], Frangula. 
Sapindace^e. Acer campestre. 

Leguminos^. Ulex europ^us, Gallii. Genista anglica, tinctoria (N. ? S. ?). Sarothamnus sco- 
parius. Ononis spinosa, arvensis. Anthyllis vulneraria, Dillenii. Medicago lupulina, denticulata 
(8.), maculata. Melilotus officinalis, alba (8.). Trigonella ornithopodioides (8.). Trifolium 
subteiTaneum, pratense, maritimum (8. ?), arvense, striatum (N. ? 8.), scabrum, glomeratum (S.}, 
suffocatum (8.), repens, fragiferum, procumbens, minus, filiforme. Lotus corniculatus, tenuis, major, 
angustissimus (8.), hispidus. Ornithopus perpusillus. Onobrychis sativa (S.). Vicia hirsuta, 
tetrasperma, Cracca, sylvatica, sepium, lutea (8.), angustifolia, lathyroides (S. ?), bithynica (8.). 
Lathyrus Aphaca (S.), Nissolia (N. ? S.), pratensis, sylvestris (8.). Orobus tuberosus. 

Rosacea. Prunus spinosa. Avium, Cerasus. Spiraea Ulmaria, Filipendula (8.). Agrimonia 
Eupatoria, odorata (8.). Sanguisorba officinalis. Poterium Sanguisorba. Alchemilla arvensis, 
vulgaris. Potentilla Fragariastrum, Tormentilla, procumbens, reptans, anserina. Comarum palustre 
(8.). Fragaria vesca. Rubus Idaus, fruticosus, caesius, saxatilis (S.). Geum urbanum, inter- 
medium (N. ?S. ?), rivale (N. ?8.). Rosa spinosissima, Sabini, tomentosa (8.), rubiginosa (8.), 
micrantha, canina, systyla (8.), arvensis. Crataegus Oxyacantha. Pyrus Aria, scandica, Aucuparia, 



56 ' JBotaiiy ol" I>ovoiiKliii*<' 



LYTHRACEiE. Lythruiii Salicaria. Peplis Portula. 

ONAGRACEiE. Epilobiiim angusti folium (N. ? S.), hirsutum, parviflorum, montanum, lauceolatum 
(S.), roseum (S.), tetragonum, obsciirum, palustre. Circa^a lutetiana. 

IIalokagiace/E. Myriophyllum spicatum (S.). Ilippuris vulgaris (S.). Callitriche verna, 
platycarpa, haniulata, autumnalis (S.). 

GROSsuLARiACEiE. lUbes Grossularia. 

Crassulack.e. Tillaia muscosa (S.). Sedum Tclephiuni, anglicum, acre, rupestre (N.). 
Cotyledon Umbilicus. 

SAXiFRAGACEyE. Saxifraga tridactylites. Chrysosplenium oppositifolium, alternifolium (N.). 
llMBELLiFERiE. Hydrocotyle vulgaris. Sanicula europa}a. Eryngium maritimum, campestre 
(8.). Apium graveolens. Ilelosciadium nodiflorum, inundatum. Petroselinum segetum (N. ? S.). 
Sison Amomum. Trinia vulgaris (S.). ^gopodium Podagraria. Carum verticillatum (S. ?). 
Bunium flexuosum. Pimpinella Saxifraga, magna (S.) Slum latifolium (S.), angustifolium (S. ?). 
Bupleurum aristatum (S.), tenuissimum (S.). CEnantlie fistulo.sa, pimpinelloides (S.), Lachenalii, 
crocata, Phellandrium (S. ?). iEtliusa Cynapium. Foeniculum vulgare. Silaus pratensis (S.). 
Crithmum maritimum. Angelica sylvestris. Pastinaca sativa. Ileracleum Sphondylium. Daucus 
Carota, gummifer. Torilis infesta (S.), Anthriscus, nodosa. Ch atrophy Hum Antbriscus, sylvestre, 
temulum. Scandix Pecten- Veneris. Conium maculatura. Physospermum cornubiense (S.), 
Smyrnium Olusatrum. 

ARALTACEiE. Hedera Helix. 
CoRNACEiE. Corn US sanguinea. 
LoRANTHACE^. Viscum album. 

Caprifoliace^. Adoxa Moschatellina. Sambucus nigra, Ebulus (S.). Viburnum Opulus, 
Lantana (S.) Lonicera Periclymenum. 

EuBiACE^E. Eubia peregrina. Galium cruciatum, verum, Mollugo, saxatile, palustre, uliginosum 
(S.), Aparine, tricorne. Asperula odorata, cynanchica (S.). Slierardia arvensis. 

Valerianace^. Valeriana dioica (S.), officinalis. Valerianella Olitoria, Auricula (S.), dentata, 
carinata (S.). 

DiPSACE^. Dipsacus sylvestris, pilosus (S.) Scabiosa succisa, Columbaria, arvensis. 
ComposiTjE. Onopordum Acanthium (N. ? S.). Carduus tenuiflorus, nutans, crispus (S.), 
lanceolatus, palustris, pratensis (N. ? S.), acaulis (S. ?) arvensis. Carlina vulgaris. Arctium majus 
(S.), minus (S.). Serratula tinctoria. Centaurea nigra, Scabiosa, Cyanus, Calcitrapa (S.). 
Chrysanthemum segetum, Leucanthemum. Matricaria Parthenium, inodora, Chamomilla. Tana- 
cetum vulgare. Anthemis Cotula, arvensis (S.), nobilis. Diotis maritima (S.). Achillea Millefolium, 
Ptarmica. Artemisia Absinthium, vulgaris, maritima. Filago germanica, minima. Gnaphalium 
uliginosum, sylvaticum (S.), dioicum (S.). Senecio vulgaris, sylvaticus, erucifolius, Jacobaea, aqua- 
tions. Bidens cernua, tripartita. Inula Conyza, crithmoides (S.), dysenterica. Bellis perennis. 
Erigeron acris (N.). Chrysocoma Linosyris (S.). Solidago Virga-aurea. Tussilago Farfara. 
Petasites vulgaris. Eupatorium cannabinum. Cichorium Intybus. Lapsana communis. Hypo- 
choeris glabra, radicata. Leontodon hirtus, hispidus, autumnalis. Picris hieracioides (N. ? S.). 
Helminthia echioides. Tragopogon pratensis. Taraxacum officinale, palustre (S.). Lactuca virosa 
(S.), muralis. Sonchus oleraceus, asper, arvensis. Crepis taraxacifolia (S.). Hieracium Pilosella, 
pallidum (S.), murorum, tridentatum (N.), sylvaticum, umbellatum, boreale. 

Campanulace^e. Lobelia urens (S.). Jasione montana. Campanula Trachelium, rotundifolia. 
Specularia hybrida (S.). Wahlenbergia hederacea. 

ERiCACEiE. Vaccinium Vitis-idsea (S.), Myrtillus. Erica Tetralix, cinerea. Calluna vulgaris. 
Pyrola minor (S ?). ^_l 

jASMiNACEiE. Fraxinus excelsior. Ligustrum vulgare. fH 

Apocynace^. Vinca minor. ^■j 

Gentianace^e. Erythraea Centaurium, pulchella. Cicendia filiformis (S ?). Chlora perfoliata. 
Gentiana Amarella, campestris (S.). Menyanthes trifoliata. 

Convolvulace.e. Convolvulus arvensis, sepium, Soldanella. Cuscuta europjea (S.), Epithy- 
mum, Trifolii. 

SoLANACEvE. Solauum Dulcamara, nigrum. [Atropa Belladonna.] Hyoscyamus niger. 
ScROPHULARiACE^. Verbascum Thapsus, [Lychnitis], nigrum. Scrophularia Balbisii, nodosa, 
Scorodonia. Digitalis purpurea. Antirrhinum Orontium. Linaria Elatine, spuria, repens (S.), 
vulgaris, supina (S.), minor (S.). Sibthorpia europaea (S.). Veronica hederifolia, polita, agrestis, 
Buxbaumii, arvensis, serpyllifolia, officinalis, Chamasdrys, montana, scutellata, Anagallis, Beccabunga. 
Euphrasia officinalis. Bartsia Odontites. Pedicularis palustris, sylvatica. Khinanthus Crista-galli. 
Melampyrum pratense. 

OROBANCHACEyE. Lathrsca squamaria. Orobanche major, [caryophyllacea], Hedera?, minor, 
Eryngii (S.). 



Uotany ol* I^evonsliire. 57 

Verbenace^e. Verbena officinalis. 

Labiat.e. Lycopus europa^us. Mentha sylvestris (N, S ?), piperita (S.), sativa, gentilis (S.), 
arvensis, aquatica, Pulegium (S.). Thymus Serpyllum. Origanum vulgare. Calamintha Clino- 
podium, Acinos, menthifolia, sylvatica (S.). Nepeta Cataria, Glechoma. Salvia Verbenaca. 
Prunella vulgaris. Scutellaria galericulata, minor. Melittis Melissophyllum. Marrubium vulgare. 
Ballota nigra. Stachys Betonica, [germanica], palustris, ambigua (S.), sylvatica, arvensis. Galeopsig 
Ladanuni (S.), versicolor (S.), Tetrahit. Lamium amplexicaule, incisum (S.), purpureum, album, 
GaleobdoJon. Ajuga reptans. Teucrium Scordium (N.), Scorodonia. 

BoiiAGiNACE.E. Echium vulgare. Lithospermuni purpureo-ca^ruleum (S.), officinale, arvense. 
Myosotis ccespitosa, palustris, repens, arvensis, collina, versicolor. Anchusa arvensis. Symphytum 
officinale. Cynoglossum officinale. 

PiNGUicuLACE.E. Pinguicula vulgaris, lusitanica. Utricularia vulgaris. 

PplIMULACe.e. Primula vulgaris, officinalis. Lysimacliia vulgaris (S.), Nunimularia, nemorum. 
Centunculus minimus (S.). Glaux maritima. Samolus Yalerandi. 

Plu.mbagixacej:. Armeria maritima. Statice Limonium, binervosa. 

Plantaginace^:. Plantago major, media, lanceolata, maritima, Coronopus. Littorella lacustris. 
Chenopodiace.e. Suaida maritima. Salsola Kali. Salicornia herbacea, radicans (S.). Beta 
maritima. Chenopodium polyspermum (S.), olidum, album, murale (S.), urbicum (8.), rubrum, 
Bonus-Henricus. Atriplex angustifolia, erecta (S.), deltoidea (8.), Babingtonii, arenaria, portu- 
lacoides, hastata. 

PoLYGONACE.E. Rumcx conglomcratus, nemorosus, pulcher (S.), obtusifolius, pratensis (S.), 
crispus, Hydrolaj^athum (S.), Acetosa, Acetosella. Polygonum Convolvulus, dumetorum (S)., 
aviculare, Eaii, maritimum (N.), Ilydropiper, mite (S.), lapathifolium, ampliibium. 
[EltEAGNAce^. Hippophae rliamnoides]. 
Thymeleace^. Daphne [Mezereum S.], Laureola. 
SANTALACE.E. Thcsium humifusum (S.). 
[AsAKACE^E, Asarum europa^um (S).] 
EMPETRACEiE. Empetrum nigrum (S.). 

EupnoRBiACE^. Euphorbia Peplis, Helioscopia, hiberna (N.), amygdaloides, Paralias, port- 
landica, Peplus, exigua. Mercurialis perennis, annua. 
CERATOPiiYLLACEJi:. Ceratopliyllum aquaticum (S.). 

IjRTiCACEiE. Parietaria diit'usa. Urtica dioica, urens. llumulus Lupulus. 
TJLMACEiE. Ulmus suberosa, montana. 

Amentifek.e. Que reus pedunculata, sessiliflora. Fagus sylvatica. Cory his Avellana. Carpinua 
Betulus (S.). Alnus glutinosa. Betula alba, verrucosa, glutinosa (S,). Myrica Gale (S.). Populus 
alba, canescens (S.), tremula. Salix fragilis (S.), alba (S.), triandra (S.), purpurea (S.), viminalis 
(S.), Smithiana (S.), cinerea, aurita, caprea, ambigua (S.), repens. 

TYPiiACEiE. Typlia latifolia (S.), angustifolia (S.). Sparganium raniosum, simplex. 
ArxVCE^e. Arum maculatum. 

Lemnace^e. Lemna trisulca (S.), minor, gibba (S.), polj'rhiza (S.). 

Naiadace.e. Potamogeton natans, polygonifolius (8.), rufescens (8.), heterophyllus (N.), lucena 
(S.), perfoliatus (8.), crispus (8.), densus (8. ?), pusillus, pectinatus (8.). Zannichellia palustris. 
Ruppia maritima. Zostera marina (8.). 

Alismace.e. Triglochin palustre, maritimum. Sagittaria sagittifolia (8.). Alisma Plantago, 
ranunculoides (8.). Butomus umbellatus (N. ? 8.). 

Hydrocharidace^e. Hydrocharis Morsus-rana3 (8.). 

Orchidace^e. Orchis pyramidalis (8.), Morio, mascula, latifolia, masculata. Gymnadenia 
conopsea (8.). Habenaria viridis (8. ?), bifolia (8.), chlorantha. Ophrys apifera. Spiranthes 
autumnalis. Listera cordata (N.), ovata. Neottia Nidus-avis. Epipactis latifoliaj violacea (8. ?), 
palustris. Malaxis paludosa (N.). 

Iridace.e. Trichonema Columna; (8.). Iris foetidissima, Pseudacorus. 
AMARYLLiDACEiE. Narcissus Pseudo-uarcissus. 
DioscoREACEiE. Tamus communis. 

LiLiACE^. Polygonatum multiflorum (8.). Ruscus aculeatus. Scilla autumnalis, verna (8.), 
nutans. Allium vineale, oleraceum (8.), ursinum. Narthecium ossifragum. 

JuNCACEJS. Luzula Forsteri, pilosa, sylvatica, multiflora. Juncus acutus, maritimus, con- 
glomeratus, efFusus, glaucus, obtusiflorus (8.), acutiflorus, lamprocarpus, supinus, bufonius, Gerardi, 
squarrosus. 

CYPERACEiE. Schcenus nigricans. Rhynchospora alba (8.). Scirpus acicularis (8.), palustris (S.), 
multicaulis (8.), pauciflorus (8.), casspitosus (8.), fluitans (8.), Savii, setaceus, Holoschoenus (N.), 
lacustris, Tabernaamontani (8 ), maritimus, sylvaticus (8.). Eriophorum vaginatum, angustifolium, 
latifoHum (N. ? 8.). Carex pulicaris, divisa, arenaria, teretiuscula (8.), paniculata (8.), vulpiua, 



58 Botanv ol' I>evoiiSi<liii*e. 



I 



muricata (8.), divulsa, stellulata (8.), remota, axillaris, ovalis (S.), acuta (N. ? 8.), vulgaris, glauca, 
digitata (8.), montana (8.), pilulifera, prajcox (8.), pallescens (8.), panicea, pendula (8.), sylvatica, 
la3vigata (8.), binervis, distans, fulva (8.), extensa, flava, filiformis (8.), hirta, Pseudo-cyperus (8.), 
paludosa (8.), riparia (8.), ampullacea, vesicaria (8.) 

GiiAMiNA. 8partina stricta (8.). Cynodon Dactylon (8.). 8etaria viridis (8.). Anthoxanthum 
odoratum. Digraphis arundinacea. Alopecurus agrestis (8.), fulvus (8.), bulbosus (8.), pratensis. 
Phleum pratense, arenarium. Gastridium lendigerum (N. ? 8.). Agrostis setacea (8.), canina (8.), 
iilba, vulgaris. Psamma arenaria. Calamagrostis Epigeios (8.), lanceolata (8.). Phragmitea com- 
munis. Milium efFusum. Aira caespitosa, flexuosa, caryophylea, praecox (8.). Avena flavescens 
(8.), pubescens (8.), pratensis (N.S. ?), fatua, elatior. IIolcus mollis, lanatus. Triodia decumbens. 
Koeleria cristata. Molinia cserulea. Melica uniflora. Catabrosa aquatica (8.). Glyceria fluitans, 
plicata (8.), aquatica (8.). 8clerocliloa maritima, distans, Borreri (8.), procumbens (8.), rigida, 
loliacea. Poa annua, bulbosa (8. ?), nemoralis, compressa, pratensis, trivialis. Briza media, minor 
(8.). Cynosurus cristatus. Dactylis glomerata. Festuca uniglumis, Pseudo-myurus (8.), sciuroides, 
ovina, duriuscula, arenaria (N. ? 8.), elatior, pratensis. Bromus giganteus, asper, madritensia (8.), 
sterilis, secalinus, commutatus, mollis. Brachypodium sylvaticum, pinnatum (8. ?). Triticum 
caninum (8.), junceum, repens, pungens, acutum (8.), Lolium perenne, temulentum. Lepturus 
filiformis. [Elymus arenarius, 8.]. Hordeum pratense, murinum, maritimum. Nardus stricta. 

FiLiCES. — Hymenophyllum tunbridgense, unilaterale (N. ? 8.), Adiantum Capillus- Veneris. 
Pteris aquilina. Cryptogramme crispa (N. ?). Asplenium Ruta-muraria, septentrionale (N.), 
Trichomanes, marinum, lanceolatum (N. ? 8.), Adiantum-nigrum. Athyrium Filix-foemina. 
Ceterach officinarum. Scolopendrium vulgare. Cystopteris fragilis (N. ? 8.). Aspidium aculeatum, 
angulare. Nephrodium Filix-mas, spinulosum, dilatatum, a^mulum, Thelypteris, Oreopteris. Poly- 
podium vulgare, Phegopteris, Dryopteris (N. ? 8.). Osmunda regalis. Ophioglossum vulgatum. 
Botrychium Lunaria. 

Lycopodiace^.. Lycopodium clavatum, inundatum (8.), 8elago. 

MARSiLEACEiE. Pilularia globulifera (8.). 

Eqoisetace^. Equisetum arvense, maximum (N. ? 8.), sylvaticum (N. ? S.), palustre, limosum 
(S.), variegatum (8.). 

GEOLOGY. 

The various formations in this county will be noticed separately in the order of their geological 
sequence, beginning with the oldest known rocks, and ending with the most recent deposits. The 
systems or series represented in Devonshire are as follows, the extent occupied by each being 
approximately estimated in proportional parts of the whole superficial area of the county : — 

1. 8ilurian system (?) The metamorphic rocks of 8tart Point and Bolt Head may possibly 
belong to this period. Area occupied, 0*7 per cent. 

2. Devonian system, including the slates, grits, and limestones of North and South Devon ; and 
subdivided into lower, middle, and upper groups. 25*7 per cent. 

3. Carboniferous system, consisting of carboniferous shales, mountain limestone, and millstone 
grit. 41 "9 per cent. 

4. The granite of Dartmoor and Lundy Island. 9*9 per cent. 

5. The Triassic series of new red sandstones, marls, conglomerates, and clays. 14-4 per cent. 

6. Lias. 0*4 per cent. 

7. Cretaceous system, including gault, greensand, and chalk. 4*5 per cent. 

8. The miocene, or lignite beds of Bove}'. 0'5 per cent. 

9. The post-tertiary or quarternary period, comprising gravels, boulders, and boulder clay, 
evidences of glacial action, caves, raised beaches, submerged forests, &c. The alluvial deposits 
occupy 2 per cent. 

10. Modern sea action, landslips, pebble beaches, &c. 

The north and south portions of Devonshire consist almost entirely of Devonian slates and lime- 
stones. The central district includes the carboniferous series and granite, whilst the east of the 
county is occupied by triassic and cretaceous deposits. 

History and Literature. — To the observations of miners and agriculturists we are indebted, as 
is usually the case, for the earliest contributions towards a knowledge of the various rocks and soils 
existing in each particular district. The tin of Dartmoor, the silver of Combmartin, and the anthracite of 
Bideford, were known in very remote ages, and the contrast between materials so different in their 
appearance as granite and slate, could no more fail to attract the attention of the miners, than the 
relative fertility of the barren clays overlying the millstone grit, and the fertile soil of the adjoining 
new red sandstone would be noticed by the farmer. Risdon, the author of a ' Chorographical Survey 
of the County of Devon,' in the reigns of James I. and Charles I., mentions that of late a new inven- 
tion had sprung up and been practised, by burning ' lyme,' incorporating it for a season with earth, 



I Greolog-y ol* Devonsliii'e. 59 

and then spread upon the arable land, producing a plentiful increase of all sorts of grain, where 
formerly such never grew in any living man's memory. From this time the occurrence of veins or 
beds of limestone soon became noticed in various localities, and was included by almost all subsequent 
writers amongst the economic products of the county. An agricultural report on Devon by K. 
Fraser, with a map of the soils, was published in 1794, followed in 1808 by Vancouver's general 
report on agriculture. In the map which accompanies this work, are traced the beds of middle 
Devonian limestone in the neighbourhood of Ilfracombe, and those south of Barnstaple, belonging to 
the carboniferous series. The close of the last and the commencement of the present century was 
marked by the publication of numerous works relative to the geology of Devonshire ; these, however, 
for the most part dealt with isolated facts and phenomena, such as the Bovey coal, organic remains in 
the limestone, caverns, &c. ; whilst no writer attempted more than the very rudimentary subdivision 
of the rocks into granite, slate or killas, red sandstone, and greensand. The granite was regarded as 
the primitive or oldest known stratum, and the slates and grits, comprising so large a portion of the 
district, were comprehended under the various designations of transition slates, greywacke, or 
grauwake — this latter being a term adopted from the mining phraseology of Germany. 

From the year 1814 the list of those who directed their attention to the subject includes such 
historical names as Conybeare, Sedgwick, Buckland, and De la Beche. The Rev. li. Hennah also 
contributed to the Geological Society of London numerous papers on the geology of Plymouth. Dr. 
Buckland's papers related to the excavation of valleys by diluvial action, and to the organic remains 
of the caves ; those by Sedgwick to the formations associated with the primitive ridge of Devonshire 
and Cornwall. The geology of Okehampton, Memoranda relative to Clovelly, and a notice of the 
red rock marl or newer red sandstone, were the subjects chosen by Conybeare ; whilst among the 
numerous contributions of De la Beche may be noticed his remarks on the geology of the south 
coast of England from Bridport to Babbacombe Bay, the anthracite of Bideford, and the trappean 
rocks associated with the red sandstone. 

In 1836 the Rev. Professor Sedgwick and Mr. (afterwards Sir) Roderick Murchison read a paper 
at the Bristol meeting of the British Association, which was the means of directing the attention of 
geologists more specially to the rocks of the northern portion of the county, included up to this time 
under the old names of transition slate and grauwacke. These authors, in their ' Classitication of the 
old Slate Rocks of the North of Devonshire, and on the true Position of the Culm Deposits in the Central 
Portion of the County,' divided the series into five groups, separating the carboniferous deposits, 
which had previously been classed with the lowest portion of the grauwacke ; but mistaking what is 
now known as the Upper Devonian or Pilton beds, for silurian slates. This error was corrected 
three years later in a further communication by the same authors. In the meantime the Rev. David 
Williams in 1837, and Mr. T. Weaver in 1838, proposed a still more minute subdivision of the 
North Devon rocks, based to a considerable extent upon the petrological character of the beds. 
These subdivisions, it may be remarked, do not differ in any material degree from those at present 
recognised. 

We now come for the first time to the introduction of the term ' Devonian,' as applied to the 
older deposits of North and South Devon. Mr. Lonsdale, then assistaiit secretary to the Geological 
Society of London, had remarked that the fossils of the ^grauwacke group' of the west of England 
had characters intermediate between those of the silurian rocks, lately reduced to order by the labours 
of Sir R. Murchison, and those of the carboniferous limestone. The existence of some carboniferous 
species in that so-called 'grauwacke group' was apparently recognised by Mr. Lonsdale, together 
with other species believed to be silurian, while other peculiar species and genera had characters 
which seemed to give them an intermediate place between those found in the silurian rocks, and 
those of the carboniferous limestone. Mr. Lonsdale therefore suggested to Sir R. Murchison and 
Professor Sedgwick, who were then working together on these older rocks in the west of England and 
elsewhere, that the Devon and Cornish rocks were of an age intermediate between the upper silurian 
and the carboniferous limestone. This shrewd suggestion was adopted by Professor Sedgwick and 
Sir R. Murchison, and the age of the Devonian slates was approximately determined by it. (Jukes.) 
In 1839 a report by Sir Henry T. de la Beche on the geology of Cornwall, Devon, and West Somerset 
was published by order of the Lords Commissioners of Her Majesty's Treasury. This work contains 
an index to the sheets of the Ordnance Survey maps,* which were coloured geologically during the 
preparation of the report. All the various formations as they were then known are fully described, 
and such cognate subjects as the physical structure and economic products of the district are also 
included. The indefinite name of grauwacke is, however, still applied to the older slates ; and to 
remove any remaining doubt as to the true position and nature of these deposits, Professor Phillips 

* Although the insertion of the lines of railway gives them a modern appearance, the maps of the Ordnance 
Survey for this county, on the one-inch scale, were published in 1809. Since this date most of the principal turnpike 
roads have been made, and many of those indicated on the map have been closed or diverted for more than half a 
century. 



60 Grcoloft-y ol' I>cvoiiHliii'e. 

received instructions from the Treasury to examine and describe, for the purpose of publication, the 1 

organic remains. This resulted in 1841 in the issue of his 'Palaiozoic Fossils of Cornwall, Devon,ij 

and West Somerset,' a work of the greatest possible value, containing CO plates, with descriptions <j 

and figures of 277 species of Devonian and carboniferous fossils, and tables showing their relativcfi 

distribution in North and South Devon. From this time the nomenclature and sequence of the rocksii 

may be said to be clearly established, and the many subsequent geological papers relating to thisi| 

county will therefore be noticed, where necessary, in our sketch of each of the several formations.!' 

This general history of the subject would be incomplete, without the mention of the establishment iuij 

18G2 of the Devonshire Association for the Advancement of Science, Literature, and Art, which up to' 

the present time has distributed amongst its members nine volumes of Transactions, containing manyi! 

important contril)utions to local geology. In 1865 the age of the older slates again became a matter 

of dispute. The late Mr. Jukes, whose position as Director of the Irish branch of the Geological 

Survey, and whose intimate knowledge of the carboniferous slates of the west of Ireland, entitled him 

to the respect of even those who differed most from him, entered into an argument to prove that the, 

Devonian rocks do not form an independent system of themselves, but are in truth the equivalents oi' 

the carboniferous slates of Ireland. These views have been vigorously opposed, chiefly on palseonto- 

logical evidence, by Mr. Etheridge, in a very elaborate paper on the Physical Structure of West 

Somerset and North Devon (' Quarterly Journal, Geol. Soc.,' vol. xxiii. p. 568), also by Professor 

J. Phillips, Townshend M. Hall, and others. 

Metamorphic Rocks. — The extreme southern termination of Devonshire, including the district 

round Bolt Head, Prawle, and Start Points, is composed of metamorphic rocks, mica schists, and 

chlorite slate. The possibility of these being the oldest known formations in the county, and belonging 

to the Silurian age, gives them some claim to be described first in this sketch. Sir H. De la Beche 

regards mica slate as the predominant substance, occurring in various parts of the area, but most 

abundant in the south, where indeed it sometimes passes into a gneiss, by the addition of felspar to its 

ordinary constituent minerals, mica and quartz. The gneiss is chiefly observable near the Prawle 

Point, and the mica slate best seen in the vicinity of the Bolt Head. True chlorite slate is not veiy 

abundant ; but a compound of quartz and an ambiguous mineral much resembling chlorite occurs, 

intermingled with a chloritic and thick-bedded rock very frequently towards the northern part of this 

area. Supposing the metamorphic rocks of the Lizard Point, in Cornwall, to be of the same geological 

age, the gneiss rock on which the Eddystone Lighthouse is built is regarded by Sir H. De la Beche 

as forming a connecting link between one district and another. The cause of the alteration effected 

in these rocks is attributed by Mr. Jukes and Dr. Holl to a deeply-seated granite mass existing either 

beneath them, or in some adjacent part of the sea bed. A fact corroborating the latter theory has 

been recorded by Mr. W. Pengelly, who observes that not only do boulders of granite occur between 

the Start and Prawle Points, but that in the entire coast, between the mouths of the rivers Avon and 

Erme, he finds no beach without granitoid fragments, and in a small pebble beach, near the mouth of 

the latter river, all the pebbles are fragments of schorl-rock and porphyry. 

The geological age of the metamorphosed rocks is a problem less easy to solve. Both Mr. Jukes 

and Dr. Holl consider them to belong to the Devonian period ; but if, on the other hand, they can be 

connected with the metamorphic rocks of South Cornwall, which are in the same line of strike, it is 

quite possible that they may be Lower Silurian ; the fossiliferous quartzites of Gorran Haven and the 

Dodman being known to belong to that period. The great difficulty, as recently shoAvn by Mr. W. 

Pengelly, is in assigning ' a Lower Silurian age to the Start and Bolt rocks, simply because they were 

probably metamorphosed by the same agency, and at the same time, as the undoubted Lower Silurian 

beds of Gorran and the Dodman ; whereas the truth may be, and probably is, that the two sets of 

rocks were coeval, not in their origin, but in their metamorphosis only.' (' Trans. Devon. Assoc.,' 

vol. ix. p. 411.) 

Devonian Period. — Geographically, the Devonian beds may be divided into two principal ar^aas, 

those of North and South Devon ; whilst chronologically, they may be classed as Lower, Middle, and 

Upper. In the northern area will be found a more complete succession of the beds, and in the 

southern a better development of the lower and middle divisions. The North Devon series extends 

from the Bristol Channel southward to a line draAvn from Barnstaple to East Anstey, near Dulverton ; 

the unfossiliferous sandstones of the North Foreland, near Lynton, forming the base. A section from 

this point to the uppermost beds of Pilton, will give the following sequence of beds in ascending order : — 

T 1^ • f Foreland sandstones. 

Lower Devonian. < ^ . , , 
I Lynton beds. 

r Martinhoe or Hangman beds. 

Middle Devonian. <J Ilfracombe slates and limestones. 

^Morthoe slates. 

fPickwell Down sandstones.. 

Upper Devonian. < CucuUa^a, or Marwood zone. 

L PJltpn beds. 



Oeolog'y of Devonsliire. (Jl 

)ne of the earliest attempts to subdivide the North Devon rocks Avas made in 1837, by the Rev. 
3. Williams, who arranged the series in six groups. A somewhat similar classification was adopted 
a 1841 by Professor Phillips in his ' Paleozoic Fossils.' In this work the organic remains are 
abulated according to their occurrence in the three fossiliferous beds of Lynton, llfracombe and 
^ilton, equivalent to the Lower, Middle and Upper Devonian, and compared with the corresponding 
eries in 8outli Devon. The same analytical method was adopted for the Devonian Brachiopoda 
)V Mr. T. Davidson, in his splendid monograph, issued in 18G5 by the Palasontographical Society ; 
tud in the copious tables prepared by Mr. Etheridge to illustrate his paper, already referred to, in 
1867, will be found lists of all the known species in the animal kingdom, whicli are either 
characteristic oE each division, or which pass from one into another. In the ' Quarterly Journal of the 
geological Society ' for the same year, the relative distribution of fossils throughout the North Devon 
ieries was shown by the author in greater local detail, by comparing the results ol)tained in various 
ocalities situated in the same bed. 

The Forehmd rising to an elevation of G89 feet, forms the most northerly point of the county, 
md part of the same range of sandstones and grits as North Hill, Grabbist and Porlock hills, along 
he adjoining West Somerset coast. These rocks are of a red or brown colour, and are tlirown up 
n a great anticlinal curve ; one side of which dips into the sea, and the other supports the grey 
Lynton beds. The latter, forming the lowest known fossiliferous strata of the district, consist of hard 
rrits, shales, and sandstones, intersected with occasional bands of calcareous and ferruginous matter. 
Ihe fossils are few in number and imperfectly preserved, being either crushed and distorted, or 
Dccurring as impressions or casts only. In the Valley of Hocks, at Watersmeet, Woodabay, and 
Barbrick Mill, all in the neighbourhood of Lynton, the most characteristic fossils are : — Favosites 
■jervicornis, Fenestella antiqua, Chonetes Hardreiisis, Orthis arcuata, Spirifcra hysterica^ Spin/era 
IcBvicosta. At Lynmouth there is a bed in which some remains of fish have been found. Owing to 
the great depth of the valleys and ravines by which the Lynton district is intersected, the succession 
of the beds is at first sight by no means easy to determine. Overlying the fossiliferous bed will be 
foimd a second great series of red sandstones and grits, forming the high table land above Lynton, 
and the coast line as far as the Little Hangman, near Combmartin. At Combmartin the llfracombe 
group commences, and the red sandstones give place to the grey silvery slates, with their limestone 
bands, belonging to the Middle Devonian. In and near the town of llfracombe the slates predominate, 
and excellent sections are afforded by the tunnels leading to the bathing cove, the terrace of the 
llfracombe Hotel, and the walks round Capstone Hill. Proceeding along the new coast road towards 
Combmartin, the limestones are seen near the village of Hole,- and at Haggington ; whilst at Comb- 
martin they attain their greatest thickness, and are extensively quarried. The limestones are 
fossiliferous, containing lai-ge quantities of corals, and imperfect casts of brachiopods and other shells, 
but owing to the crystalline structure and extreme hardness of the stone they can only be obtained 
with difficulty in the quarries ; good specimens of corals and encrinites may however frequently be 
found on the surface of the rocks which have become 'weathered' or partially decomposed by exposure 
to the atmosphere. The follovv'ing are the fossils most commonly met with in these beds : — Cfjatho- 
phyllum ccespitosum, Cyathophyllum obtortum, Favosites cervicornis, Stroniatopora concentrica, 
Mtrista plebeia, lienseUoeria stringiceps, Stringocephahis Burtim, Spirifera, several species ; Stro- 
phomena analoga, Loxoneina, Tentaculites scalaris^ Phacops! Iccvh; and fish remains. The slates, 
especially in Ilele and Watermouth Bays, contain obscure markings which may possibly belong either 
to corals or the remains of plants. 

The succeeding Morthoe beds consist also of slates, which have hitherto proved destitute of 

fossils. They form Morte and Bull Points, and extend inland to Span Head on Exmoor. (In the 

absence of a geological map it may be remarked that all the North Devon beds run in a direction 

froui W.N.W. to E.S.E., with a general dip to the south. None of the subdivisions of the Devonian 

series either here or in South Devon are marked in the maps of the Geological Survey.) The 

distinguishing feature of the Morthoe slates is the absence of limestone, and the abundance of white 

quartz, both in veins and reefs, which intersects them in every possible direction. The lowest portion 

i of the Upper Devonian is formed by the Pickwell Down sandstones, a thick series of red unfossilif erous 

beds, containing a good deal of manganese and iron oi-e. Resting on these is a narrow zone of hard 

ferruginous sandstone, with olive-coloured shales, known as the Marwood or CucuUaja bed, this latter 

name having reference to the vast assemblage of bivalve shells belonging to the genus cuculkca, 

which are found throughout its entire length from Baggy Point to Dulverton. Besides these fossils, 

plant remains of several genera, such as Stigmaria, Jihodea, and Knorria^ are not uncommon, 

■ indicating a deposition in shallow water. At the quarry of Sloly, on the turnpike road from Barn- 

; staple to llfracombe, the shales contain numerous Unguloe. 

The Pilton beds form the last remaining member of the Upper Devonian. They consist chiefly 

' of slates and shales of a purplish or greyish colour, with occasional thin veins of limestone, composed 

frequently of little else than the remains of shells and crinoids. The slates also are abundantly 



62 Greolog;y ol' I>evoiisliire. 

fossiliferous, having yielded more species (many of them new and undescribed forms) than the whole 
of the other groups put together. Excellent sections of the beds may be seen along the coast line 
from Croyde Bay to Saunton ; and inland the quarries of Braunton, Pilton, Goodleigh and Brushford, 
are also deserving of notice. Amongst the fossils most generally distributed throughout the Pilton 
beds are the following : — Petraia celtica, Fenestella antiqua, Glauconome hipinnata^ Athyris 
concentn'ca, Chonetes Ilardrensis, Orthis interlineata, Productus prelongus, Rhynchonella pleurodon, 
Spirt/era disjuncta^ Spirifera Urii, Streptorhynchus crenistria, Strophalosia productoides, Strophomena 
analoga, Cui'tonotus, Sanguinolites, Euomphalus serpens, Cyathocrinus 2'>innatus, Cya'hocrinus 
variabilis, Phacops latifrons, starfish, plant remains, &c. 

Proceeding to the Devonian series in South Devon, we find the slates and limestones occupy the 
whole district, with the exception of the intervening granite of Dartmoor, from Newton Abbott to 
Tavistock, and southwards to the metamorphic rocks of the Bolt and Start. The same series extends 
westward throughout Cornwall. The subdivision of this area presents considerable difficulty, not 
only from the probable absence in it of several of the beds which are found in the North Devon 
section, but also from the intervention of masses of igneous rock. The line of separation between the 
Devonian and carboniferous beds is frequently rendered most obscure from this cause. In 1841, 
Professor Phillips divided the beds into the Upper or Petherwin, and the Lower or Plymouth groups. 
Dr. Harvey Holl, in the sketch map which accompanies a paper to the Geological Society (' On the 
older Rocks of South Devon and East Cornwall,' 1868), refers the deposits to an Upper South Devon 
and Lower South Devon group respectively, these terms in each case being used in a local signi- 
fication. As ah isolated patch of slate, corresponding to the Upper Devonian of North Devon, occurs 
near Launceston, just within the borders of this county, and as recent discoveries of fossils have 
suggested the existence of Upper Devonian beds in South Devon, the same triple division adopted 
in the case of the northern area may probably also be applied with advantage to this. 

The fossiliferous beds of the Lower Devonian occur at Mudstone Bay, near Brixham, Glampton, 
and at Meadfoot, near Torquay, in the neighbourhood of Plymouth, and probably also at Black Hall, 
south of Totnes. Amongst the fossils occurring in the gritty slates of Meadfoot may be named 
Homalonotus elongatus, ,a large trilobite, with a tail measuring nearly three inches in length, 
Pleiirodlctyum prohlematicum, Platycrinus prisons, several brachiopods and two instances of fish 
remains ; a scale of Holoptychus having been figured by Professor Phillips, and a scale of Phyllolepis 
concentricus, found by Mr. Pengelly. At Black Hall the slates have yielded Phacops latifrons, 
.Strophomena rhomboidalis, Streptorhynchus crenistria, Leptcena inter strialis, Chonetes Hardrensis, and 
numerous crinoidal stems (' Trans. Devon. Assoc.,' vol. vi. p. 649). ,* 

The limestones belonging to the Middle Devonian form a striking feature in the scenery of the 
county, and a well-defined landmark in its geological history. These are first seen in the vicinity of 
Newton Abbot, and thence continue in great irregular masses, associated with the slates in the neigh- 
bourhood of Totnes and the two extremities of Tor Bay. In addition there are numerous smaller 
outliers, especially one at Yealmpton, intervening between them and another extensive series of 
limestone deposits at Plymouth. According to Mr. Worth, the boring, 300 feet in depth, for the 
Victoria Spa at Plymouth, proved the existence of two distinct beds of limestone, one 50 and the 
other 150 feet in thickness, intercalated with sandstone and slate ; and a careful examination of the 
stratigraphical positions of the limestones in other parts of South Devon show that some must belong 
to a lower horizon than others, though the faults and contortions by which they have been disturbed 
render it almost impossible to arrive at any satisfactory conclusions as to their relation to each other. 
At Yealmpton the limestone is highly crystalline, and partially converted into dolomite. At 
Plymouth some of the beds are of a slatey and others of an arenaceous nature, a quarter of the bulk 
consisting of a red siliceous sand. Other beds, again, are formed of little else than the remains of 
corals, and very fine specimens may be observed on a Avet day in some of the stones used as flagging 
in the streets of Plymouth. The limestones of Bradley Wood, near Newton, are full of the beautiful 
feather madrepore, Favosites cervicornis, and are in much demand for brooches and other articles of 
ornament, inkstands, &c. The other limestone masses, such as those near Torquay, are also more or 
less abundantly fossiliferous, afEord a large series of shells, and numerous very beautiful corals. The 
fauna of the whole district is larger than that of the corresponding Middle Devonian of Combmartin 
and Ilfracombe, but inferior to that of the Eifel. 

Amongst the fossils of this group may be noticed — Stromatop)ora concentrica, Cyathophyllum 
coespitostim, Heliolites jjorosa, Acervularia, Favosites cervicornis, Bronteus flahellifer, Phacops 
latifrons, P. granulatus, Cheirurus articulatus, Merista plehia, Spirifera nuda, Spirifera cui^vata, 
Cyrtina heteroclita, Atrypa reticularis, Atrypa aspera, Rhynchonella cuhoides, R. primipilaris, R. 
implexa, Pentamerus hreviostris, Strepterhynchus umhracidum, Orthis striatula, String ocephalus 
JBurtini, Murchisonia, Cyrtoceras, Orthoceras, &c. 

The Upper Devonian group will include the fossiliferous beds at Landlake or South Petherwin, 
near Launceston. Two miles north of this town, and on the Devonshire side of the stream which 



Greolo^y of I>evoiisliire. 63 

forms the boundary of the county, a small outlying patch of slate occurs at the bottom of the valley, 
and a short distance from the Duke of Bedford's mansion at Werrington. In these slates, and in the 
adjoining beds, are found Petraia celtica, Sanguinolitas, Orthis, Orthoceras^ Phacops^ &c. The ques- 
tion of the occurrence of Upper Devonian beds in South Devon rests chiefly upon palaeontological 
evidence, and till recently there was a general opinion that no beds of this age were to be found in 
the district. In 1873, Mr. Champernowne recorded the discovery in slate, near Harberton, of a new 
starfish, Helianthastei^ jiliciformis, which presents a great analogy to those from the Pilton beds 
(Upper Devonian) of North Devon, and in the ' Geological Magazine ' for March, 1877, Mr. J. E. Lee 
described and figured several species of Goniatites, an Orthoceras^ and a minute bivalve, Cardium 
pabnatum, which he had found at Saltern Cave, Torbay. These species occur plentifully at 
Budesheim in the Eifel, in beds of shale, which are classed by the German geologists as Upper 
Devonian, and although they have not hitherto been recognised in the north of Devon, the identity of 
the species from areas so far distant as Torbay and the Eifel, is an interesting and important fact, 
which will doubtless lead to further results. 

The trappean rocks, greenstones and ash beds found so frequently in the southern districts, indi- 
cate a long-continued and^ widespread igneous action during the Devonian and succeeding car- 
boniferous period, and may be divided into contemporary and intrusive rocks. Most of the latter 
probably belong to the great volcanic outburst which took place during, or at the close of the car- 
boniferous period, and will therefore be noticed under that head ; but the interstratified greenstone 
and ash beds were clearly formed during the deposition of the slates, with which they are associated, 
and into which, indeed, they often imperceptibly graduate. 

The traps occur in numerous parallel bands at Saltash, near Plymouth, and in irregular beds or 
patches scattered over most of the area. In appearance they vary from a hard compact rock, which, 
however, frequently decomposes near the surface, to a schistose and almost slatey substance. Ash beds 
and vesicular traps are also occasionally found ; some of the latter having the cavities partially filled 
with carbonate of lime. In North Devon, during the same period, the traces of igneous action are 
seen to a very considerably less extent. A narrow band of porphyritic felstone runs from Morte Bay 
to Exmoor, at the base of the Upper Devonian beds. Another, though much thicker, bed of compact 
felstone occurs near Kentisbury, in the middle of the Ilfracombe slates, whilst several others are 
found in the neighbourhood of Parracombe. In all cases they appear to be contemporaneous with 
the slates in which they occur, and in some localities seem to be little else than reconstructed beds of 
volcanic ash. 

The economic products of the Devonian series, exclusive of minerals (which will be noticed in 
a separate article), consist principally of slate and limestone. The latter is burnt at Combmartin, 
Ilfracombe, and throughout South Devon, for purposes of agriculture, building, &c. ; whilst the finer 
qualities, known under the name of South Devon marbles, occur at Plymouth, St. Mary Church, near 
Torquay, Ipplepen, Chudleigh, and several other localities. They receive a high polish, and present 
a great variety, both of marking and colouring. They are extensively employed in church archi- 
tecture, as well as for monuments, chimney-pieces, vases, and small ornaments of all descriptions. 
Their unequal mineralisation and the presence of soft veins, unfits them for external work, as they 
rapidly disintegrate on exposure, when the polished surface becomes dull and full of fissures 
or cracks. 

The Devonian slates are used as flag-stones, billiard tables, chimney-pieces, and roofing-slates , 
though for the latter purpose they are generally found to be inferior to those of Delabole in Cornwall, 
and have, therefore, at the present time, little more than a local demand. At Yeolm Bridge, near 
Launceston, the slates exhibit, when cut, waves or stripes of different colours, rendering them well 
adapted for chimney-pieces. East of Dartmoor roofing slates are obtained at Ashburton ; on the 
south at Ivy Bridge, Buckland-tout-saints, and Kingsbridge; and on the vest at Cann quarry, near 
Bickley, Mill Hill quarry near Tavistock, &c. In North Devon some of the Morthoe slates have 
locally been used for roofing, but are of a very indifferent quality. 

Carboniferous System. — This system, as exhibited in Devonshire, consists of carboniferous 
shales, mountain limestone, and millstone grit, this last largely predominating. The whole series 
occupies a trough-shaped depression, bounded both on the north and south by Devonian slates, and 
measuring at right angles to tlie general line of strike, thirty-six miles in Avidth at the broadest part 
and twenty-two at the narrowest. The northern limit passes very nearly along the line of the Devon 
and Somerset Railway from Barnstaple to Dulverton, whilst that on the south is broken and inter- 
rupted by the granite of Dartmoor, which it surrounds on three sides. On the east it is cut off by 
the overlying triassic deposits, and on the west by Barnstaple Bay and the Atlantic. The centre of 
this great district is composed of millstone grit, bordered both north and south by the carboniferous 
limestone and shales. The transition from the Upper Devonian slates to the lower carboniferous 
shales is hidden almost everywhere along the northern boundary by detritus and superficial deposits ; 
and apart from this, the petrological difference between the two rocks is so imperceptible near the line 



64 Creoloft-y oi* Jt>cvoii}-»liire. 

of boundary, that it is only by a careful examination of the fossils tliat the passage from one system to 
another can be observed. Thus, immediately north of Barnstaple the slates are full of the numerous 
and well-defined Upper Devonian fossils, which have already been noticed ; and south of the town, in 
the railway cutting at the Junction station, the slates are to all appearance precisely similar, but the 
total absence of all the typical Pilton fossils and the jiresence of a few well-known carboniferous 
species is sufficient to indicate a transition into another system of rocks. On the south also the exact 
junction with the Devonian is rendered most obscure, though from a different cause. Many inter- 
bedded trappean ]-ocks and ash beds exist in both formations, and have effected an alteration to some 
extent in ejich, rendering their separation very difficult. The fossils of the carboniferous shales are 
few in number, and usually in a bad state of preservation. Intermixed with these shales occur the 
bands of limestone, which appear as the representatives of the great series of mountain limestone of 
Derbyshire, Yorkshire, and the north of England. They extend in a narrow band from Bampton to 
Fremington, near Barnstaple ; and are Avorked at several intermediate localities, such as South Mol- 
ton, Swimbridge, and Venn quarry, near Landkey. Throiigliout their course the beds are violently 
and variously contorted, and the list of fossils occurring in them is limited in number to some eleven 
or twelve species. At Venn and Swimbridge the characteristic fossils are : — Posidonomya JJecheri, 
Posidonomya lateralis, Cdymenia, Goniatites spiralis, and Belleroplion striatus. 

The limestones on the south are worked near Launceston, Lew Trenchard, Bridestow, South 
Tawton, Drewsteignton, and several other places. Here also Posidonomija is the characteristic shell. 
In close proximity to the limestone are beds of a whitish shale, passing occasionally into a substance 
resembling porcelainite, with beds and veins of a hard white or grey chert. These are well seen at 
St. Stephen's Hill near Launceston, and at Coddon Hill near Barnstaple, Avhere the remains of crinoidal 
stems and goniatites have been found. From Coddon Hill, 628 feet in height, as a centre, a small range 
of hills stretches on either side to Castle Hill on the east, and Fremington on the west, which, by their 
peculiar, rounded contours, as well as by the contortions to which the adjoining rocks have been 
subjected, suggest that some deep-seated but imseen igneous action has taken place since the depo- 
sition of the strata. The succeeding millstone grits occupy the remainder of the district. They are 
composed of beds of hard grits, altei-nating with slates and shales, forming a series of anticlinals and 
synclinals, with contortions in every possible direction. The coast line in general presents a splendid 
series of cliff*, those near Clovelly and Hartland being especially remarkable, not only for their height, 
but also for the manner in which the beds have been dislocated, crumpled up, overturned, and contorted. 
On the exposed surflices of the beds are frequently found ripple marks, similar in appearance to 
those left at the present day by the receding tide on a sandy beach. The grits of the series form good 
building and road material. They are too hard to yield to the chisel, but as they occur in thin beds 
intersected by numerous joints and planes of cleavage, the stone readily comes out of the quarry in 
blocks of a convenient size and shape for the mason's use. The natural faces of the stone are nearly 
always covered with a superficial metallic coating which, without affecting its durability, produces a 
variety in its colouring, and, as may be seen at the various stations along the North Devon Eailway, 
gives a good effect to the building, Avhen relieved with dressings of freestone or white brick. 

The soil of the district is usually poor, and tracts of moorland with sterile clays are not uncommon. 
The ferruginous matter in the soil coming in contact with the roots of the oak ]:)roduces, as was first 
observed by Sedgwick and Murchison, small streamlets of a natural ink, which discolour the deep 
cuttings by the sides of the roads. Several intermittent beds of anthracite, or culm as it is locally 
called, traverse the millstone grit from Greenacliff, near Bideford, to Umberleigh Station, and sufficient 
fuel was formerly raised in this locality to burn the limestone brought from South Wales. The 
adjoining slates are in many places almost vertical ; but there are also several anticlinals. A hard 
quartziferous sandstone almost approaching a quartzite occurs near an outcrop of a vein containing 
iron ore and manganese at Greenacliff, and on the south of it the nests or bunches of anthracite 
afford good specimens of Pecopteris, Calamitcs and Lepidodendron. At Pitt quarry, in the parish wi 
of Abbotshani, a great varletj'^ of characteristic plants, including the rare Bowmanites or fruit of theH 
calamite, have been found in the grits adjoining the culm bands. Still proceeding eastward, at Bide- 
ford may be seen, a few yards north of the new railway station, some black shales forming the outcrop 
of the veins which, until a very recent period, were worked to a considerable extent. The ruins of 
the old engine house still remain, and about a mile to the east the present works are carried on for 
the purpose of obtaining the softer varieties of anthracite, which, ground to a powder, are sold as a 
pigment under the name of ' Bideford black,' 

From this to Alverdiscott and Hiscott the direction of the beds may be traced by the bands of 
black soil, and by the numerous old workings which were probably used about the end of the last, 
and the beginning of the present, century. At Hiscott, near Tawstock, almost in the middle of the 
beds, there are two veins, nine feet in thickness ; the produce formerly amounted to upwards of 900 
bushels per week, but the workings Avere discontinued about the year 1800, on account of the; 
difficulty of keeping out the water. The termination of the beds is seen associated with grits in a| 



1 



<3reolog,*y of I>evoiisliii:*e. Go 

roadside cutting at the top of Hawkridge Wood, near Umberleigh Station. Here there are sand- 
stones and shales containing plant remains, but in a bad state of preservation. In the wood between 
the road and the river Taw, the bed has also been extensively worked. The whole length of the 
series, as measured on the Ordnance Map, is twelve miles and a-half. A list of the fossils found in the 
j North Devon culm beds includes one single shell of the genus Anthracosia, and twenty-six species of 
plants, belonging principally to Asterophyllites, Calamites, Lepidodendron, Neuropteris, PecopteriSj 
Sigillaria, Sphenopteris, Sphenophyllum, Sternbergia, and Stigmaria. With the exception of these 
vegetable remains, peculiar to the anthracite beds, fossils are exceedingly rare in the millstone grit 
series. Calamites and fems have been found at Drewsteignton, and Goniatites Listeri at Instow, 
where the remains of two species o£ fish have also quite recently been discovered. One of these 
measures six inches from the nose to the extremit}^ of the tail, and appears to be a new species of 
Ccelacanthus. The other has been referred by Dr. Traquair to the genus Elonichthys^ and is also as 
yet undescribed. It may be added that up to the present time the carboniferous shales, mountain 
limestone, and millstone grit of Devonshire have yielded collectively, probably not more than fifty 
species of fossils ; whilst, according to a census made by Mr. Etheridge, the carboniferous system in 
Great Britain possesses a flora and fauna amounting to a total of 1741 species. 

Having already noticed the contortions by which the carboniferous rocks have been disturbed, 
we must now briefly mention the great outburst of igneous matter which took place during this 
period, and which probably continued to exert its influence long after its close. Beds of trappean rocks 
occur near the junction of the carboniferous and Devonian series in the neighbourhood of Launceston, 
and similar bands are found skirting each side of Dartmoor, extending also amongst the Devonian 
I rocks of South Devon, in a very large number of places. Some of these igneous rocks have been 
shown to be contemporary with the formation of the beds in which they occur, but many others, and 
especially those in proximity to some of the limestones, are clearly intrusive, and must have been 
thrust into joints and fissures after the Devonian rocks had become consolidated. Many of the. small 
conical hills in South Devon will be found to contain a nucleus of trap, and derive their form to a 
great extent to this cause. 

The principal centre of volcanic action during the carboniferous period appears to have been at 
Brent Tor, four miles north of Tavistock. This singular hill, 1] 14 feet above sea-level, rises up fi-om a 
plane, and stands apart from any other elevated ground, resembling in many respects some of the ex- 
tinct volcanoes of the Ehine and Eifel. It is almost circular in shape and is surmounted by the 
small church dedicated to Saint Michael, which forms a well-known landmark to the sailor, and a 
most conspicuous object to the traveller on Dartmoor, or the Cornish moors for many miles round. 
The origin of its name has been ascribed by the Saxon brennan, to burn, from the fact of its being 
anciently used as a beacon light, although it seems more probable to suppose that the title of the 
* burnt' tor or hill was conferred on it on account of the masses of cinders and lava with which it is 
covered. The whole of the summit is occupied by the little church and churchyard (which doth 
hardly afford depth of earth to bury the dead, as Risdon observed before 1630), and no trace of a 
crater is visible. Immediately west of the church the rock is hard and compact, but on the sides it 
is highly vesicular, approaching almost to pumice ; the scoriaceous lava also passes into an amygdaloid, 
the cavities being either partially or entirely filled with carbonate of lime. 

In North Devon there is a general absence of dykes and ash beds in the millstone grit, and no 
clear evidence of igneous action during this period. Near the junction of the Devonian and carboni- 
ferous slates, near Fremington Station, there is a small dyke two feet in width, but the age both of this 
and the line of disturbance along the Coddon Hill range may possibly belong to some later upheaval 
in connection with the granite of Dartmoor and Lundy. 

Granite. — The granite of Dartmoor forms the largest and most easterly of the six great pro- 
trusions of this rock in the West of England. Between Dartmoor and the Scilly Islands there are 
four principal masses of granite, situated at Brown Willy near Camelford, Hensbarrow near St. 
Austell, Carn Minelez near Penryn, and the Land's End, which together with several small outlying 
patches form a sort of backbone or ridge running through the centre of Devon and Cornwall. Another 
outlier is seen at Lundy Island, 37 miles from the nearest portion of Brown Willy. The granite of 
Dartmoor occupies an area measuring 22 miles from north to south, and 18 miles from east to 
west in its widest part. Most of the district consists of high moorland, rising to an elevation of 1802 
feet at Cawsand Beacon, 2050 feet at Yes Tor, 2000 at Amicombe Hill, 1925 at Newlake Hill, 1760 
at Great Miss Tor, and 1563 at Rippon Tor. Amongst this range of hills the following rivers take 
their source :— Taw, East and West Okement, Yealm, Plym, North and South Teign, Erme, Dart, 
Avon or Atme, and Tavy. Large tracts of bog and peat are freqtient, even at the highest parts of 
the range, such as the top of Cawsand. The granite is usually coarse-grained with well defined 
crystals of felspar, sometimes attaining a length of as much as three inches. Tourmaline or schorl 
is abundant, especially on the outskirts of the moor, where it either forms veins, or enters into the 
composition of the rock, replacing the mica. Red granite occurs near Bovey Tracey, and Trowle- 

E 



66 Greolo^y of I>evoii»liire; 



worthy Tor, about 3 miles from Bickley Station, whilst some of a white colour, almost resembling 
statuary marble in appearance, is found in the valley o£ the West Okement, near Okehampton. The 
ordinary porphyritic granite disintegrates readily on the surface, forming a small gravelly detritus, 
and sometimes as at Lustleigh leaving the more solid portions in spheroidal masses, which when dis- 
connected from the parent rock may readily be mistaken for boulders. The tendency to decay along 
certain lines of joints is a characteristic common alike to Dartmoor, Lundy, and the Cornish granites, 
giving it the appearance of a stratified rock when these joints are horizontal. This structure is fre- 
quently seen on the exposed summits of the hills, and is the origin of the singular shape of many of 
the * Tors,' and called cheese wrings. 

The Dartmoor granite has been largely employed for building purposes from the earliest times, 
and in most of the churches in the vicinity the pillars, arches, and windows are entirely composed of 
it. The extensive works at Hay Tor supplied the stone used in the construction of London Bridge, 
and were connected with the Stover Canal by the first tramway made in the county. It consisted of 
flat blocks of granite, worked with grooves to receive tlie wheels of the trucks, and was opened in 
1820. The granitoid rock known as ' elvan ' is also much used for building, and the stone from the 
quarries on Eoborough Down, near Plymouth, has been in great request for several centuries. This 
substance is found in veins or dykes, traversing the granite and slates, extending often for a consider- 
able distance, and forming to some extent connecting links between the various granitic districts. 
That these dykes belong to a later period than the granite is shown by the manner in which they 
intersect it, and that they derive their origin from a common source is equally manifest from the 
similarity of their chemical composition. The geological age of the elvans and granite of Dartmoor 
occupies a place in the long interval between the close of the carboniferous period and the deposition 
of the red conglomerates of the triassic series ; the evidence of the antiquity of the granite being 
found in the first place in the fact that the triassic conglomerates overlying the carboniferous series 
have been ascertained to contain, in certain localities, pebbles and fragments of each of the threa 
varieties of gvanite occurring in Dartmoor. On the other hand, the modern limit is shown by the 
veins which the great mass of granite has thrust forth in many places along its borders into the ad- 
joining carboniferous slates, causing them to become partially metamorphosed or altered by heat, for 
some little distance. These veins are perhaps best seen at Whiddon Park, and Hunt's Tor intheTeign 
valley, not far from Chagford, where they range in width from a quarter of an inch to twenty feet. 
Whether the porphyritic varieties can be proved to be less ancient than the schorlaceous may be a 
matter of doubt, but the fact still remains that the granite was in a sufiicient state of fusion to pour 
forth its veins into the already consolidated slates of the carboniferous period, and after its upheaval, 
and after a long lapse of time, during which its surface was denuded of overlying rocks, it at length 
became exposed to view, and in its turn helped to supply some of the materials to form the con- 
glomerates of the triassic series. 

With the exception of the Scilly Isles, Lundy is the only island of any size belonging to the' 
shores of the West of England. It forms the most distant outlier of the granite of Devon and Corn- 
wall, and is also of special interest as showing the manner in which the adjoining slates have been 
abruptly cut off, almost at a right angle to their line of strike. The following particulars relating to 
it were obtained during a survey made by the author in 1870. (' Tran-s. Devon. Assoc. ' vol. iv. pp. 
612,624.) 'From north to south the island measures three miles in length, and its width in the 
greatest part is one mile. The Trinity Lighthouse occupies the loftiest point on the island, with a 
height of 567 feet above the sea, the level of the upper revolving light being 540 feet, and the lower 
lantern at the basement 470 feet. The whole surface is elevated table land, and very precipitous on 
the western or Atlantic side. On the east is a succession of dells and fern-covered slopes termi- 
nating in a lower range of cliffs along the water's edge. Tibbet Hill, in the north-west, is only 
about ten feet less in height than the one on which the lighthouse is built. The south-east corner of 
the island, to which the slate formation is confined, is the same elevation as the adjoining granite 
along the line of junction, near the remains of Marisco Castle ; but as it extends eastward, it suddenly 
becomes less lofty, and continues to diminish in a series of gradations, until it terminates in Rat 
Island, which is separated from the mainland at high water. This south-east prolongation of the 
slates afifords a certain amount of shelter from the prevalent south-west drift of the Atlantic, and at 
this point is a small beach, forming the only available landing place. The beach is principally com- 
posed of the debris of the adjoining slates, intermixed with occasional pebbles of granite, blue grit, 
quartz, and elvans or porphyries of several varieties. 

' The soundings around the island, as laid down on the Admiralty chart, show great irregularities 
in the form of the sea bed, and no apparent indication of the probable distance to which the granite 
extends beneath the sea. With the exception of two banks, one called the east, and the other the 
north-west bank (covered by a minimum depth of six fathoms of water), the various soundings within 
the distance of one mile around the island range from an average of 10 to 15 fathoms along the 
shore, deepening in some places to 28 fathoms. 



Greolog'y of DevoMLsHire. 67 



* Notwithstanding the height of the land, there are springs issuing out of the granite in almost 
every part of the island, and one of the most elevated portions is covered with a small tract of bog. 
The soil principally consists of the detritus of the granite, together with black vegetable mould, formed 
by the decay of successive growths of heather and fern.' 

Along the western cliffs is a remarkable slip or dislocation o£ the rocks, traditionally said to 
have occurred simultaneously with the earthquake of Lisbon, November 1, 1755, but which no doubt 
is originally due to some still greater disturbance in prehistoric times, the earthquake of 1755 pro- 
bably causing a further displacement of the granite masses already loosened and ready to fall, and thus 
affording a not unreasonable ground on which to establish the tradition of the place. The dislocation 
of the strata extends for nearly three miles, in one instance dividing into two distinct lines of deep 
fissures parallel to each other, and about 70 or 80 feet apart, the intervening mass of rock 
being also split up, and depressed to the extent of from 15 to 20 feet. In connection with this 
fissure and apparently due to the same cause, aided by the decomposition of two small trap dykes, is a 
singular quadrangular opening 370 feet in depth, locally known as the Devil's Limekiln. 

In its structure the granite of Lundy does not materially differ from the other isolated masses in 
Devon and Cornwall, except that the large felspar crystals, so common on Dartmoor, are usually 
absent. Schorl is far fi*om abundant as a component, but there are occasionally thin veins of a fine- 
grained granitic substance (eurite) traversing the rock. The quarries formerly worked by the 
Lundy Granite Company yielded a large portion of the stone used in the earlier works of the Thames 
Embankment, and from its excellent quality it was, also in considerable demand for kerb-stones. 
Numerous dykes of greenstone penetrate both the granite and slate, but especially along the eastern 
shore ; a very conspicuous one traverses the slates near the landing place, standing up in the form of a 
perpendicular wall, about eight feet in thickness, whilst in close proximity are several beautiful 
porphyries of various kinds. Some of the dykes intersecting the granite decompose freely on the 
surface, weathering occasionally into nodular masses with a concentric structure, resembling the onion 
stones found in the basaltic districts of the North of Ireland. 

Triassic Series. — In the probable absence of any representative of the Permian beds in this 
county, the marls, sandstones, and conglomerates of the Triassic period claim our next attention. The 
district occupied by these and the overlying cretaceous deposits includes the south-eastern portion of 
the county, extending from a little north-east of Tiverton to Torbay. From this line a long projecting 
strip or tongue runs westward by Crediton and North Tawton, to Jacobstow, and immediately beyond 
is a small outlying patch at Hatherleigh. The best section of the triassic series is presented by the 
cliffs along the coast line from the mouth of the river Axe to the middle of Torbay, the regular 
succession of beds being interrupted only by the chalk of Beer Head, and the insulated mass of 
Devonian slate and limestone between Torquay and St. Mary Church. Besides this main body, 
several small outliers are found at various places along other portions of the coast, indicating the 
large area once covered by this series. Thus, the outliers at Portledge and Peppercombe in Barnstaple 
Bay may be regarded as a continuation of that at Hatherleigh, from which they are more than fifteen 
miles distant, and beyond the abrupt termination of the trias cliffs in Torbay several small patches 
are left to show its former prolongation southward. Along the south coast of Devon there are also 
three very distant outliers of the same rock, situated respectively at Slapton in Start Bay, Thurlestone 
in Bigbury Bay, and at Cawsand, near Plymouth. The whole series is made up of marls, sandstones, 
conglomerates and breccias, the pebbles and angular fragments in the two latter being usually derived 
from the adjacent older beds, and thus amongst their contents are included fragments of limestone, 
sandstone, Devonian and carboniferous rocks, together with granite, and a red or flesh-coloured 
variety of felspar called Murchisonite, which is probably Dartmoor felspar, coloured by the infiltra- 
tion of iron from the red rocks. 

^ The Triassic series on the Continent consists, as is well known, and as its name implies, of three 
distinct formations : the Keuper, Muschelkalk, and Bunter ; but of these the Muschelkalk is generally 
supposed to be unrepresented in England, and in the midland counties the Keuper reposes uncon- 
formably upon the Bunter. In Devonshire the almost total absence of organic remains has long 
rendered any attempt at subdivision a matter of extreme difficulty, and it has even been a question 
whether some of the lower breccias may not belong to a Permian age. The only certain limit is to be 
found amongst the highest members of the series which are seen to pass conformably upwards into the 
lias. A little lower in the scale are also beds which have been identified as corresponding with the water- 
stones of Cheshire, also belonging to the Keuper. Associated with these beds, Mr. W. Whitaker, of 
the Geological Survey, discovered in 1868 the jaw of a small reptile {Hyperodapedon) , and in 1875 
Mr. H. Lavis obtained some remains at Picket rocks, west of Sidmouth, described by Professor 
Seeley as belonging to the Lahrintlwdon. In the following year Mr. Ussher, of the Geological 
Survey, who had been for some time engaged in re-surveying this part of the coimty, read an important 
paper to the Geological Society {Qiiarterli/ Journal^ vol. xxxii. p. 367), in which he proposed the 
division of the triassic rocks into five groups, taking as his basis four typical localities, one being the 



68 GJ-eology of" Devonsliire. 

coast section already referred to, another across the valley of Burlescombe, about twenty miles inland, 
and the remaining two in Somersetshire. 

The beds along the coast section are thus described: — 

1 . (Upper) red variegated marls, veins of gypsum, calcareous in upper and middle beds, loamy 
and sometimes passing into rock-sand in bottom beds. 

2. (Upper) red sandstones and rock-sand, in places with calcareous nodules, mottled greyish, and 
containing bands and pockets of red clay, slightly conglomeratic at about sixty feet from bottom. 

o. Pebble beds of Budleigli Salterton, large ellipsoidal pebbles, mostly quartzite (foreign deriva- 
tion) in red sand matrix, with impersistent beds and bands of rock-sand. 

4. Red variegated marls, slightly calcareous above, loamy below, and containing beds of sand- 
stone often impersistent. Brickpits in soil at Exmouth. 

5. Faulted against No. 4. Breccias of angular stones in red rock-sand as at Exmouth and 
Dawlish ; with intercalated rock-sands near the latter, and underlying rock- sands at Dawlish. Hard 
thick bedded breccias of Teignmouth, breccias, breccio-conglomerates and variegated sands of Tor- 
quay and Paignton (at Exeter brecciated loamy clay, with beds of sandstone). 

Summing up the thickness of these several beds, Mr. Ussher gives the following as 
maximum : — 

Upper marls ...... 1350 feet. 

Upper sandstone . . . . . 530 „ 

Conglomerates . . . . . 100 „ 

Lower marls ...... 600 „ 

Lower sandstone and breccia . . . 1000 „ 

Of this estimate of 3580 feet it will be seen that the upper marls and sandstones, which are evidently 
of Keuper age, constitute 1880 feet. In a later communication (' Trans. Devon. Assoc. 1877 ') the 
same author proposes to divide the remaining or infra-Keuper beds into two groups, as — 
Middle Trias : — Marls and passage marls and sandstones. 

Lower Trias: — Sandstones (locally clays) and breccia, and breccio-conglomerate ; an inter- 
changeable series. 

Of these he considers the upper part as of Muschelkalk age, without implying that it is the strati- 
graphical equivalent to that formation alone, for part of the Lower Trias might have been contem- 
porary with its earlier stages. The latter group he has very little hesitation in regarding as in part or 
altogether representative of the Bunter. 

The pebbles found in the conglomerate bed No. 3 are deserving of special remark, as they 
aftbrd an exception to the general rule that the materials forming the triassic conglomerates were 
obtained from the destruction of adjacent rocks. These pebbles consist of an extremely hard quartzi- 
ferous sandstone or quartzite, and at Budleigh Salterton form a bed upwards of a hundred feet in 
thickness. The locality from which' they have been transported is, and probably long wiU be, a 
matter for speculation, since they contain a mixture of Silurian and Devonian fossils, many belonging 
to species unknown elsewhere, either in England or the Continent. In some parts of the Devon and 
Cornish coasts, such as the vicinity of Torbay and Gorran Haven, near Mevagissy, quartziferous rooks 
have been found, presenting much lithological resemblance to the Budleigh pebbles, and several of the 
characteristic fossils of the latter have recently been discovered in them. In 1863 the late Mr. Salter 
first described and figured many of the species which had been obtained by the exertions of Mr. 
W. Vicary, of Exeter, and considered them as identical with the deposits of May, near Caen, in 
Normandy, and equivalent in age to our Caradoc or Lower Silurian. A few years later Mr. David- 
son was able to show that the Brachiopods, thirty-seven in number, included also a large proportion 
of Devonian species occurring in a similar quartzite, though not in the same pebbles. As a coincidence, 
it may be mentioned that in Normandy and Brittany there is an intimate resemblance between the 
quartzites of the Silurian and Devonian series, and that one of the most abundant fossils, Orthis 
redux, is also equally abundant at Budleigh. Taking into account the presence of quartzites in Devon 
and Cornwall, and the possibility of the metamorphic locks of the Start district belonging to Silurian 
age, the presence of the Budleigh pebbles may be accounted for without the necessity of the conclu- 
sion that they must have travelled from Normandy, on the supposition that in pre-triassic times 
reefs of Silurian and Devonian rocks extended southwards toAvards the coast of France, over an area 
now occupied by the Channel ; and that the destruction of these afforded for a limited time the 
material from which the pebble bed has been derived. Amongst the many fossils found in the pebbles 
may be mentioned Tr achy derma serrata, Homalonotus Bronr/niarti, Calymene Tristani, Phacops 
incertus, Linr/ula Lesueuri, Ortlds redux, Orthis Valpi/ana, Spirifera Veniemiii, llliyiichonella inaurita, 
Froductus Vicaryi Modiolopsis armorici^ Pte7'inea, Aviculop)ecien^ &c. 

•The soil overlying the red sandstone and marls is usually deep, rich, and fertile. Some of the 
conglomerates afford fair road materials; but, except in the vicinity of the trappcan rocks, building 



Greology of" I>evoiisliire. 69 

stone is scarce, and not remarkable for durability. The clays afford abundant supplies for brick- 
making, and a deposit o£ very fine quality at Watcombe, near Torquay, is in great demand for terra- 
cotta and ornamental pottery, having produced, according to Mr. E. Appleton, upwards of £10,000 
value of art manufactures in one year. 

The igneous rocks of the triassic series consist generally of felstones, felspathic traps and basalts, 
thus presenting a marked difference when compared with the diorites and hornblendic greenstones of 
the older periods. They occur as beds and in large irregular masses, associated with the .triassic 
rocks at or near their base, especially in localities situated along the line of junction with the carbo- 
niferous slates. At \Yaslifield, near Tiverton, the first principal mass is seen, extending about two and 
a half miles to Loxbere. The remains of the Castle of Exeter, originally known as Kougemont, or 
the Ked Mount, stand upon a porphyritic rock of the same age, and the material from which the 
ancient walls were constructed was probably obtained on the spot. It occupies an almost central 
position between the three largest volcanic outbursts. The first of these at Killerton Park is itself 
surrounded by several smaller beds in the neighbourhood of Silverton, Thorverton, and Raddon. 
The two other principal seats of igneous action appear to have been at Dunchidiock, near Haldon, 
and Posbury Hill, near Crediton. From this latter point several beds extend at intervals along the 
borders of the narrow strip of trias to Jacobstow. A similar felspathic trap is also associated with the 
small outlier of triassic conglomerate already noticed as occurring in Cawsand Bay, near Plymouth. 
These rocks are usually of a dark brown or red colour, and vary in structure from a compact basalt to 
porphyritic trap, sometimes vesicular or amygdaloidal, and occasionally passing into ash beds and 
volcanic sand, the same quarry frequently affording examples of the transition from one variety to 
another, the interior of the mass being compact, and the external portions vesicular or amygda- 
loidal. At Pocombe, near Exeter, small white veins traverse the rock, forming a network of calcareous 
matter ; and both here, and in most of the localities, it is extensively employed for building stone. 

Lias. — Beds of this series extend along the cliffs from Culverhole Point, near Axmouth, for some 
three or four miles to the boundary of Dorset, and thence eastward by Lyme Regis to Bridport. The 
passage beds between the Upper Keuper and the Lias consist of the Rha^tic or Penarth beds, and the 
bone bed, the latter containing numerous remains of fish. Teeth of Hyhodus pltcatilis, Saurichthys 
apicalis, with a scale of Gyrolepis tenuistriatus from Axmouth, are figured in Sir C. Lyell's ' Elements 
of Geology ; ' but most of the well-known gigantic reptiles belonging to the Liassic series, such as 
Ichthyosaurus and Plesiosaumis, occur at Lyme Regis, in Dorsetshire. 

Cretaceous.- — The cretaceous series, as seen in Devonshire, consist of gault, greensand, and chalk, 
resting unconformably upon the denuded surfaces of the older rocks — the whole of the intermediate 
formations, comprising the Lower, Middle, and Upper Oolites, with the Wealden, having no repre- 
sentatives in the county. The district occupied by greensand may be referred to two principal areas. 
The first commences at the Black Down Hills, which divide Devonshire and Somersetshire, and thence 
extends southward to Sidmoutli and its neighbourhood. The second area is formed of several detached 
patches, commencing at Great and Little Haldon, and terminating at Milber Down, near Newton 
Abbott. Greensand is also marked on the Survey maps as found on both sides of the Bovey basin, 
although the gravels in this instance appear to belong to a more recent period. An outlying patch at 
Black Hill, near Exmouth. may be regarded as an intermediate link connecting the two areas, whilst 
the probable extension of the same deposits westward is marked by far distant outliers of cretaceous 
gravel, with flints and chert, resting on the millstone grit, in the parish of Langtree, near Torrington, 
thirty miles from the nearest point of Haldon ; and again six miles further at Orleigh Court, near 
Bideford. In the northern part of the district chalk is found in several small isolated masses, in the 
neighbourhood of Black Down ; whilst along the coast it extends from Penliay to Axmouth, again 
appearing at Beer Head, Branscombe, and Salcombe, this last being its most westerly known limit in 
England. From a thickness of some 200 feet in Hampshire, the LoAver Chalk thins gradually away 
as it extends westward, until it finally dies out beyond Beer Head, and beds of Upper Chalk are 
consequently found directly superimposed upon the Upper Greensand, an occurrence which Mr. 
Whitaker believes has not been before noticed in this country. At Beer Head the cretaceous series 
occupies a depression in the triassic rocks, and affords probably the best typical section cf the various 
deposits. Mr. C. J. A. Meyer (' Quarterly Journal Geological Society,' vol. xxx. pp. 370, 393) 
divides the series into the following principal subdivisions : — 

Upper Chalk (in part). 

Middle Chalk. ^ 

Lower Chalk. 

Chalk Marl. 

Chloritic Marl. 

Upper Greensand. >, 

Gault (the equivalent also in part of the Black Down beds). . 



70 Greolo^y of Devonsliire. 



These are in turn subdivided into twenty beds, each marked by its own characteristic fossils. Copious 
lists of these are given by Mr. Meyer, and to his pajier, as well as to one by Mr. W. Whitaker in the 
8anie journal (vol. xxvii. pp. 97-100), we must refer the reader for further information on the 
subject, as our limited space must necessarily be devoted to those formations more especially dis- 
tinctive of the county, and which therefore possess a more local interest. 

The principal economic products of the cretaceous series consist of the scythe stones of the 
greensand, and the freestone of the chalk beds of Beer. The former are found along the weL*,ern 
escarpment of the Black Down Hills, and at the time of Sir H. Be la Beche's report afforded occupation 
to many persons in the parishes of Kentisbeare, Broadhembury, and Payhembury. The hard, irregular 
concretions occur in layers in a loose sand, and are worked by means of levels or horizontal galleries, 
the refuse heaps of which form a striking object along the sides of the hills. 

The Beer stone is found above the Chalk Marl, and at the base of the Lower Chalk. It is also 
worked by means of subterranean galleries, and for a long period, dating probably from Norman 
times, has been extensively used as freestone in churches and other buildings. It is of a yellowish- 
white colour, rapidly becoming hard on exposure to the air, and can scarcely be distinguished in 
many churches from Caen stone. 

Miocene. — Leaving the cretaceous series, and passing the whole of the eocene deposits, unrepre- 
sented in Devonshire, we come to the lignite beds of Bovey, which, next to the rocks of the Devonian 
series, may be regarded as one of the chief geological specialities of the county. This deposit is 
lacustrine and fresh- water in its origin, and occupies a valley or basin measuring about eight fiiiles 
in length, and three and a half miles in breadth in its greatest width. The lignite appears to have 
been employed as fuel in the early part of the eighteenth century, though from its offensive smell it 
Avas used for little else than baking the clay at the neighbouring potteries. From the year 1761, 
when Dr. J. Miller contributed a paper to the ' Philosophical Transactions,* entitled, " Eemarks on 
Bovey Coal,' it is frequently mentioned as one of the economic products of Devonshire ; and just a 
hundred years later, by the munificence of the Baroness Burdett Coutts, a systematic investigation of 
the lignite deposit was conducted by Mr. W. Pengelly. The various plant remains were afterwards 
submitted to the Rev. Professor Heer, of Zurich, a well-known authority on the miocene flora of his 
native country; and the results appeared in the 'Phil. Trans. Royal Society for 1862,' Mr. Pengelly 
contributing the geological and Professor Heer the botanical portions of the memoir respectively. 

A section made in the south w^all of the coal pit near Bovey, a large open working about 1000 
feet in length, showed a series of 72 beds, consisting of sand, clay and lignite, with a total thickness of 
125 feet. The head or uppermost bed was composed of sandy clay, with a large number of angular 
stones, and from its contents was shown to belong to a very different period, which will be noticed 
presently. The underlying series, for a thickness of 53 feet, is made up of nine different beds of 
lignite, Avith three beds of sand, and thirteen of clay. Forming the base of this upper division is a 
bed of sand 11 feet in thickness. Beneath this no sand is found, but twenty-two beds of lignite, 
alternating in regular order with twenty-three clay beds. Five of the beds in the first division yield 
plant remains more or less abundantly, one of them being a clay bed and the rest lignite. In the 
lower division one clay bed and nine of the lignite beds afford similar fossils. In addition to the 
measurement obtained in this section, the lignite beds have been traced to a considerably greater 
depth ; and by estimating the displacement caused by a fault a short distance east of the pit, it is 
probable that the aggregate thickness of the true Bovey deposit may be taken as not less than 309 feet. 
With the exception of a fragment of a beetle, no animal remains have been discovered ; but of 
the fifty species of fossil plants determined by Professor Heer, tAventy-six proved to be new to 
science, nineteen were recognised as well-known in the Miocene of the Continent, and five Avere of 
doubtful determination, but probably also of Miocene age. Amongst the neAv species are the abun- 
dant remains of a large coniferous tree Sequoia Couttsiw, closely allied to the Wellingtoma gigantea of 
California. It is found in the loAvest as Avell as the highest fossiliferous beds, and in one instance its 
fragments form a mat, together Avith those of a fern, Pecopteris lignitwn. Other remarkable plants 
include two species of cinnamon, three of fig, seeds of the vine and Avater lilly, Anona or custard 
apple, a climbing palm, similar to the Rottang of the East Indies, Palmacitis Dcemonorops^ dryandras, 
eucalyptus, oak and laurel, together Avith several species of fern, especially TMstrcea stiriaca and 
Pecopteris lignitum^ the Avhole flora indicating a luxuriant vegetable growth in a warm though not 
necessarily tropical climate. By regarding the Bovey basin as the site in Miocene times of a fresh- 
Avater lake, fed by streams which drained the north-eastern portions of Dartmoor, the source of so 
large a quantity of vegetable matter must have been derived from forests of Sequoia and other trees, 
Avith an undergroAvth of ferns, which then clothed the hills and valleys along the present Teign and 
Bovey rivers, with their numerous small tributaries. That the sands and clays are also mainly 
derived from the granitic district of Dartmoor is shown not only by the quartzose nature of the sand, 
and by the presence of angular fragments of felspar, but also by the thinning out of the sand and 
clay beds as they extend eastward. The greater purity of the clays towards King's Teignton led Sir 



Oeolouj-y of Devonshire. 71 



H. Dela Beche to infer that the quartzose parts of the decomposed granite were sooner brought to rest 
than the decomposed felspar, which was borne onwards until it could quietly settle in the same manner 
that similar china clay is artificially prepared in the south parts of Dartmoor and in Cornwall — by 
turning streams of water upon decomposed granite. 

Post Tertiary. — At the close of the Miocene we find another of the great gaps so frequent in 
the chronology of the Devonshire rocks. In this instance the whole of the Pliocene deposits are 
wanting, and the next in order indicates a great change in the climate and conditions of the county. 
The lied of sands and clays, with angular fragments of stone, already noticed as overlying the Bovey 
beds, is distinguished fi^-om them by the fact that it rests unconformably upon a denuded surface of the 
Miocene series, and was deposited subsequent to the movement by which they were faulted ; the dis- 
placement of the latter having been covered over by the deposition of the former. The absence in 
the upper bed of all the luxuriant miocene flora, and the presence of species which are only kno^\Ti 
to be Alpine or almost Arctic in their nature, proves the gradual refrigeration which had taken place 
in the intervening period. The plants found at depths varying from one to ten feet, and identified by 
Professor Heer, included two or three species of willow, and the dwarf birch, Betula nana, the 
geographical distribution of which is at the present time limited to Scotland and other northern 
districts. Some of the drift and gravels of the surrounding hills and of other parts of south-east 
Devonshire, may probably belong also to this period, although it appears at present almost impossible 
to obtain any satisfactory classification of them in the order of their succession. They are formed for 
the most part of the rounded fragments of adjacent rocks, and occur at levels varying from the sum- 
mits of the hills down to the valleys of the Dart, Teign, Exe, Tavy, Taw, and other rivers. It is 
probable that some of the cretaceous gravels near Newton Abbott, and in proximity to the Bovey 
basin, hitherto marked in the maps of the geological survey as greensand, may also be reconstructed 
deposits belonging to this age. 

The great ice-sheets which in the glacial period covered the northern part of England and 
Wales, are not generally supposed to have extended south of the Bristol Channel, and the character- 
istic furrows and scratches made by the friction of glaciers against the sides of valleys, so commonly 
met with in the north of England and Wales, have not yet been positively identified in Devonshire. 
If such markings ever were formed, they may have been rapidly efiaced, owing to the soft nature of 
the slate and the tendency of granite to become disintegrated on the surface; but an intimate 
acquaintance with the effects of ice-action in Alpine regions enables me to say that in various 
parts of both Dartmoor and Exmoor there are collections of stones and debris, similar in every 
respect to those composing the moraines of modern glaciers, and valleys which have evidently been 
shaped by glacial agency. In the report of the committee appointed by the British Association 
for the purpose of ascertaining the existence in diiFerent parts of the United Kingdom of any erratic 
blocks or boulders, will be found notices of several instances of transported stones in this county. 
At Waddeton Court, near Dartmouth, a group of new red sandstone boulders are found reposing on 
the slate at elevations varying from 18 to nearly 200 feet above the level of the sea. At Harberton, 
near Totnes, also on a slate subsoil, boulders of a fine-grained trap occur at a height of about 100 
feet, and are especially noticeable as being in some cases marked with parallel grooves or scratches. 
Another group, also composed of trap, is situated at Druid, near Ashburton ; and boulders of various 
sizes have been recorded as occurring in the parish of Bishop's Teignton, near Teignmouth, some 300 
feet above the sea. In North Devon similar boulders, including one of felstone, estimated to weigh 
between 13 and 14 tons, are found at an elevation of about 500 feet at Langtree, near Torrington ; and 
at the Saunton cliff's near Braunton, a mass of red granite, estimated to weigh from 10 to 12 tons, is 
seen lying on the Upper Devonian slate, and covered by a great thickness of more recent deposits, 
forming the raised beach. Three other smaller boulders of similar granite have also been found in 
the same vicinity. The larger mass was described by the Rev. David Williams, in 1837, as like 
much of the Grampian granite ; and he gave as his opinion that it came neither from Lundy, Dart- 
moor, nor Cornwall. Its origin still remains a question, for the main body of rock at Lundy differs 
in every respect from it, and it is very doubtful whether there is any vein of a similar colour and 
texture on the island, capable of producing a block of such magnitude. The nearest point of the 
Dartmoor granite is exactly thirty miles from Saunton, but any of a red colour can only be obtained 
in very few localities, and at a much longer distance. 

Another instance of transported boulders occurs in the parish of Fremington, near Barnstaple, 
where boulders of trap are frequently found on or near the surface of a thick bed of brown clay, 
much used for pottery. In each of these cases we have examples of masses of stone, often of great 
size, formed of materials differing from the subsoil on which they rest, and which must have been 
transported by some powerful agency, sometimes from a long distance, to the positions they now 
occupy. In certain instances they may have been brought down from higher elevations in the same 
manner that large fragments of rock are seen on the glaciers of Switzerland, slowly moving forward 
with the onward motion of the ice ; whilst others, during a temporary submergence of the lower por- 



72' Greolog:y of I>evoiiHliii*e. 

tions of the present land surface, may have been carried from still further points by sheets of floating 
ice, the melting of which landed them on the spots where they are now found. Besides the evidences 
of ancient glaciers in Wales, it must be remembered, in connection with this subject, that the latitude 
of 51 dep-., which passes within a mile of Ilartland Point, runs also south of Labrador, and to the north 
of Newfoundland and the province of Canada. A deflection of the Gulf Stream, which at present 
conveys an enormous amount of heat across the Atlantic from the tropic of Cancer, would reduce 
the north-west of Europe to very much the some climatal conditions as exist along the same parallel 
in the North American continent, and, it is computed by Mr. Croll, would loAver the mean temperature 
of London to the extent of forty degrees. 

Caves and their Deposits. — Numerous caves are found in South Devon in the form of tunnels 
and fissures traversing the Middle Devonian limestone near Torquay, Brixham, Plymouth, Yealmpton, 
Chudleigh, and Buckfastleigh, and though in point of size they may appear insignificant when con- 
trasted with those of Derbyshire, the results 'aftbrded by them are highly important : including as 
they do evidences of the antiquity of man, and the succession of various animals now either extinct, 
or no longer inhabitants of the British Isles. The history alone of the explorations would occupy many 
pages, and we can therefore only direct the reader where to obtain further information relating to them. 
The literature of the various caves has been collected by Mr. W. Pengelly, and will be found in the 
* Transactions of the Devonshire Association' from 18G8 to the present time; and the yearly results of 
the exploration of Kent's Hole, which has been conducted under the direction of a committee of the 
British Association at an expense of over £1600, are recorded in the twelve annual reports of that 
body since the year 1865. An able resume of the whole subject was given by Mr. W. Pengelly in 
his address as President of the Geological Section at the meeting of the British Association at 
Plymouth in 1877 ; and to this Ave are indebted for most of the following particulars. The first of the 
several bone caves at Oreston, near Plymouth, was discovered in 1816 by Mr. Whidbey, who was engaged 
in superintending the construction of the breakwater, and in 1858 another fissure containing a large 
number of bones was broken into ; it extended for a length of about 90 feet, with a height of 52 feet, 
and widened from 2 feet at the top to 10 feet at the bottom. The animal remains found prior to 
1858 included Ursus prisons, U. spelceus, weasel (?), wolf, fox, cave hyaena cave lion. Rhinoceros 
leptorhinus, Equus fossilis, E. plicidens, Asinns fossilis, Bison minor, and Bos longifrons. 

In 1858 remains of the mammoth were found, and probably also Rhinoceros tichorhinus. 

Kent's Hole is situated about a mile east of Torquay Harbour, and at the side of a small lime- 
stone hill are two openings leading into the cave. It was explored by the Eev. J. MacEnery from 
the year 1825 to 1829 ; but, at his death in 1841, the results of his labours still remained unpub- 
lished. The MS. relating to the Avork noAv belongs to the Torquay Natural History Society, and Avas 
printed in extensoby Mr. Pengelly, in the 'Trans. Devon. Assoc, for 1869,' occupying 280 8vo. pages. 
The discovery in 1858 of the Brixham Cavern, Avhere flint implements were associated with the re- 
mains of the mammoth and other extinct mammalia, brought about a sudden change of opinion 
regarding the antiquity of man in this country ; and, with a knoAvledge that extensive portions of 
Kent's Hole still remained intact, a committee was appointed by the British Association in 1864 for the 
purpose of exploring it : a Avork which has been going on continuously for thirteen years. The suc- 
cessive deposits found in the cavern Avere as follows: — 1st. Fragments and blocks of limestone Avhich 
had fallen from the roof. 2nd. A layer of dark-coloured mud, or mould, yielding ' teeth and bones of 
man, dog, fox, badger, brown bear, Bos longifrons, roe deer, sheep, goat, pig, hare, rabbit, and seal; ' 
also flint flakes, amber beads, bone tools, articles of bronze, and potsherds, including fragments of 
Samian ware. 3rd. A stalagmitic floor of granular texture, from less than an inch to five feet in 
thickness. 4th. A layer, about four inches thick, Avith small fragments of charred wood, dis- 
tinguished as the ' black band,' occupying an area of about one hundred square feet, not far from 
one of the entrances. 5th. Light red clay, knoAvn as the ' cave-earth,' containing small angular frag- 
ments of limestone. * The granular stalagmite, black band, and cave-earth taken together as belong- 
ing to one and the same biological period, may be termed the Hya^nine beds, the cave hysena being 
their most prevalent species, and found in them alone. So far as they have been identified the 
remains belong to the cave hya?na, Equus cahallus, Rhinoceros tichorhinus, gigantic Irish deer. Bos 
prhiiigenius, Bison prisons, red deer, mammoth, badger, cave bear, grizzly bear, brown bear, cave lion, 
wolf, fox, reindeer, beaver, glutton, Machairodus latide7is, and man — the last being part of a jaAV 
with teeth in the granular stalagmite. In the same beds were found unpolished ovate and lanceolate 
implements made from flakes, not nodules, of flint and chert ; flint flakes, chips and cores, whetstones, 
a hammer stone, dead shells of Pecten, bits of charcoal, and bone tools, including a needle or bodkin 
having a well-formed eye, a pin, an aAvl, three harpoons, and a perforated tooth of badger.' 6th. 
Beneath the cave-earth there was usually found a floor of crystalline stalagmite. 7th. The breccia, 
or oldest known cavern deposit, composed of fragments of red grit and occasionally limestone imbedded 
in a sandy paste. * The relics found in the crystalline stalagmite and the breccia, in some place ' 
extremely abundant, were almost exclusively those of bear, the only exceptions being a very fe 



I 



Greolog'y of Devoiisliire. 7.3 

remains of cave lion and fox.' The breccia ' also yielded evidences of human existence ; but they 
were exclusively tools made from nodules, not flakes, of flint and chert.' Less than half a mile 
from Kent's Hole is the small cavern of Anstis Cove. It was also explored by Mr. MacEnery, who 
described it as 63 feet in length, and affording remains of the bear, deer, fox, and horse. 

The patch of limestone forming the southern boundary of Torbay contains the several caves 
known as the Ash Hole, Brixham, or Windmill Hill Cavern, and the Bench Cavern. The first of 
these was partially explored about forty years ago by the Rev. H. F. Lyte, and contained remains of 
the elephant, badger, polecat, stoat, water vole, rabbit, and reindeer. The cavern at Bench quarry ia 
also a fissure, and was discovered in 1861. It has yielded the bones of hyaena in abundance, 
together with remains of bear, reindeer, ox, hare, Arvicola rattice]is, A, agrestis^ wolf, fox, and 
rhinoceros. The Windmill Hill or Brixham Cavern was broken into by quarrymen in the year 1858, 
at a i^oint 100 feet above mean-tide; and, 'on being found to contain bones, a lease in it Avas 
secured for the Geological Society of London, who appointed a committee of their members to 
undertake its exploration ; funds were voted by the Koyal Society, and supplemented by private 
subscriptions.' The investigation was entrusted to Mr. Prestwich and Mr. Pengelly, and the 
work, under the superintendence of the latter, was begun in 1858, and completed in tlie following 
year. 'The cavern comprised within a space of 135 feet from north to south, and 100 
feet from east to west, consisted of a series of tunnel galleries, from 6 to 8 feet in greatest width, 
and 10 to 14 feet in height, with two small chambers, and five external entrances.' The 
uppermost deposit consisted of a floor of stalagmite, with remains of bear, reindeer. Rhinoceros 
tichorhinns, mammoth, and cave lion. A concrete of limestone fragments commenced at the 
principal entrance, and yielded only remains of bear and fox. This was termed the first bed. 
Immediately beneath was the second bed, formed of a thin layer of blackish matter ; the third bed 
was composed of red tenacious clayey loam, inclosing fragments of limestone in large numbers, 
together with bones of 'mammoth, lihinoceros tichorhinns^ horse. Bos immigeiiius. Bos longifrons, red 
deer, reindeer, roebuck, cave lion, cave hyaena, cave bear, grizzly bear, brown bear, fox, hare, rabbit, 
Lagom.)jS sjjelceus, water vole, shrew, polecat, and weasel.' The fourth, or gravel bed, was an accu- 
mulation of pebbles, mixed with small fragments of shale, and contained remains of ' the bear, horse, 
ox, and mammoth. The human industrial remains exhumed in the cavern were flint implements 
and a hammer stone, and occurred in the third and fourth beds only.' 

The cavern at Yealm Bridge is situated about eight miles from Plymouth, and was discovered in 
Avorking a quarry about the year ] 832. Colonel Mudge, writing shortly af terAvards, mentions the 
occurrence of elephant, rhinoceros, horse, ox, sheep, hya;na, dog, wolf, fox, bear, hare, and water vole; 
and Mr. J. C. Bellamy added to the list deer, pig, glutton, weasel, and mouse. In this instance the 
remains of the hyaena appear to have been exceedingly abundant. Other caverns are found in the 
limestones of Buckfastleigh, Pridhamsleigh, and Chudleigh ; but they do not ceem hitherto to have 
yielded anything of importance. Indeed, of all the Devonshire caverns that at Windmill Hill, 
Brixham, and Kent's Hole, 'have alone been satisfactorily explored, and beside them none have 
yielded evidence of the contemporaneity of man Avith the extinct cave mammals.' 

Kaised Beaches and Submauine Forests. — At various places along the coast are found 
ancient sea beaches, at elevations far above the highest limits of the present tides, as Avell as the re- 
mains of peat and forest beds Avhich have long since become submerged, and are now only visible at 
loAV Avater. Although belonging to different ages, with probably an immense interval of time separa- 
ting them, they are both due to the widespread movement of the land surface by Avhich this country 
was elevated and depressed. The softer cliffs of the cretaceous and triassic series have suffered so much 
from the destructive force of the AA'aves, that no raised beaches seem to haA'-e been left along any part of 
the south-eastern coast line, the first appearing at Hope's Nose and the Thatcher Kock, near Torquay. 
These were described by Mr. Godwin Austen in 1835. Similar beaches occur resting on elevated 
terraces or shelves, generally about 30 feet above the level of the sea, at Berry Head, Sharkham 
Point, Dartmouth, Start Point, and the Hoe at Plymouth; this last Avas described in 1839 as being 
20 feet in thickness, and 50 above high Avater. On the northern coast the clifl^s are generally too 
precipitous in their character to retain any traces of these deposits ; but on both sides of the more 
sheltered position of Barnstaple Bay may be seen the ver}' fine examples of raised beaches, noticed by 
Prof. Sedgwick and Sir R. Murchison in 1836. That at Northam on the south side between the neAV 
pier at Westward Ho and Rocks Nose, is composed principally of pebbles, and extends AvestAvard for 
some distance. Its thickness is variable, ranging from 3 to 12 feet, Avhilst the height of its 
base above high-Avater mark is from 10 to 17 feet. On the opposite side of the bay at Saunton 
and Croyde, the beach attains a much greater thickness, and is more sandy : shells of the mussel, 
limpet, and cockle being frequently imbedded in it. 

Beds of vegetable remains or peat, frequently inclosing portions of the trunks of trees with their 
roots, showing that they grcAV in the positions in Avhich they are now found, are not uncommon along the 
souths and east coast, at or near the present loAv-Avater mark. . Beds of this nature Avere formerly 



74- Grdalasy or I>evoiislilre. 



seen at Bovey Sand, and other places near Plymouth, and in 1866 one was uncovered at Thurleston, 
in Bigbury Bay. At Blackpool, near Dartmouth, a submerged forest appeared in 1802, and again 
about the year 1855, also for a few weeks in 1869. 

Similar deposits exist over considerable portions of Torbay, the principal exposure being at Tor 
Abbey Sands, where six portions of antlers of the red deer, Cervus ela2')hus, were found twelve months 
since near the low-water line. This bed has also yielded remains of the horse, wild hog, and Bos 
longifrons, whilst a tooth of the mammoth was dredged up by some fishermen in the southern side of 
the bay. At Sidmouth portions of a forest were discovered in 1873, and in this instance numerous 
teeth of the mammoth were obtained. In North Devon, a large tract of submerged forest extending beyond 
the delta of the rivers Taw and Torridge, at Northara burrows, was uncovered during a storm in the 
winter of 1864, when the stems of between seventy and eighty large trees were seen, broken off at 
a height of about 2 feet above the peat bed, but standing in the upright position in which they 
grew. The wood consisted principally of ash, dwarf birch, and hazel, nuts of the latter being found 
in great quantities in the peat, amongst the stems and roots of the trees, together with antlers of red 
deer, and bones of wild boar, wolf, goat, roebuck, reindeer (?), ox, and other animals. This forest bed 
is now almost destroyed ; but from the time of its discovery to within a very recent period it afforded 
undoubted evidences of its former human occupation. Flint flakes and flint cores were especially 
abundant, associated with fragments of charcoal and calcined flint, pointed stakes of wood, and accumu- 
lations of oyster shells, and split bones. 

In estimating the amount of elevation and depression of the land required to produce the raised 
beaches and submarine forests, it is clear that all measurements must depend upon the tidal range of 
each locality. In the case of raised beaches, the amount of waste which the coast line has subsequently 
undergone must also be taken into account, in order to ascertain the original base of the deposits, or, 
in other words, the former low-water mark. A comparison of the levels of various raised beaches 
proves that during their formation the land must have been from 25 to 45 feet lower than it is noAv, 
supposing the tidal range to have been the same ; whilst the submerged forests, on the other hand, 
indicate a considerable elevation of the coast, the peat beds both at Torbay and Northam burrows 
extending down to extreme low-water mark, and probably far beyond it. In Barnstaple Bay the 
tidal range is between 28 and 30 feet ; and if, therefore, the lowest part of the forest is covered at 
high tide with 30 feet of water, it follows that at the time the trees were growing the land must 
have been 30 feet higher than at present ; an additional 5 or 10 feet would also be required in 
order to raise the roots above water, and so allow of the growth of the trees. Following the question 
still further, it is clear that the raised beaches and submerged forests cannot possibly be contempora- 
neous, since one has been caused by a depression of the land, and the other indicates a long period of 
elevation. A series of measurements at Westward Ho, where the two deposits are found in close 
proximity to each other, has afforded the following results : — first, when the raised beaches were in 
course of formation the land surface must have been from 25 to 45 leet below its present level ; 
secondly, a gradual upheaval took place to the extent of from 70 to 85 feet (probably more) when 
the clay beds and alluvial soil in the bays and at the river estuaries became covered with vegetation ; 
the land must have remained at this level a sufficient time to admit of the formation of the peat beds, 
and the growth of large trees ; and thirdly, a subsidence of at least 30 to 40 feet, causins^ the destruction 
of the forests. This final change occurred at a period so remote as to be j^rehistoric, but yet must be 
included within the human period, as man inhabited, or at all events, frequented the forests. 

MoDEKN Action. — The coast in the vicinity of Axmouth is broken up by a succession of land- 
slips, the best known of which occurred on the farms of Dowlands and Bindon on Christmas Day 
1839. This attracted considerable attention at the time, and an account of it by Mr. G. Koberts 
passed through five editions in the same year. Other examples of changes effected by modern action 
are seen in the caves and tunnels hollowed out by the waves in the softer rocks, such as those in the 
new red sandstone cliffs of South Devon, and in the slates from Ilfracombe to Combmartin ; whilst 
the formation and transportation of pebbles is continually in progress along the coast, but especially 
along the southern shore of Barnstaple Bay, the lofty cliffs of Hartland and Clovelly affording the 
rough material which is carried along in an easterly direction, until it arrives smoothed and rounded 
on the Northam pebble ridge. This ridge is a natural breakwater, extending for nearly two miles in 
length, and protecting the southern portion of the delta of the rivers Taw and Torridge. It is formed 
of pebbles of all sizes, usually from two to eight inches in diameter, but in some rare instances 
attaining a length of thirty-nine inches, and has an average width of 160 feet. 

From the foregoing necessarily brief sketch of the various formations, it may be seen that the 
study of Devonshire geology is attended with unusual difficulty. The older series have been dis- 
turbed by the upheaval of granite and the outburst of volcanic rocks ; whilst the secondary and 
tertiary deposits show in only one instance an uninterrupted sequence. Great gaps, marking an 
immense interval of time, occur between almost every group. The upper portion of the beds have in 
most cases been removed by denudation, and in the succeeding deposit there is seldom any certain 



Greologfy of I>evoiisliii:'e. 75 



base from which to start. For these and other reasons Devonshire has long proved a fertile source of 
interest to the geologist, and with many facts still to be accounted for, many difficulties to be cleared 
up, and with some problems yet remaining to be solved, this interest is not likely soon to pass away. 

Mines and Mining. — The metalliferous deposits of Devon consist of veins or lodes, running 
chiefly in an east and west direction, with occasional north and south veins or cross courses. The 
lodes occur in the slates of the Devonian and carboniferous j)eriods, included by the miners under the 
general name of clay slate or killas, as well as in the granite. On Dartmoor tin has also been 
obtained from the earliest times by means of stream works, in the superficial detritus formed by the 
decay of the granite. The chief supplies of metal are, however, found along the borders of the moor, 
and the neighbourhood of Tavistock is especially remarkable for the value and variety of its products. 
In proximity to the granite are numerous tin mines. On the south-west are the rich Beer Alston 
lodes of silver-lead, extending into Cornwall, whilst occupying an intermediate position is a group of 
very valuable copper mines, the principal being the Devon Great Consols. This mine, begun in 1844, 
now contains excavations in shafts and winzes, upwards of nine miles in length, more than thirty miles 
of galleries or levels, and up to April, 1877, its produce has amounted to a total of ^3,226,426, with 
a clear profit to the shareholders of £1,195,520. The arsenic works in connection with it are also the 
most extensive in the world. North of Tavistock are the argentiferous lead lodes of Huel Betsy, and 
the Lydford mines; and beyond these the lead and copper mines of Okehampton and Belstone. 
North-east of Dartmoor lead has been extensively worked at Christow, in the Teign Valley, and 
manganese at Doddiscombeleigh on the east ; magnetic iron ore at Haytor ; umber at Ashburton, 
' copper at Buckfastleigh ; and on the south-west tin, at Bottle Hill, near Plympton. 

Beyond the more immediate vicinity of Dartmoor, both on the west and east sides, manganese is 
abundant, especially in those portions of the slates which are associated with the greenstones or 
trappean rocks. In the north the mining district of Combmartin affords silver, lead, and iron ; that of 
North Molton, copper and iron; manganese occurs in several lodes at Newton St. Cyres, and Upton Pyne, 
near Exeter ; and in South Devon considerable quantities of iron ore have been raised at Brixham. 

In the early history of mining the two counties of Devon and Cornwall are inseparably connected. 
Both yielded tin abundantly, and in order to obtain this metal there is no doubt the Phoenicians traded 
with these parts of Britain considerably before the Christian era. Many of the ancient stream works 
and remains of smelting-houses found on Dartmoor, and known as Jews' Houses, probably date from this 
period. One of the first documents relating to the Devonshire mines is a letter in the Exchequer 
, Books, regarding a court of inquiry held in Exeter on January 19, 1198, for the purpose of ascertain- 
ing the just weights of tin in Devonshire. In the reign of King John the mines were farmed to the 
Jews by the King, as Earl of Cornwall; and in October, 1201, he granted a charter to the tinners of 
the two counties, securing to them very extensive rights and privileges. 

The relative produce at this period is shown by the fact that in 1213 the Cornish dues were 
farmed for 200 marks (£133 6s. 8d.) ; and those of Devon for £200. On the banishment of the 
Jews from England in 1290, the mines appear to have fallen for a time into disuse, and early in 1305 
the Cornish tinners petitioned for a charter of liberties for themselves, not joined with the tinners of 
Devon. This request was granted by Edward I., and on April 10 of the same year two separate 
charters were given, one for each county ; that for Devonshire providing that all tin should be weighed 
for the purpose of the tax, at either ' Tavystok, Asperton, or Chaggeford,' and appointing Lydford as 
the stannary prison. The duty on the stamped or coined tin was 405. per 1000 lbs. weight for 
Cornwall, and 15s. Qd. for Devon. Previous to these charters the tinners of the two counties were 
accustomed to meet every seventh or eighth year on Kingston Down, near Callington, for the trans- 
action of business, and to enact laws ; but after their separation the jurors or representatives, elected 
by the Devonshire stannaries, transferred their parliament to Crockern Tor, on Dartmoor. In 1328 
Plympton was added to the number of stannary towns, and in 1337, when Edward the Black Prince 
was created Duke of Cornwall, the coinage revenues from Devonshire were returned at £273 195. 6d. 
In 1471 the fortune of the county seems to have changed, its tin produce amounting to only 
242,624 lbs., against 851,116 lbs. raised in Cornwall, and all subsequent returns show it failed to 
recover its lost supremacy. In August, 1838, the stannary dues were commuted for a certain 
payment, based upon the average yield of the ten previous years. 

Next to tin, the earliest recorded mining operations were those conducted in search of silver and 
lead. In 1293, William de Wymundham accounted at the Treasury for 270 lbs. of silver raised in 
r)evon, and in the two following years the amount was £1225 1 3s. Id. in weight. According to Risdon, 
the Combmartin mines were first found in the 22nd year of Edward I. (1294), at which time 337 
men were brought from the Peak of Derbyshire to work them. Afterwards, in the reign of King 
Edward III., they yielded great profit towards the maintenance of the French wars, and Henry V. 
also made good use of them. These mines were reopened in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, under 
the direction of Sir Bevis Bulmer, who in 1593 gave a rich and fair silver cup to the Earl of Bath, 



76 



!I^liiiCH of Devoiisliii'e. 



another weighing 137 ounces, with a ' kiver,' to the Lord Mayor of London, to continue to the said 
City for ever. An autograph letter was written by Charles I. three months before his death, on the 
subject of the Combmartin mines; and the working of them was strongly recommended to the Long 
Parliament in 1059. With the North Devon mines were usually associated those of Beer Alston, 
the ore of which frequently contained from 80 to 120 ounces of silver to the ton of lead. In 1784- 
85, the latter mines produced 6500 ounces of silver, and the returns from Huel Betsy near Tavistock, 
about the year 1824, amounted to 4000 or 5000 ounces annually. 

The ores of copper and iron, although they were long known to exist, do not appear to have 
been worked to any extent until the eighteenth century, and a patent of Henry VIII. mentions that 
these metals, both in Cornwall and Devon, had not been ' serched, laborid and wroughte as other 
mynnes of tynne.' One of the oldest copper mines in Devonshire is that formerly worked at North 
Molton, where the ore is said to have been plentiful in 1729. The total produce for the county 
amounted to only 1078 tons in 1801 ; 3390 tons in 1817 ; and 6328 tons in 1837. Twenty years later 
the yield had increased to 39,069 tons, and in 1862 the maximum of 41,513 tons was attained; but 
since this date the annual returns show a steady decrease. 

Iron was not obtained in any quantity, owing probably to its less comparative value, and the 
great cost of carriage, imtil a very recent period. The principal entry dating in the last century is 
the shipment of 9293 tons of ore from Combmartin to the opposite coast of Wales, between the years 
1796 and 1802. Manganese, now so largely in demand for manufacturing purposes, was first raised 
at Upton Pyne, about the year 1770, and from 1804 to 1810 some 3000 tons were yearly taken to 
the port of Exeter. The productive deposits in the neighbourhood of Tavistock were discovered in 
1815. Gold has been recorded as occurring in grains at the stream works at Sheeps Tor, on Dartmoor, 
and in the North Molton copper mines. Antimony, bismuth, cobalt, nickel, titanium, and uranium 
have also been found in the county, though in too small quantities to be of any commercial value. 

The following is a list of the Devonshire mines at present in Avork, or which sold ore in 1876. 
The returns relative to the amount and estimated value of the produce are taken, with few exceptions, 
from Mr. Robert Hunt's ' Mineral Statistics of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland,' 
published September 1877, by order of the Lords Commissioners of Her Majesty's Treasury : — 



Name 


Situation 


Pioduce 


Amount of ore 


Estimated value 








Tons cwts. qrs. 


£ s. d. 


Aller Mine . 


Christow, Exeter . 


Silver-lead 


— 





Ashburton Mines . 


Ashburton 


Umber .... 


1,000 


900 


Bampfylde Mine . 


North Molton 


Copper .... 


18 2 


108 2 10 


Bedford Consols . 


New Quay, Tavistock . 


Iron pyrites . 


100 


122 16 6 


Bedford United . 


Tavistock 


Copper .... 


639 1 


2,331 3 


)> 5» • • 


,. ... 


Arsenical iron pyrites . 


221 19 1 


220 11 10 


Bel stone Mine 


Okehampton . 


Copper .... 


122 9 


854 


Betsy, Huel . 


Mary Tavy . 


Lead .... 

Silver .... 


57 1 21 
250 ozs./ 


702 10 


Bircli Tor Mine . 


North Bovey . 


Tin ... . 


— 


— 


Bottle Hill, Old . 


Plympton 


Tin . . . , 


3 10 1 


157 12 6 


jj >» j> • 


,, ... 


Copper .... 


4 8 


32 




,, ... 


Arsenical iron pyrites . 


16 10 


15 


Bowden Common . 


Brentor, Tavistock 


Manganese . 


76 


304 


Brixhara Mine 


Brixhara 


Brown hematite 


1,603 


801 10 


Brookwood Mine . 


Buckfastleigh 


Copper .... 


1,149 17 


4,556 I 5 


»» ., . . 


,, 


Arsenical iron pyrites . 


104 13 


170 11 


Chillaton and Hogstor . 


Milton Abbot 


Manganese . 


2,430 17 


8,200 


Comfort, H uel, Fullabrook 


Braunton 


,, . . . 


— 


— 


Courtney, Huel 


Tavistock . . ' . 


Copper .... 


_ 


— 


Crebor, Huel. 


,, . . . 


,,.... 


827 6 


3,176 15 4 


„ . . . 


,, . .' . 


Arsenical iron pyrites . 


187 


184 5 


Dean Prior . 


Buckfastleigh 


Copper . . . . 


— 


— 


Devon and Cornwall 


Ashburton 


Umber . . . . 


— 


— 


Devon Great Consols 


Tavistock 


Copper . . . . 


9,974 4 


33,839 19 U 


5> >' " 


,, . . . 


Iron pyrites . 


110 15 


84 7 7 






Arsenic (refined) . 


1,621 11 


14,705 8 10 


Doddiseombeleigh . 


Exeter . . . . 


Manganese . 


— 


— 


Edgecumbe Mine . 


Milton Abbot 


»> . . . 


10 


45 


Eleanor (Great), Huel . 


Moreton Hampstead 


Tin ... . 


3 


129 


Emily, Huel (late Furs- 


South Tawton, Okehamp- 








don) . . , . 


ton . . . . 


Copper .... 


84 17 3 


233 6 5 


Emma, Huel . 


Buckfastleigh 


,,.... 


230 


690 


jt " . * * * 


j> • • 


Iron pyrites . 


24 


14 4 


Florence Mine 


North Molton 


Brown hematite . 


5,712 


2,856 



Miiiies or Devonsiiir^. 



11 



Name 


Situation 


Produce 


Amount of ore 


Estimated value 








Tons cwts. qrs. | 


£ s. d. 


Frank Mills . 


Christow, Exeter . 


Lead .... 


376 6 


3-1 




» >5 • 


>> j> • • 


Silver . . 


5,640 ozs. / 1 


4,070 16 5 


>J J» • • 




Spathose iron . . 1 


— 




— 


. 


» >i • • 


Barytes. . . . 1 


6 10 





5 6 5 


Friendship, Huel . 


Mary Tavy . 


Copper . . . . j 


92 10 





627 7 6 


M )» • • 


M >> • 


Arsenical iron pyrites . ; 


4,000 





3,600 


Furze Hill . 


Horrabridge . 


Tin ... . 


7 13 


3 


339 1 


Grawton Mine 


Gawton Quay, Tavistock 


Copper . . . . 1 


1,069 17 


3 


4,810 14 


j »» j> * • 


ft it u 


Arsenical iron pyrites . 


357 14 





328 8 


HaytorValo . 


Hsington 


Magnetic iron . . ' 


1,781 8 





890 19 


I Holne Chase Mine . 


Ashburton 


Tin ... . 


— 




— 


j Marcia Mine . 


North Molton 


Hematite iron 


200 





120 


1 Maria (West) and For- 












tescue Consols . 


Lamerton, Tavistock 


Copper .... 


909 9 





4,090 10 


» '> >> »» 


tj >> • 


Arsenic .... 


142 2 


3 


710 11 3 


Mary Hutchings, Huel . 


Plympton 


Tin ... . 


4 1 


1 


182 19 9 


S> M !J • 


!) ... 


Arsenical iron pyrites . 


92 16 





73 10 






Arsenic .... 


7 





14 7 6 


Newton St. Cyres Mine . 


Newton St. Cyres . 


Manganese . 


129 





600 


NoemieMine. 


Shaugh, Roborough 


Brown hematite . 


222 





111 


Roborough Mine . 


Ashburton 


Umber .... 


— 




— 


Russell, Huel 


Tavistock 


Copper .... 


1,149 9 


2 


2,868 9 5 


Shirwell and Bratton 


Barnstaple . 


Manganese and iron 


— 




— 


South Molton Consols . 


South Molton 


Lead .... 


— 




— 


Southward . 


Beer Ferris . 




1 9 


3 





Spreacombe Mine . 


Georgeham, Barnstaple . 


Hematite iron 


118 2 





70 16 


Steeperton Tor 


1 Belstone, Okehampton . 


Tin ... . 


— 




— 


Taniar Valley Mine 


j Beer Alston . 


Lead .... 


2 15 


3 


61 17 10 


>J J> 51 


j n „ . 


Iron pyrites . 


19 





15 5 


„ ,, ,, 


„. „ . . . 


Fluor spar 


337 10 





230 


Tavy Consols 


Tavistock 


Copper .... 


5 





22 10 


M >• • • 


,, ... 


Iron pyrites . 


756 





763 16 


Teign "Valley Mine 


Bridford, Exeter . 


Barytes .... 


682 





558 7 9 


Ugborough Mine . 


Ugborough, Ivy bridge . 


Brown hematite 


300 





225 10 


n It • • 


» )• 


Ochre .... 


100 





75 


Vitifer, East . 


North Bovey . , . 


Tin ... . 


13 9 


1 


607 15 


West Down . 


Ilfracombe . 


Iron and manganese 


— 




— 


White Works, New 


Princetown . 


Tin ... . 


16 1 





691 10 



Summary of the mineral produce of Devonshire, with its computed value, for the years 186C, 
1871, and 1876:— 



1 
i 


1866 


1871 


1876 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 




Tons cwts. 


nrs. 


£ s. 


d. 


Tons cwts. qrs. 


£ s. 


d. 


Tons cwts. qrs. 


£ s. d. 


Arsenic 


— 


1 


— 




2,220 3 3 


11,862 19 


6 


1,670 13 3 


15,430 7 7 


Barytes 


— 


1 


— 







— 




688 10 


563 17 3 


Clay (China) 


12,000 





9,600 





19,000 


20,900 





25,000 


25.000 


„ (Potters') . 


45,203 





20,341 





47,639 


ll.,909 15 





61,525 


18,457 10 


Copper ore . 


34,471 





151,481 11 





25,600 11 


84,372 6 


4 


16,276 10 2 


58,240 19 10 


Fluor spar . 


— 




— 




— 


— 




337 10 


230 


Iron ore 


40,671 1 





12,504 9 


11 


14,124 14 


6,095 16 





9,936 10 


5,075 15 


Iron pyrites . 


915 4 





729 7 


3 


2,662 10 3 


1,916 8 


7 


5,990 7 1 


5.592 4 10 


Lead ore 


723 10 





9,227 12 


9 


940 13 


11,669 19 


10 


437 13 3 


6,740 11 5 


Manganese . 


— 




— 




5.548 1 2 


22,958 10 


2 


2,645 17 


9,149 


Ochre and Umber . 


97 





48 10 





. 485 17 2 


964 


11 


1,100 


975 


Silver . 


1 13,017 


oz. 


3,579 13 


6 


i 13,805 oz. 


3,451 5 





5,890 oz. 


1,293 15 6 


Tin ore . 


184 10 





9,313 1 


6 


139 8 


10,557 16 





47 16 


2,107 17 4 


Zinc ore 


j 135 





236 5 





570 11 3 


1,562 10 


10 


— 


— 



Mineral Waters are very numerous in Devon, and are chiefly of the clialybeate kind, but none 
of them are now in medicinal repute. The strongest springs o£ this description rise at Bella-Marsh, 
between Chudleigh and King's Teignton ; and at Hampton. That at the latter place is said to be 
more strongly impregnated with iron than any other in the county. Springs at Ayshford, near Tiver- 
ton, at Sharpham, near Totnes, at Brook, near Tavistock, and at St. Sidwell's, near Exeter, were 



78 Vital Statistics of r>evoiisliirc. 



formerly much resorted to for their medicinal virtues. At Ashburton, and near the Dart, are springs 
saturated with ochre. A pool in one of the Bovey coal pits is warm, and covered ^with ochreous 
incrustation. Ley Well, at Brixham, formerly ebbed and flowed from nine to eleven times in an 
hour, but has been cut through and destroyed ; and there was a pond of the same nature at Tidwell, 
near Otterton. Springs at Ashburton, and at Anchor Wood near Barnstaple, arc still in repute for 
complaints of the eye, whilst the Holy Well at North Molton was formerly much frequented on 
Ascension-day, the water being then supposed to possess unusual virtues. The mineral spring at 
Plymouth, known as the Victoria Spa, was obtained from a boring 3G0 feet deep, in Bath Street ; and 
the following analysis, given by De la Beche in 1839, indicates the weight in grains of dry salts in. 
an imperial pint of water: — Chloride of sodium, 96'64; muriate of magnesia, 18*68 ; muriate of 
lime, 15*10; sulphate of soda, 9*55; sulphate of lime, 8*94; carbonate of lime, 2*06; carbonate of 
iron, 0*69 — total grains, 151*66. Carbonic acid gas, 8*1 cubic inches. — | 

VITAL STATISTICS. W 

Area. — According to the Census Report, 1871, the area of the county of Devonshire is 
1,655,161 acres, equal to 2586 square miles; this area includes 16,386 acres of inland water. 
Devonshire takes the third place among the English counties, ranged in the order of their size from 
the largest ; Yorkshire and Lincolnshire being the only counties larger than Devonshire. Devonshire 
is divided into three Parliamentary Divisions, the Eastern, Northern, and Southern. The Eastern 
Division of Devonshire has an area of 424,289 acres, and had in 1871 a population of 160,788 per- 
sons, exclusive of 44,226 living within the represented city of Exeter. The Northern Division of 
the county has an area of 671,824 acres; and the population in 1871 was 130,775, exclusive of 
21,837 living within the represented boroughs of Barnstaple and Tiverton. The Southern Division 
has an area of 559,048 acres, and the population in 1871 was 101,898, exclusive of 141,850 persons 
residing within the three Parliamentary Boroughs of Plymouth, Devonport, and Tavistock. 

Population. — At the last census enumeration in April 1871, the population of the county con- 
sisted of 601,374 persons, showing a proportion of rather more than one inhabitant to each three 
acres ; in other words, there were 2*75 acres to each person enumerated in 1871. At the first com- 
plete national census in 1801 the population of the county of Devonshire was returned at 340,308 
persons. During the seventy years, 1801-71, the increase in the population of the county was 
261,066 persons, equal to 77 per cent. At each decennial census enumeration since 1801 the popula- 
tion of the county has shown an increase; but, since 1821, the rate of increase has considerably 
declined. Between 1801 and 1811 the rate of increase was equal to 12 per cent., and in the follow- 
ing ten years, 1811-21, to 15 per cent.; the increase in the three following decades declined to 
13, 8, and 6 per cent, respectively, while it did not exceed 3 per cent, in either of the last two 
decades, 1851-61, and 1861-71. During the ten years, 1861-71, the increase of the urban popula- 
tion of the county was equal to 7 per cent., whereas the rural population showed a decrease of 
1-^ per cent. The increasing tendency of English populations to aggregation in town districts causes 
an actual decrease of population in most rural districts. 

Proportion of the Sexes. — The enumerated population of the county in 1871 included 285,248 
males, and 316,126 females; thus, in a hundred of the population the average proportion was 47 
males and 53 females, or, in other words, there were 110*8 females to each 100 males. In England 
and Wales the average proportion of females to 100 males, enumerated in 1871 , was 105*4 ; in London 
it was equal to 113*6. There is a large excess of females in the population of nearly all the English 
counties, except those in which a considerable proportion of the inhabitants is engaged in mining ; 
in Durham, Northumberland, Monmouth, Staffordshire, and the North Riding of Yorkshire, the num- 
bers of males considerably exceed those of females. In 1801 the number of females in the population 
of Devonshire was in the proportion of 118*0 to 100 males; the proportion of females at subsequent 
census enumerations showed a steady decline until 1831, when it was as 109*6 to 100 males. Since 
1831 the sex proportion of the population of Devonshire has not materially varied, and in 1871 it 
was, as before stated, 110*8 females to 100 males. The excess of females is always proportionally 
largest in urban populations, in consequence of the large number of domestic servants, shop assistants, 
and others employed in towns ; this more than counterbalances the effect of the higher wages paid in 
towns, which attract male adults from rural districts, and also of the drain upon male agricultural 
populations due to emigration. In thirty-two town districts of Devonshire there were, in 1871, 117*9 
females to each 100 males; whereas, in the remaining or rural parts of the county there were but 
103*3 females to each 100 males. 

Distribution of Population. — The county of Devonshire contains six parliamentary and eleven 
municipal boroughs. Plymouth, Devonport, Exeter, Barnstaple, and Tiverton are both parliamentary 
and municipal boroughs. The parliamentary and municipal boundaries of Tiverton are coextensive, 
whereas the parliamentary limits of Plymouth, Devonport, Exeter, and Barnstaple exceed the municipal 
boundaries of those boroughs. Tavistock is a parliamentary borough only ; while Bideford, Dart- 



Vital statistics of r>evoiisliif^. 79 

: mouth, Totnes, South Molton, Torrington, and Honiton are municipal, and not parliamentary 
i boroughs. The municipal borough and urban sanitary district o£ Plymouth consist of parts of the 
i parishes of Charles and St. Andrew, and has an area of 1395 acres. The boundaries of the borough 
! were coextensive during the seventy years, 1801-71. The population, which in 1801 was 16,040, 
I increased steadily to 36,520 in 1841, and further rose to 52,221 and 62,599 at the census enumera- 
i tions in 1851 and 1861 ; in 1871 the enumerated population was 68,758. Between 1851 and 1861 
J the population of the borough showed an increase of 19*9 per cent.; in the more recent decade, 1861- 
j 71 the percentage of increase declined to 9*8. Assuming that the rate of increase which prevailed 
between the last two census enumerations has since been maintained, the Registrar-General estimates 
the population of the borough of Plymouth in the middle of the year 1878 to be 73,599 persons. 
Plymouth is the smallest of the twenty large English towns for which weekly mortality statistics are 
published by the Registrar-General. In 1871 the inhabited houses within the borough averaged but 
5*2 per acre, proving that a considerable portion of the area of the borough was not then occupied by 
buildings. The number of persons to each inhabited house in 1871 was so high as 9*4, but showed 
a decline from the proportion that prevailed in 1861, when 103 persons were enumerated to each 
inhabited house. By the Act 31 & 32 Vict. c. 46, the parliamentary borough of Plymouth was 
extended by the addition of a portion of the ty thing of Compton-GiiFord, which contained 223 
inhabited houses and 1333 persons at the census in 1871 ; this portion of. Compton-Gifford, which is 
part of Charles parish, is not included within the municipal borough of Plymouth. The municipal 
borough and urban sanitary district of Devonport is coextensive with the parish of Stoke Damerel, 
and has an area of 1760 acres. The parliamentary borough of Devonport includes also the parish of 
East Stonehouse, having an area of 1950 acres, within which 1340 inhabited houses and 14,585 
persons were enumerated in 1871. The population of the municipal borough of Devonport, which in 
1851 was equal to 38,180 persons, increased to 50,440 in 1861 ; this increase was equal to 32*1 per 
cent. In 1871 the enumerated population of the borough was 49,449, and showed a decrease of 2*0 
per cent from the enumerated number in 1861. The decline of population between 1861 and 1871 
was partially attributed to reduction in the number of men employed in the dockyard. In 1871 the 
inhabited houses within the municipal borough averaged but 2'4 per acre. The number of inhabited 
houses, notwithstanding the decrease of population, increased from 4189 in 1861, to 4269 in 1871 ; 
thus the number of persons to each inhabited house, which was so high as 12*0 in 1861, declined to 
11'6 in 1871. The city, municipal borough, and urban sanitary district of Exeter, which is coex- 
tensive with the poor law imion and registration district of the same name, has an area of 1664 
acres. The limits of the municipal borough were coextensive during the seventy years, 1801-71. 
The population, which in 1801 was but 17,412, increased somewhat rapidly to 31,305 in 1841 ; since 
then the rate of increase has been much smaller. In 1851 the enumerated population was 32,818; 
in 1861, 33,738, and in 1871, 34,650; between 1851 and 1861 the increase was equal to 2*8 
per cent., and in the more recent decade to 2*7 per cent. If the increase since 1871 has been 
maintained at the same rate that prevailed between 1861 and 1871, the population at the middle of 
1878 may be estimated at 35,327 persons. In 1871 the inhabited houses within the borough 
averaged but 3*5 per acre, showing that a large proportion of the area of the city had not then been 
built upon. The inhabited houses within the city increased from 5381 in 1861, to 5868 in 1871; 
and the number of persons to each inhabited house declined from 6'3 in 1861, to 5'9 in 1871. The 
boundaries of the parliamentary borough of Exeter were extended by the Act 31 & 32 Vict. c. 46, 
so as to include the whole or part of five parishes, which are not included in the municipal borough. 
The parliamentary borough contained 7490 inhabited houses, and 44,226 inhabitants in 1871. The 
municipal borough and urban sanitary district of Barnstaple consists of the parish of the same name 
and parts of the parishes of Bishop's Tawton and of Pilton, and has an area of 1750 acres. The 
enumerated population, which declined from 11,371 in 1851, to ] 0,743 in 1861, had increased again 
to 11,659 in 1871. Thus the population of the borough showed a decrease of 5*5 per cent, between 
1851 and 1861, whereas in the following decade there was an increase equal to 8'5 per cent. In 
1571 there were but 1*3 inhabited houses to each acre within the borough, and the number of persons 
to an inhabited house was 5*0, against 4*9 in 1861. The parliamentary borough of Barnstaple includes 
a further portion of the parish of Pilton (not included within the municipal borough), which had in 
1871 31 inhabited houses, and a population of 154 persons. The municipal and parliamentary 
borough, and the urban sanitary district of Tiverton is coextensive with the parish and registration 
district of the same name, and has an area of 17,491 acres. The enumerated population of the 
borough, which in 1851 was equal to 11,144 persons, declined to 10,447 in 1861, and further 
decreased to 10,024 in 1871 ; this decrease of population is partly attributed to the decline of lace 
manufacture. Between 1851 and 1861 the decrease was equal to 6*3 per cent., and in the following 
decade to 4*0 per cent. In 1871 there were 8*1 acres to each inhabited house, and the proportion of 
persons to each inhabited house declined from 4*7 in 1861, to 4-6 in 1871. The parliamentary 
.boirough of Tavistock consists of a portion of the parish of the same name, and has an estimated area 



80 Vital Statistics of" r>evoiiskii*e. 

of 38G3 acres. The enumerated population, which increased irom 8086 in 1851, to 8857 in 1861, 
equal to 9*5 per cent., had in 1871 decreased, owing to the depression in mining, to 7725 persons, 
which was equal to 12'8 per cent. The number of inhabited houses was, however, the same in 1871 
as in 1861. The municijial borough and urban sanitary district of Bidefohd is coextensive with the 
parish of the same name, the area of which is 3196 acres. The population of the borough was almost 
stationary (577o and 5742) between 1851 and 1861, but increased to 6969 in 1871, showing an in- 
crease in the more recent decade equal to 21*4 per cent.; this increase was partially attributed to the 
number of labourers temporarily employed on railway and water works. In 1871 there was within 
the borough but one inhabited house to every 2*4 acres ; the number of persons to an inhabited 
house, which had been 4*8 in 1861, had increased to 5-1 in 1871. The municipal borough and 
urban sjinitar}^ district of Dartmouth has an area of 1847 acres, and the population, which had 
declined from 4508 in 1851 to 4444 in 1861, had increaned in 1871 to 5338; the increase during 
the last decade was equal to 20*1 per cent., and was partly due to tho opening of the railway. In 
1871 there were 2*2 acres to each inhabited house within the borough, and the number of persons to 
each inhabited house increased from 5*4 in 1861, to 6'4 in 1871. The parliamentary borough of 
Dartmouth was disfranchised by the Act 31 & 32 Vict. c. 48. The municipal borough and urban 
sanitary district of Totnes consists of tlie parish of that name and part of the parish of Berry 
Pomeroy, and has an estimated area of 2036 acres : the population, which declined from 4419 in 
1851 to 4001 in 1861, was 4073 in 1871. Between 1851 and 1861 the population decreased 9-5 per 
cent., whereas in the more recent decade the increase was equal to 1*8 per cent. The number of 
persons to an inhabited house averaged 5*0 and 5*5 respectively in 1861 and 1871. The municipal 
borough and urban sanitary district of South Molton is coextensive with the parish of the game 
name, and has an area of 6264 acres. Between 1851 and 1861 the population declined from 4482 
to 3830, equal to 14*5 per cent.; while in 1871, 3978 persons Avere enumerated, equal to an increase 
of 3*9 per cent. The increase in 1871 was partially attributed to the construction of a railway. In 
1871 there were within the borough 7 '3 acres to each inhabited house ; and the number of persons 
to an inhabited house averaged 4*7 against 4*4 in 1861. The municipal borough and urban sanitary 
district of Toriungton is coextensive with the parish of Great Torrington, and has an area of 3456 
acres. In 1851 and in 1861, 3308 and 3298 persons respectively were enumerated, while in 1871 
the number increased 7"0 per cent., to 3529. The increase in the last decade was partly attributed 
to railway works. In 1871 there were 4'8 acres to each inhabited house, and the number of persons 
to an inhabited house averaged 4-9 against 4*7 in 1861. The municipal borough and urban 
sanitary district of Honiton is coextensive with the parish of the same name, and has an area of 3066 
acres. Between 1851 and 1861 the population decreased 3*7 per cent., from 3427 to 3301, whereas 
in the following decade it increased 4*9 per cent., to 3464. In 1871 there were 4*5 acres to each 
inhabited house, and the nimiber of persons to an inhabited house averaged 5*1 against 4*6 in 1861. 

In addition to the twelve before mentioned towns of Devonshire which are either parliamentary 
or municii^al boroughs, or both parliamentary and municipal boroughs, the county contains seventeen 
other towns and urban sanitary districts, as well as Topsham, Ashburton, and Cullompton, three 
towns having no recognised boundaries. Sixteen of these towns are local board districts: — viz. Tor- 
quay, Teignmouth, AVolborough, Exmouth, St. Thomas the Apostle, Lower Brixham, Ilfracombe, 
St. Mary Church, Northam, Ottery St. Mary, Dawlish, Paignton, Sidmouth, Okehampton, Lynton, 
and Bampton. Crediton is an improvement commissioner's district. The local board district of 
Torquay, which is coextensive with the parish of Tormoham with Torquay, has an area of 1465 
acres. The enumerated population of Torquay, w^hich increased from 7903 in 1851 to 16,419 in 
1861, had further increased to 21,657 in 1871 ; thus the population more than doubled between 1851 
and 1861, and showed an increase of 32 per cent, between 1861 and 1871. The number of inhabited 
houses rose from 2183 in 1861 to 3071 in 1871, when they averaged 2*1 per acre; the number of 
persons to an inhabited house, which was 7*5 in 1861, had declined to 7*1 in 1871. In 1871, 1700 
visitors were enumerated with the population of Torquay. The local beard district of Teignmouth 
is coextensive with the parishes of East and West Teignmouth, and has an area of 1074 acres, ex- 
clusive of 164 acres of water. The population, which was 5013 in 1851, and 6022 in 1861, further 
rose to 6751 in 1871 ; the increase between 1851 and 1861 was equal to 20*1 per cent., whereas in 
the following decade it did not exceed 12*1 per cent. The number of inhabited houses rose from 
1134 in 1861 to 1232 in 1871, when they averaged 1*1 per acre. The number of persons to an 
inhabited house was equal to 5*3 in 1861, and 5*5 in 1871. The local board district of Wolborough 
is coextensive with the parish of Wolborough with Newton Abbot, and has an area of 1231 acres. 
The population increased from 3227 in 1851 to 4427 in 1861, and further rose to 6082 in 1871 ; an 
increase equal to 37 per cent, was shown in each of the two decades. The number of inhabited 
houses rose from 853 in 1861 to 1155 in 1871, when there were 1*1 acre to each inhabited house. 
The number of persons to an inhabited house in 1861 and 1871 was equal to 5*2 and 5*3 respectively. 
The local board district of Exmouth consists of parts of the parislies of Littleham and Withycombe- 



"Vital Statistics of Devonshire. 81 

Kawleigh, and has an estimated area of 460 acres. The enumerated population was 5123 in 1851, 
and 5228 in 1861, while in 1871 it had further increased to 5614; between 1851 and 1861 the 
increase was equal to 2 per cent., whereas in the more recent decade it was 7 per cent. The number 
of inhabited houses was 1106 in 1861, and 1182 in 1871, and the number of persons to an inhabited 
house averaged 4'7 at each enumeration. The local board district of St. Thomas the Apostle is 
coextensive with the parish of the same name, which has an area of 3700 acres. The population, 
which was 4577 and 4533 respectively in 1851 and 1861, had increased to 5156 in 1871 ; it showed 
a decrease of 1 per cent, between 1851 and 1861, while in the more recent decade the increase was 
equal to 14 per cent. The number of inhabited houses increased from 786 to 934 between 1861 and 
1871, but in the latter year there were 4 acres to each inhabited house. The number of persons 
to an inhabited house declined from 5*8 in 1861 to 5*5 in 1871. The local board district of Lower 
Brixham consists of part of the parish of Brixham, and has an estimated area of 400 acres. The 
population increased from 4390 in 1861, to 4941 in 1871 ; this increase was equal to 13 per cent. 
The number of inhabited houses was equal to 928 and 1018 in 1861 and 1871, and the number of 
persons to an inhabited house to 4-7 and 4*9 respectively. The local board district of Ilfracombe is 
coextensive with the parish of the same name, and has an area of 5583 acres. The population, which 
was 3677 in 1851 and 3851 in 1861, rose to 4721 in 1871 ; while the increase was but 5 per cent, 
between 1851 and 1861, it rose to 23 per cent, in the more recent decade, in consequence of the in- 
creasing popularity of the town as a watering place. The number of inhabited houses increased from 
787 in 1861 to 954 in 1871, but in the latter year there were nearly 6 acres to each inhabited house. 
The number of persons to each inhabited house averaged 4*9 at each of the last two census enumera- 
tions. The local board district of St. Mary Church consists of part of the parish of the same name. 
The entire parish has an area of 2589 acres, and the population, which was 2293 and 3231 at the 
census enumerations in 1851 and 1861, further increased to 4626 in 1871 ; the increase was equal to 
41 and 43 per cent, respectively in the two decades 1851-61 and 1861-71. This large increase was 
doubtlessly due to the increasing favour of Torquay and St. Mary Church as watering places. The 
local board district of Northam is coextensive with the parish of the same name, which includes the 
new watering place called Westward Ho, and has an area of 4190 acres, of which 1690 are water. 
The population, which was 3680 and 3687 in 1851 and 1861, rose to 4330 in 1871 ; it was therefore 
stationary between 1851 and 1861, whereas in the following decade the increase was 18 per cent. The 
number of inhabited houses rose from 798 in 1861 to 924 in 1871, when, however, there were 4*5 acres 
to each inhabited house. The number of persons to an inhabited house was 4'7 in 1871, against 4*6 
in 1861. The local board district of Ottery St. Mary is coextensive with the parish of the same name, 
and has an area of 9942 acres. The population declined from 4421 in 1851 to 4340 in 1861, and in 1871 
had further decreased to 4110 ; the decrease in these two decades was equal to 2 and 5 per cent, respec- 
tively. The inhabited houses, which were 925 in 1861, declined to 904 in 1871, when there were 11 
icresto each inhabited house. The number of persons to an inhabited house was 4*5 in 1871, against 
i4-7 in 1861. The local board district of Dawlish, which consists of part of the parish of the same name, 
;has an estimated area of 1360 acres. The population, which increased from 2671 in 1851 to 3505 in 
il861, was 3622 in 1871 ; thus, whereas the increase in the earlier decade was equal to 31 per cent, 
lit did not exceed 3 per cent, during the ten years 1861-71. There were 701 inhabited houses in 
jl871, or nearly one to each two acres ; and the number of persons to each inhabited house was 5'2, 
jjorresponding with the proportion that prevailed in 1881. The local board district of Paignton is 
jjoextensive with the parish of the same name, and has an area of 5092 acres. The population, 
jvhich was 2746 in 1851, had increased successively to 3090 and 3590 at the enumerations in 1861 
ind 1871 ; the increase was equal to 13 and 16 per cent, respectively at the two decades. The 
lumber of inhabited houses rose from 613 in 1861 to 728 in 1871, when there were 7 acres and 4*9 
Dersons to each inhabited house. The increase of population appears to be due in great measure to 
ts proximity to Torquay, and to its favour as a Avatering place. The local board district of Sidmouth 
s coextensive with the parish of the same name, and has an area of 1600 acres, including 60 of 
vater. The population which was 3441 in 1851, declined to 3354 in 1861, and was but 3360 in 
i871. The inhabited houses increased from 692 in 1861 to 697 in 1871, when, however, there were 
V3 acres within the district to each inhabited house. The number of persons to each inhabited 
louse averaged 4*8 both in 1861 and in 1871. The local board district of Okehampton includes part 
:>f the parish of that name, and has an estimated area of 503 acres; the population in 1871 was 1900 
!)ersons, living in 339 houses. The population of the entire parish, having an area of 9552 acres, 
•vhich was 2165 in 1851, declined to 1929 in 1861, while in 1871, when railway works were in pro- 
ijress, it had increased to 2470. The number of persons to an inhabited house increased from 4*9 
n 1861, to 5'6 in 1871. The local board district of Lynton is coextensive with the parish of the 
ame name, and has an area of 7193 acres. The population, which was 1059 and 1043 in 1851 and 
861, rose to 1170 in 1871 ; the increase during the most recent decade was equal to 12 per cent., 
nd was due to the increasing popularity of this watering-place. The number of inhabited houses 

F 



82 Vital Statii^tiefa; ol" r>evoiisliire. 

increased from 231 in 18G1 to 240 in 1871, when there were 30 acres to each inhabited house. The 
persons to each inhabited house averaged 4'5 in 18G1, and 4*9 in 1871. The local board district of 
Bampton consists of a ])art of the parish of that name, and has an estimated area of 128 acres, on 
which 258 inhabited houses, and 1111 persons were enumerated in 1871. The entire parish has 
an area of 7785 acres, and it declined steadily from 2102 in 1851, to 1928 in 1871 ; and the number 
of persons to each inhabited house, which was 5*0 in 18G1, declined to 4*6 in 1871. By an order of 
the Local Government Board, dated February 14, 1878, a portion of the parish of Seaton and Beer was 
constituted a local government district for the purposes of the Public Health Act of 1875, under the 
name of the Seaton Local Government District. No information, however, is available as to the 
area or population of this new urban sanitary district. The entire parish of Seaton, including 
Seaton and Beer, has an area of 2821 acres, of which 55 were of water; the enumerated popu- 
lation increased from 1966 in 1861, to 2155 in 1871. The Improvement Commissioners' district 
of Crediton includes a part of the parish of that name, and has an estimated area of 2400 acres. 
The population, Avhich was 3934 in 1851, and 4048 in 1861, further increased to 4222 in 1571 ; 
between 1851 and 1861 the increase was equal to 3 per cent, and in the following decade to 4 per 
cent. The number of inhabited houses increased from 923 in 1861 to 953 in 1871, when there 
were 2^ acres to each inhabited house ; the number of persons to an inhabited house averaged 4*4 
both in 1861 and 1871. 

In addition to the foregoing boroughs and local board districts, which under the provisions of the 
Public Health Act, 1875, are urban sanitary districts, there are three Devonshire towns, separately 
shown in the Census Report for 1871, which, having no defined boundaries, are included within the 
rural sanitary districts of their respective poor law unions : these are Topsham, Ashburton, and 
Cullompton. Topsham has an estimated area of 1257 acres, and the population in 1871 was returned 
at 2514 persons, showing a decline from the number within the same area at the preceding census. 
Ashburton stands upon about 1168 acres of the parish of that name, and the population in 1871 was 
returned at 2335 persons. Ashburton was formerly a parliamentary borough, but was disfranchised 
by the Act 31 & 32 Vict. c. 48. The population of Ashburton has declined steadily since 1861, in 
consequence of the decrease of mining operations. The town of Cullompton stands upon a part ol 
the parish of that name, and has an estimated area of 1102 acres. The population was enumerated at 
2205 persons both in 1861 and 1871, while the population of the entire parish showed a decrease. 

The thirty- two toAvns of Devonshire, excluding Seaton recently constituted a local board district, 
had a population of 318,064 persons in 1871, enumerated Avithin an area of about 93,246 acres, and 
forming 52*9 per cent, of the total population of the county. In 1861 the population of these towns 
was only equal to 50'8 per cent, of the county population. The average density of population of these 
thirty-two Devonshire towns was equal to 3*4 persons to an acre in 1871 ; in the remaining or rural 
part of the county there were 5 '5 acres to each person enumerated in the same year. 

Housing of the Population. — At the census in 1871, the houses enumerated within the county 
of Devonshire were 112,234, of which 6387 were uninhabited, and 647 in the course of erectioni 
The number of completed houses was 111,587 in 1871, showing an increase of 4774 upon the number 
in 1861 : this number, however, takes no account of the houses that had been rebuilt during the 
decade. In 1871 there were 6*1 uninhabited houses to each 100 inhabited houses within the county; j 
in 1861 the proportion did not exceed 5*5 per cent. In the eleven municipal boroughs of Devonshire 
5*5 per cent of the completed houses were uninhabited, while in the remainder of the county the 
proportion was equal to 5 "8 per cent. The population of the entire county of Devonshire showed an 
increase of 2-9 per cent, during the ten years 1861-71, whereas the increase of inhabited houses was 
equal to 3*9 per cent. ; the average number of persons to each inhabited house, which was 5"77 at the 
census in 1861, declined in 1871 to 5*72. It is evident therefore that in Devonshire building has 
fully kept pace with the increase of population. The ruimber of houses, however, scarcely affords an 
altogether satisfactory standard for the measurement of true density of population, as the capacity ol 
houses is such a variable quantity. The best test of the housing of the population would be afforded 
by the cubic space of its bed-room accommodation. 

County Proper and Registration County. — As much statistical information is only available] 
for registration or union counties, it is necessary that the difference between the constitution and 
boundaries of the county proper and of the union or registration county of Devonshire should be 
explained. The union or registration county of Devonshire includes an area of 49,169 acres (having 
a population of 14,022 persons in 1871), which does not belong to the county proper; of this 17,284 
acres, with a population of 6627 persons, form part of the county of Dorset; 11,394 acres, with a 
population of 7056 persons, form part of the county of Cornwall; and 20,491 acres (part of Exmoor), 
with a population of but 339 persons, belong to Somersetshire. On the other hand, 60,987 acres, on 
which 9294 persons were enumerated in 1871, belonging to the county proper of Devonshire, are 
locally situated in other registration counties ; thus 27,057 acres, with a population of 3069 persons, 
are situated within the registration county of Cornwall, and 33,930 acres, with 6225 inhabitants, in 



Vital Statistics of" I>evoiisliire. 83 

the registration county of Somersetshire. On striking a balance between those portions of Devon- 
shire county proper which are excluded from the union or registration county of Devonshire, and 
those parts of other counties proper which are situated within the Devonshire registration county, 
it appears that the registration county is smaller than the county proper by 11,818 acres, whereas 
the population in 1871 showed an excess of 4728 persons. The boundaries of the county proper 
are defined by Acts 2 & 3 William IV. c. 64 (1832), and 7 & 8 Vict. c. 61 (1844). The differences 
between the areas and populations of the union or registration county of Devonshire and the county 
proper are, however, proportionally too small to prevent the figures relating to the registration county 
being taken as fairly applicable to the county proper in the consideration of the following additional 
vital statistics of the county. 

Ages of the Population. — The 606,102 persons enumerated within the registration county of 
Devonshire included 75,843 or 12*5 per cent, children under 5 years of age; 195,017 children and 
young persons aged between 5 and 20 years, equal to 32*2 per cent. ; 274,454 persons aged between 
20 and 60 years, or 45'3 per cent. ; and 60,788, or lO'O per cent., persons aged upwards of 60 years. 
The proportions of persons living at these four groups of ages differed but slightly from those that 
prevailed at the previous census enumeration in 1861. The remarkably similar age distribution of 
the enumerated population of Devonshire in 1861 and 1871 gives assurance that the number of 
persons living at the present time within the county, at any group of ages, may be estimated with 
approximate accuracy by assuming that the proportion of persons living at such ages, to the total 
estimated population at all ages, is the same as it was in 1871. The proportion of infants under one 
year of age enumerated in 1871 averaged 2*7 per cent, of the entire population of the county, and 
was identical with the proportion that prevailed in 1861. The number of persons aged upwards of 
80 years returned in 1871 was 5652, and equal to 0*93 per cent, of the total population, against 0*80 
in 1861. In 1871 the ages of 63 persons were returned as 95 years and upwards, including 2 males 
and 3 females who were stated to be centenarians ; in 1861 66 persons were stated to be upwards of 
95 years, including 3 males and 5 females reported to be centenarians. The age distribution of a 
population has an appreciable influence upon the birth and death rates which prevail therein. In 
considering the vital statistics of a population, it is important, therefore, that its proportional age 
distribution should be borne in mind. In urban populations the proportion of younger adults as well 
as of children almost invariably shows a considerable excess, whereas that of elderly persons is far 
below that which prevails in rural populations. In Exeter, Plymouth, and Devonport, however, the 
J age distribution of the population does not materially differ from that which prevails in the entire 
county of Devonshire ; the proportion of children and young persons aged under 20 was somewhat 
lower in these three towns, whereas the proportion of persons aged between 20 and 60 years showed 
an excess. In Exeter, Plymouth, and Devonport, however, only 8-3 per cent, of the population in 
1871 were aged upwards of 60 years, while in the entire county the proportion averaged 10*0 per cent. 

Civil Condition of the Population. — Of the 606,102 residents of the registration county of 
Devonshire in 1871, 361,261 were unmarried, including children and young persons of an unmar- 
riageable age ; 206,975 were returned as married, and 37,866 as widowed. Thus of the entire 
population, 5 J-7 per cent, were immarried, 34*1 per cent, married, and 5*6 per cent, widowed. The 
population ^ Devonshire in 1871 included 335,242 persons aged upwards of 20 years, of whom 
91,104, or 27*2 per cent., were unmarried ; 206,279, or 61*5 per cent., were married; and 37,859, or 
11*3 per cent., widowed. The proportions of married and widowed showed a slight increase upon 
those which prevailed in 1861, but the variations were so slight that the numbers of unmarried, 
married, and widowed in the present population of the county may be estimated with approximate 
accuracy, by assuming that the several proportions are the same now as they were in 1871. 

Marriages, Births, and Deaths in the ten years 1861-70, and in more recent years. — 
During the ten years 1861-70 there were registered within the registration county of Devonshire, 
17,690 marriages, equal to an annual rate of 16 per 1000 persons living; in the preceding ten years 
:he marriage-rate had been equal to 16-1 per 1000. In the whole of England and Wales the annual 
oiarriage-rate during the more recent decade averaged 16*6 per 1000, and exceeded the rate during 
"he same period in Devonshire by 0*6 per 1000; the Devonshire rate, however, considerably exceeds 
■:hat which prevails in many other of the agricultural counties. Since 1870 the marriage-rate in 
Devonshire has further declined ; during the six years 1871-6 it averaged only 15'3 per 1000, and 
ranged from 15-5 in 1871 and 1872, to 15*1 in 1875. The 47,690 marriages in Devonshire during 
ihe decade 1861-70 included 30,600, or 64-2 per cent., which were solemnised according to the rites 
>f the Established Church; the remaining 17,090, or 35*8 per cent., were either solemnised in chapels 
ised by various Dissenting communities, or were purely civil marriages contracted at the offices of the 
ocal superintendent registrars. The proportion of Church of England marriages in England and 
Wales during the ten years 1861-70 to total marriages was 77*8 per cent., and 13*6 per cent, above 
-he proportion that prevailed in Devonshire. The proportion of Dissenting and civil marriages in 
jOevonshire, which was equal to 23-3 per cent, in the ten years 1851-60, increased to 35*8 per cent, 
i f2 



84. Vital StatlRtics of DevotiNhire^ 

in the more recent decade, whilst it exceeded by 13 -G per cent, the average proportion in England 
and Wales for the same period. During the thirty-six years 1841-76 the proportion of marriages 
solemnised in England and Wales according to the rites of the Established Church has steadily 
declined ; in 1841 the proportion was equal to 93'4 per cent., whereas it declined in each subsequent 
year, and in 187G it did not exceed 73*8 per cent. The proportion of civil marriages registered at 
superintendent registrars' offices has steadily increased since the passing of the Civil liegistration Act 
in 1837 ; in 1841 the proportion of civil marriages was but 1*7 per cent., whereas in 1875 and 187G 
it Avas equal to 10*4 and 10-8 per cent, respectively. In Devonshire civil marriages appear to be 
esi)ecially popular, as, in 187G, of 4704 marriages recorded in Devonshire, no less than 1178, or 25 
per cent., were registered in superintendent registrars' offices. It has been stated that the average 
proportion of civil marriages in England and Wales during that year did not exceed lO'S per cent. 

The Births registered in Devonshire during the ten years 1861-70 were 187,087, including 
95,636 of boys, and 91,451 of girls ; there were 104'6 births of boys to each 100 of girls. These 
births were equal to an annual rate of 31*3 per 1000 of the mean population of the county, while the 
average birth-rate during the same period in England and Wales was 35*2. The average annual 
birth-rate during these ten years ranged in the different English counties from 30-2 and 30*4 in 
Westmoreland and Hereford, to 41*1 and 42*0 in Stafford and Durham. During the first six years of 
the current decade the birth-rate in Devonshire averaged 297 per 1000, and showed a decrease of 
1*6 from the average rate in the ten preceding years, a result partly due to the decline in the marriage- 
rate. In England and Wales the number of children to a marriage averages nearly four, and the 
birth-rate in a population depends to a considerable extent upon the marriage-rate, and upon the mean 
age at marriage. During the twenty years 1851-70 the number of births registered in England and 
Wales was in the proportion of 4' 14 to each marriage recorded during the same period, while in 
Devonshire the number was but 3-80 ; the number of children born to a marriage in Devonshire is 
therefore slightly below the average proportion in England and Wales, which is probably due to the 
fact that in Devonshire, as in most other counties of a mainly agricultural character, the mean age at 
marriage is higher than it is in those counties in which a considerable proportion of the population is 
engaged in manufacturing or mining. 

The Deaths registered in Devonshire during the ten years 1861-70 were 121,091, and equal to 
an average annual death-rate of 20'3 per 1000 persons living, which was almost identical with the 
rate that prevailed in each, of the two preceding decades. The annual death-rate in Devonshire during 
the thirty years 1841-70 averaged 20 per 1000, and was 2 per 1000 below the average annual 
death-rate in England and Wales during the same period. During the most recent decade, 1861-70, 
the average annual death-rate in the different English counties ranged from 18"0 in Westmorland, to 
27 '2 in Lancashire. Agricultural counties almost invariably show considerably lower death-rates 
than do those counties in which a large proportion of the population resides in towns ; it should be 
remembered moreover that, sanitary conditions being equal, the age distribution of all rural 
populations would cause a higher death-rate than the age distribution which is invariably found 
to prevail in urban populations. The excessive proportion of young adults in urban popula- 
tions, while it causes a high birth-rate and also an undue proportion of young children, reduces 
the proportion of elderly peoi^le, and should therefore cause a lower death-rate than that pre- 
vailing in rural populations, Avhere contrary proportions prevail. Since 1870 the death-rate in 
Devonshire has slightly declined, and averaged 19-5 per 1000 during the six years 1871-76, in 
which the annual rate ranged from 20*9 in 1871, to 18'4 in 1873. Plymouth, Devonport, East 
Stonehouse, and Exeter, are the only towns in Devonshire that are included in the list of seventy 
large towns in England and Wales, for which special mortality statistics are published by the 
Eegistrar- General. The death-rate in the borough of Plymouth (the population of which is estimated 
at 73,599 persons in the middle of 1878) was equal to 24-0 in 1871, 22-3 in 1872, 19-2 in 1873, 
22-4 in 1874, 20-9 in 1875, 22-1 in 1876, and 21*7 in 1877 ; thus the death-rate in the seven 
years averaged 21*8 per 1000, and exceeded by nearly 2 per 1000 the average annual rate in the 
entire county, while it was however considerably below the rate prevailing in most other large 
English towns. The mortality in Plymouth due to the seven principal zymotic diseases was however 
excessive, and was equal to an annual rate of 37 per 1000 ; zymotic fatality thus caused 17 per 
cent, of the mortality from all causes. In the borough of Devonport the annual death-rate from all, 
causes during the five years 1871-75 averaged 20*0 per 1000, and in 1876 was equal to 20-9 ; the rate 
from the seven zymotic diseases averaged 3*9 per 1000 in the five years, and was 4*1 in 1876. Thus 
the zymotic death-rate was higher in Devonport than in Plymouth, and showed a still larger propor- 
tion of the death-rate from all causes. In East Stonehouse the death-rate from all causes averaged 
24-4 per 1000 in the five years 1871-75, while the death-rate from the seven zymotic diseases was 
so high as 47 per 1000. It is much to be regretted that Plymouth, Devonport, and East Stonehouse 
do not form a combined sanitary district in order that they might have the advantage of one medical 
officer of he?ilth, who, not engaged in private practice, should devote his whole time to the public 



Vital StatistioH of Devonshire. 85 

health of the district ; at present Plymouth, Devonport, and East Stonehouse have each a separate 
medical officer of health, with a comparatively nominal salary, and each engaged in private practice. 
In the city of Exeter the annual death-rate during the five years 1871-75 averaged no less than 
25-1 per 1000, ranging from 26-8 in 1872 to 21-6 in 1874; in 1876 the rate was 21-9. The 
zymotic death-rate averaged 3 2 in the five years 1871-75, and dechned to 2*1 in 1876. Exeter in 
recent years has continuously shown an excessive death-rate, and an especially high rate of infant 
mortality ; and yet the city may be said to be practically without the services of a medical officer of 
health, inasmuch as the town council as the urban sanitary authority have appointed the poor-law 
medical officers the nominal medical officers of health, and vote annually the sum of twenty-five 
guineas to be shared between them in lieu of salary. 

The natural increase to the population of the registration county of Devonshire, by excess of 
births over deaths during the ten years 1861-70, was 65,996, while the increase in the enumerated 
population of the county between the two censuses of 1861 and 1871 was 16,824. Assuming that 
all the births and deaths during the ten years were registered, it appears that the emigration from the 
county exceeded the immigration during the decade by 49,172 persons; it may be estimated that to 
this extent Devonshire contributed during the ten years to the increase of population in other parts 
of England and Wales, in our colonies, and in other parts of the world. 

8ANITARY Okganisation. — By the Public Health Acts of 1872 and 1875 the control of the 
public health of England and Wales was vested in various urban and rural sanitary authoritiep. Town 
councils, local boards, and improvement commissioners were all constituted urban sanitary authorities. 
Boards of guardians were by the same Acts created rural sanitary authorities, and invested with public 
health responsibilities extending over the whole of the union or registration districts not included 
within an urban sanitary district. Although no official list of the various sanitary authorities and 
their officers has yet been published, the following facts relating to the sanitary organisation of the 
county of Devonshire may be taken as approximately correct. The county contains 30 urban and 
16 rural sanitary authorities. Although there are three combined sanitary districts within the county, 
as many of the rural sanitary authorities as well as the town council of Exeter have appointed more 
than one medical officer of health, the number of medical officers of health considerably exceeds that 
of the sanitary authorities ; there are 29 medical officers of health in the 16 rural sanitary districts, 
all but one of whom are engaged in private practice, while in the 30 urban districts there are 31 
medical officers of health, who are also, with scarcely an exception, in private practice. The rural 
sanitary districts of Bideford, Okehampton, South Molton, Torrington, and Dulverton (in Somerset- 
shire) together form a combined sanitary district, to which Mr. A. Wynter Blyth has been appointed 
medical officer of health, at a salary of £550 per annum, and devotes himself entirely to public 
hygiene. The rural sanitary district of Newton Abbot, together with the urban districts of Dawlish 
and Wolborough, form a combined sanitary district, of which Mr. Leonard Armstrong is medical 
officer of health, at a salary of £4*00 per annum. Mr. Samuel Rhind is medical officer of health of 
the third combined sanitary district in Devonshire, consisting of the two urban sanitary districts of 
Torquay and St. Mary Church, at a salary of £400 per annum. The town council of Plymouth, with 
a population estimated at 73,599, have fixed the salary of their medical officer of health, who is in 
private practice, at £100 per annum, or just a quarter of the salary paid to their medical officer of 
health by the urban sanitary authorities of Torquay and St. Mary Church, which have a population 
probably not exceeding 30,000 persons. Of the remaining 56 medical officers of health in Devon- 
shire, not one receives a salary exceeding £50 a year, while in the large majority of cases the 
remuneration for their public health services is merely nominal, and in many instances these officers 
are said to be paid by fees when their services are required. In the aggregate, however, these 60 
medical officers of health holding office within the county of Devonshire, receive in the form of 
salary about £2500 per annum. Efficiency in the administration of public health in Devonshire 
would undoubtedly be promoted by an extension of the system of combination among the numerous 
sanitary districts ; the number of medical officers of health would thus be reduced, but with scarcely 
any increase in the cost ; the services of specially qualified professors of public hygiene might thus be 
secured, who, being debarred from private practice, would be able to devote themselves entirely to 
the promotion of sanitation. 

Education. — It will be useful now briefly to consider the educational condition of the county of 
Devonshire. The Eegistrar-General's annual reports since 1837, when civil registration commenced, 
afford the means for tracing the progress of elementary education in different parts of England and 
Wales during nearly forty years. These reports contain tables showing the proportions of those 
married in each year who signed the marriage register in writing or by mark. In 1841 no less than 
40*8 per cent, of the persons married signed the register by mark ; the percentage of illiterate males 
was 32-7, and of females, 48-8. Thirty-five years afterwards, in 1876, the proportion of persons 
married who signed the register by mark had declined from 40*8 to 19*2 ; the proportion of males 
who signed by mark had fallen in 1876 to 16-3j and that of females to 22-1. The decline of ignorance 



86 Vital Statistics of r>evoiisliire» 



among persons married in England and Wales during the period 1841-76, estimated in this manner, 
was equal to 52-9 per cent. ; among males it was 50*2, and among females 54*7 per cent. Not- 
withstanding the decrease of ignorance in these thirty-five years, one in every six males, and more than 
one in every five females, married in England and Wales in 187G, confessed their inability to write by 
signing the register with a mark. The proportion of ignorance, estimated by that of persons unable 
to write their names at marriage, is greater in towns and manufacturing districts than among rural 
populations. The rate of decline in the proportion of persons signing the marriage register with a 
mark has shown a marked increase in recent years, and it is possible that the returns are already 
beginning to be affected by the Education Act of 1870. 

The proportion of persons signing the marriage register by mark was first shown in counties in 
the Registrar-General's report for 1850. During that year 31-4 per cent, of the persons married in 
Devonshire signed the register with a mark ; the proportion of males was 26*0, and of females 36*8 
per cent. In 1876 the proportion of persons in the county who at marriage could not write their 
names had fallen to 13*7 per cent., among males to 12*6, and among females to 14*7 per cent. Since 
1850 the proportion of persons who could not write showed a decline of 56*4 per cent., the decline in 
the ignorance of bridegrooms was equal to 51*5, and of brides to 60*1 per cent. In England and 
Wales in 1850, to each 100 males who could not write their names at marriage there Avere 149 
females who confessed to the same disability ; in 1876 the proportion of females to each 100 males 
who did not write their names had declined to 136. In towns and manufacturing districts males are 
usually better educated than females, whereas the reverse is almost invariably the case in agricultural 
districts. In Devonshire, in 1850, the number of married women who signed the marriage register 
with a mark was 142 to 100 males, who exhibited this degree of ignorance; in 1876 the proportion 
of women who did not sign their names was as 117 to 100 men. The decline of ignorance in 
Devonshire in recent years has therefore been relatively much greater among women than among 
men. 

In sixty-seven of the largest English towns the proportion of persons signing the marriage register 
with a mark in 1870 ranged from 10*1 and 10*6 in Cheltenham and Brighton, to 55*4 and 61*7 per 
cent, respectively in Merthyr Tydfil and Dudley. In Plymouth, East Stonehouse, and Devonport, 
18*2 per cent, of the persons married in 1870 signed the marriage register with a mark ; in 1876 the 
proportion had declined to 11 '1 per cent. In Exeter, however, the proportion of persons married 
who signed the register by mark increased from ll'O in 1870, to 12*1 per cent, in 1876. In Plymouth, 
as in the whole county, education appears recently to have made more progress among females than 
among males ; in Exeter, however, the increase of ignorance among males was larger than among 
females. 

According to the most recently published Eeport of the Committee of Council on Education 
there were on March 31, 1877, within the county of Devonshire 131 school boards then in existence. 
These school board districts had in 1871 a population of 371,046 persons, and therefore it may be 
estimated that the education of about 62 per cent, of the present population of the county is under 
the control of school boards. The total expenditure of these 131 school boards for the year ending 
September 29, 1876, was returned as slightly less than £80,000, and the total liability incurred to 
the same date was about £140,000. Estimated by the proportion that prevailed in 1871, the number 
of children living in Devonshire at the school board ages, in the middle of the year 1876, was 
145,042 ; according to the education report, before referred to, the average attendance of children at 
elementary schools in Devonshire in 1876 did not, however, exceed 45,102, or less than a third of the 
number of children living at the school ages. 

Pauperism. — The proportion of pauperism in England and Wales has shown a marked and 
steady decline in recent years ; notwithstanding the increase of population, the average weekly num- 
ber of paupers (in-door and out-door) returned in 1876 showed a decline of 32 per cent, from the 
average weekly number in 1870. On tlanuary 1, 1876, the number of in-door and out-door paupers 
relieved in England and Wales was 752,887, equal to 31 per 1000 of the estimated population, of 
whom twenty-five were receiving out-door, and six in-door relief. The proportion of paupers in 
Devonshire at the same date was 45 per 1000 .persons living, of whom forty received out-door, and 
five in-door relief. The proportion of out-door to in-door paupers, which at the beginning of 1876 
was four to one in England and Wales, Avas 7*5 to one in Devonshire. On January 1, 1876, the pro- 
portion of pauper lunatics to total paupers averaged 7*3 per cent, in England and Wales, whereas in 
Devonshire the proportion was but 5*1 per cent. The rateable value of the county of Devonshire 
for poor law purposes, according to most recent returns, is £2,616,112; and the amount raised as 
poor-rates, and expended for the relief of the poor, within the county during the year ending Lady- 
day 1876, was £317,720, and equal to about 2s. 5d. in the pound, whereas in the whole of England 
and Wales the rate did not average more than Is. Sd. in the pound. The expenditure for the relief 
of the poor in England and Wales in the year ending Lady-day, 1876, showed a decline of two per 
cent, from that in the preceding year ; in Devonshire the expenditure for this purpose showed a 



"Vital Statistics of Devonshire. 



87 



•decline of 2'4 per cent. During the year 1876, in England and Wales, 5-7 per cent, of the deaths 
registered were recorded in workhouses, showing a slight increase upon the proportion which pre- 
vailed in preceding years. In Devonshire the deaths occurring in workhouses did not exceed 4*0 per 
cent., owing in great measure to the larger proportion of out-door relief which is dispensed in the 
county. 

THE HUNDREDS. 



In the following enumerations the boroughs are included in the hundreds in which they are 

locally situated. 

Axminster Hundred is in the Eastern division of the county, and forms the north-eastern ex- 
txemity of the county. It is bounded on the east by Dorsetshire and Somersetshire, and on the south 
by about six miles of the coast of the English Channel, extending eastward from Axmouth to the 
vicinity of Lyme Regis. It includes the towns of Honiton and Axminster, and extends 14 miles 
northward to the lofty hills where the three counties join, and where the rivers Otter and Yarty 
have their sources, the former running to Honiton, Ottery, &c., and the latter to the river Axe, 
which runs from Axminster to Axmouth. These small rivers receive here many tributary streams 
from the bold hills and deep valley which occupy three-fourths of this hundred. By 7 & 8 Vict. c. 61, 
Stockland parish (including Dalwood), formerly detached members of Dorsetshire, were, in October 
1844, added to this hundred; and Beerhall, a tithing of Axminster parish, and Thorncombe were 
added to Dorsetshire. 

^ The following enumeration of its parishes shows their territorial extent, and the number of 
inhabited houses and population, in 1871 : — 



1 Parishes 


1 Acres 


Inhabited 
Houses 


Population; 


Parishes 


Acres 


Inhabited 
Houses 


Population 






■j 






1 Axminster (a) 

1 Axmouth (part of) . 
§ 2 Coombe Eawleigh . 

1 Coombepyne . 

1 Dalwood (a) . 
§ 2 Honiton Borough . 

1 Kilmington . 
§ 2 Luppitt . 

1 Membury 


6617 
4723 
1747 
796 
1 1709 
3066 
1760 
4293 
4089 


635 

134 

64 

30 

107 
677 
105 
130 
157 


2852 ! 
702 
268 i 
121 

482 
3464 

568 I 
649 1 
733 

1 


1 Musbury 
Roosdown 

1 Stockland (a) . 

1 Uplyme . 
§2 Upottery 
t 2 Yarcombe 

Total 


2178 
200 
5849 
3199 
5830 
4689 


113 
3 
224 
215 
183 
151 


536 
16 
1080 
961 
868 
757 


50745 


2818 


14067 



NoTKS. — Marked § are in Honiton union, f Card union, and the rest in Axminster union ; 1 are in Axminster 
and 2 in Honiton division ; (a) see preceding remarks. 

Bampton Hundred, in the Northern division of the county, is picturesquely undulated, and has a 
bold range of hills on its northern boundary, adjoining Somersetshire. It is bounded on the south 
by Tiverton hundred and borough, and has a variable soil, chiefly a heavy clay, with a gravelly sub- 
soil. It is noted for its fine breed of sheep, and for its extensive quarries of limestone, great quan- 
tities of which are sent for building and agricultural purposes along the Grand Western Canal, which 
crosses the east end of the hundred. (See Tiverton.) 

The following enumeration of the parishes, &c., in the hundred, shows their territorial extent, 
and the number of inhabited houses and population, in 1871 : — 



Parishes 


Acres 


Inhabited 
Houses 


Population 


I Parishes 


Acres 


Inhabited 
Houses 


Population 


Bampton 
* Burlescombe (a) 
K Clayhanger i 
■• Hockworthy . 


7785 
3768 
2083 
2526 


423 

170 
51 
67 


1928 
788 
262 
371 


• * Holcombe Kogus . 
t Morebath 
Uffculme 


3024 
3449 
6122 


146 

95 

421 


743 

447 
1880 


Total 


28757 


1373 


6419 



Notes. — Marked * are in Wellington union, and f in Dulverton union, both of wliicli unions are mostly in 
lersetshire ; the rest are in Tiverton union ; all are in Cullompton division. 
*** (a) Burlescombe extends into Halberton hundred, but the whole of the parish rs here returned. 

Black Torrington Hundred is a large and picturesque district in the Southern parliamentary 
division of the county, and averages about 20 miles in length and 15 in breadth. It is bounded on 

' the north by the river Torridge ; on the east by the small river Okement; on the south by Dartmoor 
and Lifton hundred ; and on the west by Cornwall, from which it is divided by the river Tamar. 

'j3]his river rises near the sources of the Torridge, at the north-western extremity of the hundred, 
within five miles of the sea. 



88 



History of" I>evoiisliire, 



The following enumeration of its parishes shows their territorial extent, and their inhabited 
houses and population, in 1871 : — 



Parishes 


Acres 


Inhabited 
Houses 


Population 


Parishes 


Acres 


Inhabited 
Houses 


Population! 

1 


1 * Abbot's Bickington 


1078 


8 


60 


2 § Jacobstowe . 


2856 


37 


190 


2 § Ashbury 


1700 


8 


50 


1 * Luffincott . 


971 


12 


62 


1 * Ashwater . 


8587 


168 


849 


1 * Milton Damerell . 


4252 


123 


619 


2 § Beauworthy . 


3806 


48 


284 


2 § Monk Okehamp- 








2 § Belstone 


1500 


37 


134 


ton 


1488 


47 


237 


1 * Black Torrington . 


7200 


200 


997 


2 § Northlew . 


7247 


175 


861 


Boyton (part of) (a) 








3 t North Petherwin . 


8157 


182 


999 


1 \ Northcott 


802 


18 


87 


Okeharapton (pt. of) 








1 » Bradford . 


3468 


85 


372 


2 § Kigbeare (a) . 


— 


— 


— 


2 § Bradwood Kelly . 


2666 


73 


353 


1 ^ Pancraswick 


3782 


66 


352 


1 * Bradworthy . 


9586 


176 


930 


1 * Py worthy . 


5021 


107 


630 


1 * Bridgerule . 


3219 


80 


417 


2 § Sampford Cour- 








1 * Clawton 


5358 


105 


520 


teriay . 


7962 


202 


1095 


1 * Cookbury . 


2710 


48 


225 


1 * Sutcombe 


3593 


83 


420 


2 § Exbourne 


2121 


96 


464 


1 * Tetcott 


2181 


58 


276 


1 * Halwell 


3426 


47 


243 


1 * Thornbury . 


2772 


73 


359 


2 § Hatherleigh . 


7048 


324 


1684 


3 * St. Giles in the 








2 § Highampton. 


3039 


70 


361 


Heath 


3044 


66 


356 


1 * Hollacombe . 


1218 


19 


92 


3 J Werrington . 


51)00 


137 


709 


1 * Holsworthy . 


8836 


338 


1645 


1 t West Putford 


2620 


61 


290 


2 § Honeychurch 
2 § Inwardleigh . 


607 
6281 


9 


45 










119 


632 


Total 


145202 


3505 


17787 



Notes. — Marked * are in Holsworthy union ; § in Okehampton union ; | in Launceiton union (Cornwall) ; and 
t in Bideford union ; 1 are in Holsworthy ; 2, Hatherleigh, and 3, Lifton division. 

\* (a) Boyton parish is mostly in Cornwall; Kigbeare is returned with Okehampton parish, which is mostly 
in Lifton hundred. 

Braunton Hundred is a picturesque and irregularly formed district, bounded on the west and 
north by the Bristol Channel, and on the south-west by the estuary of the river Taw, from Barnstaple 
to the Bay. Its coast presents to the sea a bold and circuitous line of cliffs and rocky promontories, 
extending from Barnstaple or Bideford Bay to Trentishoe, a distance of 24 miles. It includes Barn- 
staple, Ilfracombe, Combmartin, &c., and its northern and western parishes form a hilly district, 
extending to the borders o£ Somersetshire and Exmoor Forest. The whole hundred is in the Northern 
parliamentary division of Devon. 

The following enumeration of its parishes, &c., shows their territorial extent, and the number o£ 
inhabited houses and population, in 1871 : — 



Parishes 


Acres 


Inhabited 
Houses 


Population 


Parishes 


Acres 


Inhabited j 
Houses 


Population 


1 Ashford 


359 


33 


152 




Goodleigh . 


1167 


64 


261 


Barnstaple par. {a) 


1102 


1717 


8918 




Heanton Punchar- 








1 Berrynarbor . 


4958 


159 


751 




dou . 


3020 


105 


616 


Bishop's Tawton (a) 










Ilfracombe . 


5583 


954 


4721 


(part of) 


— 


223 


1031 




Kentisbury . 


3129 


76 


424 


1 Bittadon 


1018 


10 


56 


1 


Marwood 


5396 


216 


995 


1 Bratton Fleming . 


5845 


129 


578 


i 1 


Morthoe 


4621 


66 


352 


1 Braunton 


11983 


469 


2114 




Pilton (a) . 


1861 


435 


2033 


1 Combmartin 


3815 


337 


1418 




Trentishoe . 


1571 


23 


106 


2 * East Buckland . 


1385 


23 


214 


2 


* West Buckland . 


1772 


51 


332 


1 East Down . 


3643 


84 


406 


1 


West Down . 


4059 


110 


492 


2 * Filleigh 


2038 


74 


370 












1 Georgeham . 


4229 


165 


716 




Total 


72554 


5523 


26966 



Notes. — Marked * are in South Molton union, the others in Barnstaple union ; 1 are in Braunton and 2 South 
Molton division. 

*^* (a) Barnstaple municipal borough comprises Barnstaple parishes and parts of those of Pilton and Bishop's 
Tawton, the latter of which is partly in South Molton hundred. 

Cliston Hundred, which is in the Eastern parliamentary division of the county, is only about 
six miles in length and breadth, and extends from live to eleven miles north-east of Exeter, It is a 
fertile district, watered by the small rivers Culm and Clist, and traversed by the Bristol and Exeter 
Railway. 



History of* Devonsliire. 



89 



The following enumeration of the parishes, &c., shows their territorial extent, and the number 
of inhabited houses and population of each parish, in 1871 : — 



Parishes 


Acres 


Inhabited Houses 


Population 


2 Broad Clist 

3 * Butterleigh 

2 Clist Hydon 

2 Clist St. Lawrence 

1 Whimple 

Total 


9188 
479 
1725 
1060 
3019 


461 
32 
71 
33 

148 


2289 
146 
309 
166 
720 


15471 


745 


3630 



Notes. — Marked * is in Tiverton union; the rest are in St. Thomas union; 1 is in Ottery, 2, Wonford, and 3, 
CuUompton division. 

Coleridge Hundred extends southward from Totnes along the navigable river Dart to Dart- 
mouth, and thence along the coast of Start Bay to Salcombe Haven, and is in the Southern parlia- 
mentary division of the county. Its greatest length from Totnes to Start and Prawle Points is 
sixteen miles, and the breadth varies from seven to four miles. It is encompassed on three sides by 
tidal waters, and is generally a fertile district, rich in picturesque scenery and splendid marine views. 

The following enumeration of its parishes, &c., shows their territorial extent, and the number of 
inhabited houses and population of each parish, in 1871 ; — 



Parishes 


Acres 


Inliabited 
Houses 


Population 


Paiishes 


Acres 


Inhabited 
Houses 


Population 


* Ashprington 


2790 


128 


565 


Sherford . 


2326 


88 


419 


Blackawton 


5646 


257 


1241 


* St. Petrox (a) . 


75 


146 


859 


Buckland Tout Saints 


551 


10 


62 


* St. Saviour (a) . 


85 


364 


2329 


Charleton 


2779 


125 


540 


Slapton . 


3430 


140 


640 


Chivelstone 


2806 


107 


473 


South Poole 


2289 


87 


421 


* Cornworthy 


2721 


99 


471 


Stoke Fleming (a) 


3332 


146 


735 


* Dittisham 


3438 


160 


698 


Stokenhani 


6011 


365 


1628 


Dcdbrooke 


464 


263 


1245 


* Totnes parish (b) 


1043 


616 


3468 


East Portlemouth . 


2143 


82 


287 


* Townstal (a) . 


1758 


307 


2080 


* Halwell . 


3666 


71 


348 










* Harberton 


5755 


283 


1315 


Total 


53108 


3844 


19914 



Notes. — Marked * are in Totnes union, the remainder in Kingsbridge union ; all except the boroughs are in 
Stanborough and Coleridge division. 

*** (a) St. Petrox, St. Saviour, Townstal, and part of Stoke Fleming form Dartmouth municipal borough; and 
(b) Totnes parish, with part of Berry Pomeroy (in Haytor hundred), that of Totnes. 

Colyton Hundred is an irregularly formed dif^trict, averaging about six miles in breadth, and 
eight in length, and bounded on the south by the English Channel, on the west by East Budlcigh 
hundred, Ottery St. Mary, and the borough of Honiton, and on the north and east by Axminster 
Hundred. It is in the Eastern parliamentary division of the county. 

The following enumeration of its parishes shows the territorial extent, and the number of 
inhabited houses and population of each parish, in 1871 : — 



Parishes 


Acres 


Inhabited 
Houses 


Population 


Parishes j Acres "^^ousef 


Populationi 


2 Branscombe 

1 * Colyton 

2 Cotleigh 
2 Farway 
2 Monkton 

2 North Leigh 
2 Oifwell. 




3487 
7196 
1218 
2578 
1233 
994 
2206 


204 
510 
41 
73 
20 
53 
85 


951 
2479 
178 
375 
103 
248 
367 


1 Seaton (incl. Beer) 

2 * South Leigh . 
l*Shute . 

2 Widworthy . 

Total 

1 


2821 
2579 
2738 
1437 


436 

64 

140 

32 


2155 i 
319 

747 
141 


28487 


1685 


8063 



Notes. 
division. 



-Marked * are in Axminster union; the others in Honiton union; 1 are in Axminster and 2 Honiton 



Crediton Hundred, in the Northern parliamentary division of the county, is in the centre of 
Devonshire, extends from two to twelve miles north-west of Exeter, and varies from six to four miles 
in breadth. It is bounded on the east by the ^mall river Greedy, and traversed by the London and 
South- Western and North Devon Eailway. 



90 



Himtotry of l>evonwliii»e. 



The following onumeration of the parishes in the hundred shows their territorial extent, and the 
number of inhabited houses and population of each parish, in 1871 : — 



Parishes 


Acres 


Inhabited Houses 


Population 


Colebrooke 


4989 


178 


787 


Crediton 


12309 


1282 


6778 ! 


Kennerleigh 


732 


18 


83 


Morchard Bishop 


7088 


324 


1473 1 


Newton St. Cjres 


4305 


• 224- 


960 ' 


Sandford 


7793 


358 


1630 


Sherwood Villa 

Total . . . . . 




1 


4 


37216 


2385 


10716 



Note. — All are in Crediton union and division. 



East Budleigh Hundred, in the Eastern parliamentary division of the county, is about seven 
miles in breadth, and extends more than ten miles in length along the sea-coast from Exmouth to 
Salcombe Eegis, but Ottery St. Mary, which lies within its limits, is a separate liberty. It is gene- 
rally a fertile and picturesque district, and includes the bathing places of Exmouth, Sidmouth, and 
Budleigh Salterton. It is intersected by the rivers Otter and Sid, and bounded on the west by the 
broad estuary of the Exe. 

The following enumeration of its parishes shoAvs the territorial extent, and the number of 
inhabited houses and population, of each parish in 1871 : — 



Parishes 


Acres 


Inhabited 
Houses 


Population 


Parishes 


Acres 


Inhabited 
Houses 


Population 


Aylesbeare — 








2 Harpford 


1518 


53 


258 


2 Aylesbeare 


1 r 


84 


414 


3 Lympstone . 


1400 


247 


1013 


2 Newton Popple- 


I 2948 i 






3 Otterton 


3479 


233 


1103 


ford . . 


J L 


147 


676 


2 Eockbeare . 


2375 


106 


485 


3 Bicton . 


1294 


32 


181 


2 * Salcombe Rej 


;xs . 


2605 


101 


604 


3 Clist St. George . 


1066 


63 


306 


2 * Sidbury. 




6827 


355 


1594 


3 CHst Honiton 


1725 


73 


353 


2 * Sidmouth 




1600 


697 


3360 


3 Clist St. Mary 


582 


36 


173 


2 * Ven Ottery 




918 


19 


88 


3 Colyton Raleigh . 


3757 


184 


812 


Withycombe 


Raw- 








2 Dotton . 


214 


2 


11 


leigh— 








3 East Budleigh 


3277 


615 


2897 


3 Withycombe Eaw- 








3 Farringdon . 


2015 


59 


308 


leigh 


} .an { 


135 


620 


1 * Gittisham 


2067 


78 


376 


3 Exmouth (pt. of) 


476 


2252 


Littleham parish — 








3 "Woodbury . 


7804 


424 


1967 


3 Exmouth (pt. ot; 
3 Littleham 


\ 3651 1 


706 
53 


3408 
244 










Total 




53739 


4978 


23403 



Notes. — Marked * are in Honiton union, and the remainder in St. Thomas union ; 1 is in Honiton division, 2 
are in Ottery, and 3 in Woodbury division. 

Ermington Hundred, which is in the Southern parliamentary division of the county, extends 
fourteen miles northward from Bigbury Bay, and averages about six miles in breadth. The northern 
part of it comprises a portion of the hilly region of Dartmoor Forest, whence the river Erme flows 
southward to the ocean at Bigbury Bay, where the Avon also empties itself through an estuary 
which forms the south-east boundary of this hundred. 

The following enumeration of its- parishes shows their tei-ritorial extent, and the number of 
inhabited houses and population, in 1871 : — 



Parishes 



\ Aveton GifFord 
X Bigbury 

* Cornwood 

* Ermington 

* Harford 

* Holbeton 
t Kinsrston 



Acres 



3182 
3167 
10680 
4952 
2050 
4748 
2373 



Inhabited 



191 
99 
209 
413 
27 
210 
108 



Population 



839 
465 
1080 
2010 
171 
953 
489 



Parishes 



Modbury 
Newton Ferrers 
Eingmore 
Ugborough 

Total 



6258 
3091 
1128 
8659 



I 50288 



'"S^S^^^^ 



338 I 1751 

153 i 732 

51 i 237 

292 I 1523 



2091 



10250 



Notes. — Marked * are in Plympton St. Mary union ; | in Kingsbridge union ; and § in Totnes union. All are 
in Ermington and Plympton division. 



Histoid or I>evoiisliire. 



91 



Exminster Hundred is of an irregular oval figure, extending about ten miles southward from 
the boundary of the county of the city of Exeter, and averaging about seven miles in breadth. It 
is in the Eastern parliamentary division of the county, and is bounded on the east by the broad 
estuary of the river Exe, and on the south by the estuary of the Teign and the English Channel. It 
is a fertile and picturesque district, rising boldly to the west, and comprising the pleasant bathing 
places of Teignmouth and Dawlish, and the small market town of Chudleigh. Its eastern side, near 
the Exe, is traversed by the South Devon Kailway. 

The following enumeration of its parishes shows their territorial extent, and the number of 
inhabited houses and population, in 1871 : — 



Parishes 


Acres 


Inhabited 
Houses 


Population 


Parishes 


Acres 


Inhabited 
Houses 


Population 


2 Ashcombe . 
2 Ashton. 
1 * Bishopsteignton . 
1 * Chudleigh . 

1 * Dawlish 

2 Doddiscorabeleigh . 
2 Dunchideock. 

1 * East Teignmouth . 

2 Exminster . 
2 Ide . 


1932 
1709 
4748 
6037 
5512 
2391 
950 
745 
5817 
1435 


37 

48 

238 

459 

831 

66 

31 

400 

245 

157 


213 

255 

1039 

2042 

4241 

300 

131 

2443 

1922 

632 


2 Kenn . 
2 Kenton. 
2 Marahead 
2 Powderham . 
2 Shillingford St. 

George 
1 * Trusham 
1 * "West Teignmouth . 


5412 
6811 
1165 

1947 

1397 
749 
493 


223 

399 

38 

52 

13 

49 

832 


1014 

1858 

192 

235 

67 

219 

4308 


Total 


48050 


4118 


21111 



Notes. — Marked * are in Newton Abbot, the others in St. Thomas's union ; 1 are in Teignbridge, and 2 Wonford 
division. 

Fremington Hundred is in the Northern parliamentary division of the county, and extends 
about eleven miles southward from Barnstaple to Great Torrington and the vale of the river Torridge. 
It is bounded on the north by the estuaiy of the Taw, and on the north-west by the estuary of the 
Torridge. 

The following enumeration of its parishes shows their territorial extent, and the number of 
inhabited houses and the population, in 1871 : — 



Paiishes 



Acres 



2 Alverdiscott . 

3 * Fremington . 

2 Great Torrington 

3 * Horwood 

2 Huntshaw 

3 * Instow . 

3 * Newton Tracey 



2273 
6810 
3456 

860 
2050 
1916 

336 



Inhabited 
Houses 


Population 


66 


324 


273 


1324 


727 


3529 


24 


118 


39 


211 


127 


647 


30 


108 



Parishes 



2 Koborough . 

2 St. Giles in the 

Wood . 

3 * Tawstock 

1 * West Leigh . 

Total 



Acres 



3114 

4827 
6582 
2616 



34840 



Inhabited 
Houses 



89 

188 
247 
101 



1911 



Population 



470 

977 

1199 

476 



9383 



Notes. — Marked * are in Barnstaple union, and the rest in Torrington union ; 1, Bideford, 2, Great Torrington, 
and 3, Braunton division. 



Halberton Hundred is a small district in the Northern division of the county. The following 
enumeration of its parishes shows their territorial extent, and the number of inhabited houses and 
population, in 1871 : — 



Parishes Acres Inhabited Houses | Population 


*Burlescombe (part of) (a) J — — - — 

Halberton . . . . . . . . 1 5755 326 1544 

Sampford Peverell 2000 159 i 784 

Uplowman (part of) («)...., . — — — 
Willand 989 83 ; 370 


Total 8744 


568 2698 



Notes. — Marked * is in Wellington union (Somerset); the rest in Tiverton union. All are in CuUompton 
division. 

*^e* (a) Burlescombe parish is mostly in Bampton hundred, and Uplowman parish in Tiverton hundred ; the 
complete returns are given with those hundreds. 



92 



Iliwtoi:*3^ of* Uevoiisliii^fii 



Hartland Hundued is a small district on the north coast of Devon, about eight miles in length 
and five in breadtli, bounded on the north and west by the Bristol Channel, and on the south by a 
small part of Cera, all and the river Torridge, which, though it rises within a few miles of the ocean, 
runs inland in a very Avinding course of more than thirty miles to the mouth of the Taw. Hartland is 
the bold lieadhind which stretches out into the sea between Barnstaple or Bideford Bay, and Bude 
liay. The surliijc rises in bold cliffs from the beach, and in lofty hills from the picturesque valleys 
of several rivuleiia and the river Torridge. 

The following enumeration of its parishes shows their territorial extent, and the inhabited houses 
and population, in 1871. 



Parishes 



Clovelly . 
Hartland 
Lundy Isle (a) 
Welcombe 
Woolfardisworchy , 
*Yarnscombe . 

Total 



Acres 



3502 
16700 
920 
1751 
5798 
3047 



31718 



Inhabited Houses 



188 
394 

10 

39 

148 

81 



860 



Population 



759 
1871 
144 
232 
749 
384 



4139 



Notes, — Marked * is in Torrington union and Great Torrington division, being a widely detached member 
this hundred ; the rest are in Bideford union and division. 

*^* (a) Lundy Isle is stiil stated to be extra-parochial and not in any union. 



Hayridge Hundred, in the Northern parliamentary division o£ the county, is of an irregular 
figure, extending about sixteen miles from east to west, and varying from nine to six in breadth. Its 
soil is various, but generally fertile, and its surface is picturesquely diversified with hill and valley, 
and wood and water. It includes the market town of Cullompton ; and those of Exeter, Tiverton, 
Honiton, and Ottery St. Mary are within a few miles of its boundaries. It is crossed by the Bristol. 
and Exeter Railway, and the branch to Tiverton ; and watered by the rivers Exe and Culm, and 
several of their tributary streams. 

The following enumeration of its parishes shows their territorial extent, and the inhabited houses 
and population, m 1871 : — 



Parishes 


Acres 


Inhabited 
Houses 


Population 


Parishes 


Acres 


Inhabited 
Houses 


Population 


1 Bickleigh 
Blackborough . 

1 Bradninch 
*1 Broadhembury 

1 Cadbury. 

1 Cadeleigh 

1 Cullompton . 
*2 Feniton . 

1 Kentisbeare . 
§4 Nether Exe . 


1835 
508 
4351 
4703 
1899 
2191 
7370 
1822 
3720 
450 


58 
12 

406 

167 
55 
71 

678 
75 

182 
16 


284 
52 

1914 
787 
261 
315 

2967 

333 

899 

80 


*1 Payhembury . 
*1 Plymtree 

§ Re we (part of)— . 
4 Up Exe 
n Sheldon . 

1 SilvertOQ 
*3 Talaton . 

1 Thorveton 

Total 


2698 
2185 

1681 
4714 
2365 
4036 


113 
94 

21 

34 

269 

103 

256 


508 
432 

93 

174 

1288 1 

480 
1082 , 
J 


46528 


2610 


119581 



Notes. — Marked * are in Honiton union, § in St. Thomas union, and the others in Tiverton union 
Cullumpton, 2, Honiton, 3, Ottery, 4, Wonford division. 



1 are i| 



Haytor Hundred, which is in the Eastern parliamentary division of the coimty, includes tn( 
towns of Torquay, Brixton, Paignton, and Newton Abbot, and is mostly of an irregular triangulai 
figure, extending south-east from the vicinity of Ashburton to Dartmouth ; northward from the lattei 
to Tor Bay, Babbacombe Bay, and Stoke-in-Teignhead ; and westward from the latter to Newton lau 
Ashburton. It has a detached member from four to six miles further to the north-west, com* 
prising the parishes of AVidecombe and Buckland, in the mountainous and rugged district of Darl 
moor, near the Ilaytor rock granite quarries, from which the hundred has its name. The navigabli 
river Dart bounds it on the south-west, and the sea on the east ; and it is crossed by the South Devoi 
Railway, which has a branch to the beautiful watering-place of Torquay. 

The following enumeration of its parishes shows their territorial extent, and the inhabited houscj 
and population, in 1871 ; — , 



History of Devonshire. 



93 



Parisbes 


Acres 


Inhabited 
Houses 


Population 


Parishes 


Acres 


Inhabited 
Houses 


Population 


3 Abbots Kerswell . 


1461 


99 


453 


*1 Marldon. 


2327 


121 


559 


*2 33erry Pomeroy (a) . 


4525 


209 


1090 


*1 Paignton. 


5092 


728 


3590 


*1 Brixham 


5612 


1388 


6542 


1 St. Mary Church . 


2689 


877 


4626 


3 Broadhempston 


2047 


138 


592 


*3 Staverton 


5366 


186 


876 


3 Bucklandin theMoor 


1458 


23 


108 


^^1 Stoke Gabriel . 


3075 


146 


684 


l Churston Ferrers . 


2532 


136 


731 


3 Torbrian. 


2010 


40 


218 


1 Coekington 


1209 


33 


188 


1 Tormahon -with 








3 Coffinswell 


1126 


40 


193 


Torquay 


1465 


3071 


21657 


3 Denbury 


1068 


91 


348 


3 "Widecombe in the 








3 Ipplepen 


4675 


220 


1006 


Moor . 


10614 


175 


901 


3 Kiugskerswell 


1744 


192 


960 


3 Wolborough with 








*2 Kingsweare . 


97 


90 


415 


Newton Abbot . 


1231 


1155 


6082 


*2 Little Hempston . 


1270 


53 


231 
















Total . 


62583 


9211 


52055 



Notes. — Marked * are in Totnes union, and the rest in Newton Abbot union ; 1 form Paignton division, 2 are in 
Stanborough, and 3, Teignbridge division. 

*^* Part of Berry Pomeroy parish is included in the borough of Totnes. Ipplepen includes Woodland civil 
parish. 

Hemyock Hundred is a small liilly district, of a very irregular form, comprising part o£ the 
Black Down Hills, where the river Culm has its sources, on the borders of Somersetshire. It is in 
the Northern parliamentary division of the county. 

The folio win<j: enumeration of its parishes shows their territorial extent, and the inhabited houses 
and population, in 1871 : — 



Parishes 


Acres 


Inhabited Houses 


Population ^ 


2 Awliscombe 


2569 


133 


581 


2 Buckerell 


1559 


66 


338 


*1 Clayhidon 


5089 


141- 


728 


*1 Culmstock 


3494 


221 


957 


t2 Church Stanton 


4980 


187 


822 


2 Duiikeswell 


5160 


90 


428 


»*1 Ilemyock 

K Total 


6437 


206 


983 


28288 


1044 


4837 



Notes. — Marked * are in AVellington union (Somerset), f in Taunton union (Somerset), and the others in Honiton 
union; 1 are in Cullompton, and 2, Honiton division. 

LiFTON Hundred, on the western side of Devon, extends over 133,300 acres of land, more than 
a third of which is in the Avild and hilly district of Dartmoor Forest. (See page 49.) The forest 
portion extends abovit sixteen miles from north to south, and from four to six in breadth, and the rest 
of the hundred is generally a fertile district, about twelve miles in length and 'breadth, extending 
westward to the river Tamar, on the borders of Cornwall ; northward to Okehampton, and southward 
to the vicinity of Tavistock. lb gives rise to many rivers and brooks, and is in the Southern parlia- 
mentary division of the county. 

The following enumeration of its parishes shows their territorial extent, and the inhabited 
houses and population, in 1871 : — 



Parishes 


Acres 


Inhabited 
Houses 


Population! 

1 


Parishes 


Acres 


Inhabited 
Houses 


Population 


2 Bradstone 


1257 


18 


113 


3 Lidford . 


56333 


356 


2768 


*2 Bratton Clovelly . 


8316 


137 


717 ! 


*2 Mary stow 


2895 


79 


363 


*2 Bridestow 


5661 


162 


762 i 


*1 Okehampton . 


9552 


438 


2470 


§2 Broadwoodwidger . 


8780 


146 


790 


*2 Sourton . 


5018 


106 


532 


2 Coryton . 


1334 


51 


243 


2 Stowford 


2065 


95 


466 


2 Dunterton 




1161 


24 


123 


Sydenham Damerel. 


1413 


101 


509 


*2 Germansweek 




2594 


57 


305 


3 Tavy St. Mary 


4180 


210 


1035 


2 Kelly . 




1721 


41 


226 


2 Thrushelton . 


3714 


96 


448 


3 Lamerton 




7232 


267 


1333 


§2 Virginstow 


1274 


26 


130 


2 Lewtrenchard 




9818 


74 
319 


360 
1519 










2 Lifton . 




5982 

i 


Total . 


133300 


2803 


15212 



Notes. — Marked * are in Okehampton union, and § in Launceston union (Cornwall) ; 1 is in Hatherleigh, 2 are 
in Lifton, and 3 in Tavistock division. 



94 



History of r>evonsliiire. 



North Tawton Hundred is a fertile and long narrow district, in the Northern parliamentary 
division of the county, stretching about eighteen miles from north to south, and varying from seven 
to less than four in breadth. The river Taw ilows through a picturesque valley on its eastern side, 
and receives here several tributary streams. 

The following enumeration of its parishes shows their territorial extent, and the inhabited houses 
and population, in 1871 : — 



Parishes 


Acres 


Inhabited 
Houses 


Population 


§4 Ashreigny 


5663 


165 


786 


II 1 Atherington . 


3326 


110 


578 


*2 Bow Tracey . 


2740 


199 


870 


*4 Brushford 


894 


25 


137 


t4 Bondleigh 


1784 


48 


254 


J4 Burrington 


5330 


170 


854 


*4 Chawleigh 


5020 


150 


759 


*2 Clanaborough. 


874 


16 


82 


*4 Coleridge 


3670 


113 


553 


§3 Dolton . 


3563 


183 


881 



Parishes 



§3 Dowland. 

*2 Down St. Mary 

*4 Eggesford 

§3 High Bickington 

*4 Lapford . 

*4 Nymet Rowland 

H North Tawton 

*4 Wembworthy . 

*2 Zeal Monachorum 

Total 



Acres 



1735 
2229 
2500 
4194 
3819 
595 
5814 
2411 
3264 



69415 



Inhabited 
Houses 



36 
86 
29 

157 

138 
18 

417 
88 

110 



2267 



Population 



175 
438 
167 
766 
683 
98 
2081 
434 
546 



11131 



Notes. — Marked * are in Crediton, t in Okehampton, § in Torrington, I in South Molton, and 
union ; 1 is in Braunton, 2, Crediton, 3, Great Torrington, and 4, South Molton division. 



in Barnstaple 



Ottery St. Mary Hundred comprises only the parish of Ottery St. Mary, and is in the Eastern 
parliamentary division of the county and Honiton union and division. It had 4110 inhabitants in 
1871, living in 904 houses on 9942 acres of land. 



Plympton Hundred extends more than sixteen miles southward from the hilly region of Dartmoor 
Forest to the English Channel, between Plymouth Sound and Bigbury Bay, but it is only from six to 
four miles in breadth. It is bounded on the west by the river Plym, which falls into Plymouth Sound ; 
and on its south-eastern side it has the estuary of the Yealm. It is crossed by the South Devon 
Eailway, and is in the Southern parliamentary division of the county. 

The following enumeration of its parishes shows their territorial extent, and the inhabited houses 
and population, in 1871 : — 



Parishes 



Brixton 

Plympton Earl's or Maurice 

Plympton St. Mary 

Plym stock . 

Pevelstoke . 

Shaugh Prior 

Wembury 

Yealmpton . 



Total 



Acres 


Inhabited Houses 


Population 


2945 


147 


698 


232 


177 


1084 


10211 


625 


3491 


3736 


659 


3222 


1541 


115 


464 


8707 


107 


615 


3134 


108 


531 


3371 


228 


1054 


33877 


2066 


11159 



Notes. — All are in Plympton St. Mary union, 
and Plympton division. 



Marked * is in Midland Koborough, the others in Ermington 



Roborough Hundred adjoins the boroughs of Plymouth and Devonport, and forms the south- 
western extremity of Devon, bounded on the west by the broad estuary of the river Tamar, and is in 
the Southern parliamentary division of the county. It extends about fourteen miles northward from 
Plymouth, to the wild and hilly district of Dartmoor Forest, where there are several lead and tin 
mines. It is skirted on the east by the river Plym, and traversed by the navigable river Tavy, and 
the railway from Dartmoor granite quarries. 

The following enumeration of its parishes shows their territorial extent, and the inhabited 
houses and population, in 1871 : — 



History of" I^evoiislilre. 



95 





rarishes 


Acres 


Inhabited 
Houses 


Population 


Parishes 


Acres 


Inhabited 
Houses 


Population 


3 Beer Ferris . 


6838 


457 


2050 


§ 1 St. Budeaux . 


2649 


271 


1522 


§ 1 Bickleigh . 


2365 


63 


384 


3 Sampford Spiney . 


1721 


101 


447 


1 Buckland Mona- 








1 Sheepstor 


3595 


20 


108 


chorum 


6338 


261 


1265 


2 Stoke Damerel (a)" 


1760 


4269 


49449 


2 East Stonehouse . 


190 


1340 


14585 


§ 1 Tamerton Foliott . 


4775 


254 


1145 


§ 1 Egg Buckland . 


3331 


256 


1129 


3 Tavy St. Peter . 


3500 


79 


365 


I 1 Compton Gilford . 


1642 


225 


1347 


1 Walkhampton 


10540 


118 


631 


§ 1 Laira Green 


131 


29 


123 


3 Whitchurch . 


5979 


229 


1098 


1 Meavy 
§ 1 Pennycross . 


3289 


69 


274 










1262 


76 


435 


Total . 


58991 


5130 


41568 



Notes and Keferences.— Marked § are in Plympton St. Mary union, and the others in Tavistock union ; 
are in Midland Eoborough ; 2, Koborough ; and 3, Tavistock division. 



Shebbear Hundred, in the Northern parliamentary division of Devon, and in the north-western 
part of the county, is skirted on three sides by the winding stream of the river Torridge, and bounded 
on the north-west by Bideford Bay and Hartland hundred. It averages about twelve miles in length 
and eight in breadth, and is a picturesque district, having the borough and port of Bideford within its 
northern limits, and the towns of Torrington and Hatherleigh near its borders. 

The following enumeration of its parishes shows their territorial extent, and the inhabited houses 
and population, in 1871 : — 



Parishes 


Acres 


Inhabited 
Houses 


Population 


Parishes 


Acres 


Inhabited 
Houses 


Population 


* 1 Abbotsham . 


1758 


62 


421 


§ 2 Little Torrington . 


2880 


118 


622 


* 1 Alwington . 


2655 


76 


353 


! I 2 Marland Peters . 


2237 


61 


316 


§ 2 Beaford 


3203 


125 


619 


i t 3 Meeth . 


2479 


50 


255 


* Bideford . 


3196 


1335 


6969 


§ 2 Merton 


3738 


137 


632 


* 1 Buckland Brewer . 


6157 


175 


814 


* 1 Monkleigh . 


2177 


124 


604 


§ 2 Buckland Filleigh. 


3037 


39 


224 


* 1 Newton St. Petrock 


1556 


44 


254 


* 1 Bulkworthy . 


1115 


22 


114 


* 1 Northam 


4190 


924 


4330 


* 1 East Putford 


2380 


31 


157 


* 1 Parkham 


6808 


191 


936 


§ 2 Frethelstock 


4382 


116 


594 


§ 2 Petrockstow . 


4000 


116 


570 


§ 2 Huish . 


986 


22 


129 


§ 2 Shebbear . 


6827 


192 


950 


t 3 Iddesleigh . 


2952 


99 


540 


§ 3 Sheepwash . 


1971 


95 


462 


* 1 Landcross 


331 


22 


115 


§ 2 Wear Gilford 


1587 


102 


499 


§ 2 Langtree 

* 1 Littleham . 


4594 


173 


813 ! 










1250 


78 


304 j 


Total 


76466 


4529 


22686 



Keferences, — Marked * are in Bideford union ; § in Torrington union ; and J in Okehampton union. 1 are in 
Bideford ; 2, Great Torrington ; and 3, Hatherleigh division. 

Sherwill Hundred is a highly picturesque district of hill and dale at the northern extremity of 
Devon, adjoining Exmoor, and in the Northern parliamentary division of the county. It is bounded 
on the east by Somersetshire, on the north by the Bristol Channel, on the west by Braunton hundred, 
and on the south by the latter and South Molton hundred. 

The following enumeration of the parishes shows their territorial extent, and the number of 
inhabited houses and population, in 1871 : — 



Parishes 


Acres 


Inhabited 
Houses 


Population 


Parishes 


Acres 


Inhabited 
Houses 


Population 


Arlington . 
Brendon 
Challacombe 
*Charles 
Count! sbury 
High Bray. 
Loxhore 


2535 
6733 
6343 
2429 
3512 
4273 
1530 


41 
48 
56 
68 
43 
60 
57 


240 
262 
283 
345 
209 
250 
237 


Lynton 
Martinhoe . 
Parracombe . 
Sherwill . 
Stoke Rivers 

Total . 


7193 
2549 
4363 
4762 
2426 


240 
36 
76 

107 
38 


1170 
2i0 
366 
625 

208 


47648 


860 


4295 


Kefekexck. — Marked 


^ is in So 


uth Moltc 


)n union 


and division; all the rest 


are in Ba 


rnstaple i 


mion and 



Braunton division 



South Molton Hundred, in the Northern parliamentary division of the county, is generally a 
fertile and hilly district, bounded on the west by the river Taw, on the south by the river Mole, and 
on the east by Somersetshire. It is intersected by the river Bray and many smaller streams, and is 
of an irregular figure, averaging about thirteen miles in length and ten in breadth, and extending 



96 



History of I>ovoiisliire. 



north-west from the borough of South Molton to that of Barnstaple. It abounds in limestone, and 
has several lead and copper mines, especially on its eastern side, where it has a lofty ridge of hills, 
adjoining the mountainous region of Exmoor Forest, in which Span Head rises to the altitude of 1668 
feet, and some other hills, on the borders of the two counties, to the height of from 1000 to 1500 feet 
above tlie level of the sea. This forest contains many Druidicai remains, and gives rise to the Exe, 
Barle, Mole, and other rivers. 

The ibllowing enumeration of its parishes shows their territorial extent, and the inhabited houses 
and population, in 1871 : — 



Parishes 


Acres 


Inhabited 
Houses 


Population 


Parishes 


Acres 


Inhabited 
Houses 


Population 


*Bi shop's Tawton 

Chittlehamptou . 

East Anstey 

Knowstone 
*Landkey 

Holland 

North Molton . 

Nympton St. George 




4263 
8720 
3245 
4989 
3162 
6168 
14351 
2240 


402 

323 

45 

92 

141 

106 

355 

44 


1904 
1598 
227 
465 
671 
577 
1703 
227 


Satterleigh . 
South Molton . 
*Swimbridge 
Twitch en . 
Warkleigh . 
West Anstcy 

Total . 


515 
6264 
7280 
2918 
2451 
3008 


13 
855 
311 
48 
58 
64 


66 

3978 

1422 

249 

273 

302 


69574 


2847 


13662 



Eefbrences. — Marked * are in Barnstaple union and Braunton division, and all the others are in South Molton 
union and division. Part of Bishop's Tawton is in Barnstaple borough. 

Stanborough Hundred is a long narrow district, in the Southern parliamentary division of the 
county, extending more than twenty -two miles southward from the river Dart in Dartmoor Forest, to 
the English Channel, between Bolt Head and Tail, and the mouths of Salcombe creek and the river 
Avon ; but averaging only about five miles in breadth. It stretches into the hilly region of Dartmoor 
on the north-west, and is bounded by the river Dart as low as Totnes, where it is crossed by the 
South Devon Railway. It is traversed southward by the Avon, which receives several smaller 
streams ; and the haven and creeks from Kingsbridge to the sea form its south-western boundary. 

The following enumeration of its parishes shows their territorial extent, and the inhabited houses 
and population, in 1871 : — 



Parishes 


Acres 


Inhabited 
Houses 


Population 


Parishes 

1 


Acres 


Inhabited 
Houses 


Population 


^Buckfastleigh . 

Churchstow 
^Darlington . 
*Dean Prior 
*Diptford . 

East Allington . 
*1 Holne . 

Kingsbridge 

Loddiswell . 

Malborough 




5928 
1877 
3248 
4165 
4154 
3646 
4197 
150 
3554 
5310 


566 

56 

138 

79 

135 

112 

70 

321 

187 

535 


2638 
431 
652 
400 
706 
537 
328 

1557 
804 

2492 


*Morleigh . 

*North Huish 

^Battery . 

*South Brent 
South Huish 
South Milton 
Thurlestone 
West Alvington 
Woodleigh . 






1487 
2662 
2823 
9374 
1150 
1556 
1898 
4110 
2319 


24 
83 
89 

277 
81 
77 
91 

211 
43 


115 
436 
459 
1449 
345 
360 
381 
996 
232 




Total . 






63608 


3175. 


15327 



Eeferences. — Marked * are in Totnes union, the rest in Kingsbridge union, 
others are in Stanborough and Coleridge division. 



1 is in Teignbridge division, the 



Tavistock Hundred is a small liberty on the south-western side of Devonshire, and in the 
Southern parliamentary division of the county. It is bounded on the south-west by the river Tamar, 
which separates it from Cornwall, and here receives the small river Tavy, and has a canal to Tavistock, 
passing through a long tunnel. It has mines of copper, tin, and lead, and is generally a fertile and 
jncturesque district, bounded on the east by the mountainous region of Dartmoor Forest. 

The following enumeration of its parishes shows the territorial extent, and the inhabited houses 
and population, in 1871 : — 



I'arishcs 


Acres 


Inhabited Houses 


Population 


Brent Tor . 
Milton Abbot 
Tavistock . 


. 


Total 


1212 

6617 

11450 


25 

230 

1144 


120 
1008 
7781 


19279 


1399 


8909 



Note. — All are in Tavistock union and division. 



HiHtor.y of Oevonsliir'e. 



97 



Teignbridge Hundred, which is in the Eastern parliamentary division of the county, averages 
about ten miles in length and seven in breadth, and includes the towns of Ashburton and Newton 
Bushel, on its southern border, and Moreton Hampstead, near its northern boundary. Its western 
side forms part of the eastern hills of Dartmoor Foi-est, including the Haytor granite rock quarries, 
which have a railway and canal to the Teign ; but the rest of the hundred is a fertile district of hil's 
and valleys, watered by the East and West Teign, which receive here several tributaries, and unite 
near Teigngrace, below which the stream becomes navigable. 

The following enumeration of its parishes shows their territorial extent, and the inhabited houses 
ftnd jDopulation, in 1871 : — 



Parishes 



Ashburton 
l-ickingfon 
Bovey Tracey 
Hennock . 
Highweek . 
Ideford 
Ilsiufftou . 



Acres. 



6966 
1375 
7262 
3469 
2422 
1471 
7o63 



Inhabited 
Houses 


Topulation 

1 


681 


2962 


66 


263 


421 


2133 


177 


887 


361 


1626 


64 


292 


229 


1160 


* 


1 



Parishes 



Kingsteignton . 
*Lustleigh . 

Manaton . 
*Moreton-Hampstead 
* North Bovey 

Teigngrace 

Total 



Acres 



4021 
2939 
6393 
7666 
6664 
1329 



68620 



Inhabited t,„ , ,. 
Houses Population 



335 

64 

72 

333 

104 

32 



2839 



1613 
318 
403 

1661 
616 
147 



13860 



Brferences. — All are in Newton Abbot union. Those marked * are in Crockernwell division, the others in 
Teignbridge division. 

Tiverton Hundred, in the Northern parliamentary division of the county, is picturesquely 
undulated and traversed by the Exe and several of its tributary streams. 

The following enumeration of its parishes shows their territorial extent, and the inhabited houses 
and population, in 1871 : — 



Parishes 



Calverleigh 

Huntsham 

Loxbear .... 

Tiverton (borough and parish) 

Uplowmaa 



Total 



Acres 


Inhabited Houses 


Population 


501 


18 


87 


1875 


43 


236 


761 


29 


160 


17491 


2172 


10U24 


2912 


87 


443 



23640 



2349 



10939 



Keference. — All are in Tiverton union and Cullompton division. 

West Budleigh Hundred is in the Northern parliamentary division of the county, and lies 
north and north-east of Crediton, and is only about eight miles long and four broad. It is watered 
by the river Greedy and one of its tributaries. 

The following enumeration of its parishes shows their territorial extent, and the inhabited houses 
and population, in 1871 : — 



Parishes 



Cheriton Fitzpaine 
Poughill . 
Shobrooke 
Stockleigli English 
Stockleigh Pomeroy 
Upton Helions . 
*Washfield 



Total 



Acres 


Inhabited Houses 


Population 


5382 


210 


936 


1663 


76 


346 


3835 


140 


G26 ! 


1110 


18 


83 


1239 


39 


173 


819 


21 


117 


3319 


87 


434 


17367 


691 


2714 



. ^ Unions. — Washfield, marked *, which is a detached member of the hundred, is in Tiverton union, and Cullompton 
iivisiou; the rest are in Crediton union and division. 



WiNKLEiGH Hundred comprises only the parish of Winkleigh, and is in 
tnentary division of the county, South Molton division and Torringion union 
inhabitants in 1871, living in 229 houses on 9118 acres of land. 



the Northern parlia- 
It had 1402 



WiTHtRiDGE Hundred is a fertile district of hill and valley, of an irregular figure, averaging about 
ifleen miles in length and nine in breadth, in the Northern parliamentary division of the county. It 

G 



98 



History oi* Devonsliire, 




extends from three to about eighteen miles westward from Tiverton, and to the vicinity of South Molt 
and to within about four miles of the boundary of Somerset. It is watered by the small rivers Mox^, 
Little Dart, Sturcombe, and Taw, and many tributary streams; and rises into a bold range of hills on 
the east and north, but has extensive tracts of rich corn lands and pastures in the valleys. 

The following enumeration of its parishes shows their territorial extent, and the inhabited 
houses and population, ia 1871 : — 



Parishes 


Acres 


Inhabited 
Houses 


Population 


Parishes 


Acres 


Inhabited 
Houses 


Population 


2 Bishop's Nympton . 


9579 


237 


1155 1 


2 Rackenford . 


1 3938 


85 


440 


2 Cheldon. 


1108 


13 


82 ! 


2 Romansleigh . 


1 2491 


44 


208 


2 Cliulmleigh . 


8815 


318 


1560 1 


2 Rose Ash 


' 5082 


105 


563 


2 Creacombe 


1050 


10 


62 1 


*1 Stoodleigh 


1 4336 


91 


621 


*1 Cruwys Morchiird . 


5766 


135 


645 1 


*1 Templeton 


j 1895 


48 


240 


2 East Worlington . 


2363 


46 


250 


§2 Thelhridgo . 


2240 


53 


281 


*1 Highley St. Mary . 


370 


5 


22 


§3 Washford Pync 


1140 


37 


171 


2 King's Nympton 


5539 


139 


642 


2 Witheridge . 


9048 


256 


1213 


2 Mariansleigh . 


1963 


57 


260 


§3 Woolfardisworthy . 


1815 


37 


201 


2 Meshaw . 


1751 


45 


218 


2 West Worlington . 


2683 


34 


203 


^1 Oakford. 

§3 Puddington . 


5464 
1361 


113 

44 


578 
194 


Total . 








79797 


1952 


9709 



Notes. — Marked * are in Tiverton union ; § in Crediton union ; and the others in South Molton union. 1 are 
in Cullompton, 2, South Molton, and 3, Crediton division. 

WoNFORD Hundred is in the Eastern parliamentary division of the county, and extends about nine- 
teen miles westward and four miles eastward from Exeter, completely encompassing that city, and 
adding a considerable population to its suburbs. (See Exeter.) Exclusive of two distant detached 
members near Newton Abbot, it is about twenty-three miles in length from east to west, and varies 
from eight to four miles in breadth. It is bounded on the east by East Budleigh and Cliston 
hundreds, on the south by Exminster and Teignbridge hundreds, and on the west by the extensive 
mountainous moorland district of Dartmoor Forest ; large portions of which, near Chagford, Gidleigh, 
Throwley and South Tawton, are within its limits. (See Lidford.) It is generally a fertile and 
picturesque district, traversed by the Exeter and Okehampton turnpike and other good roads, and 
extending down the river Exe to Topsham — the shipping port of Exeter. 

The following enumeration of its parishes shows their territorial extent, and the inhabited 
houses and population, in 1871 : — 



Parishes 


Acres 


Inhabited 
Houses 


Population 


Parishes 


Acres 


Inliabited 
Houses 


Population 

m 


3 Alphington . 


2471 


251 


1166 


3 Rewe (part of) \ 
Rewe (a) J ' 


1340 


34 


193I 


3 Brampford Speke . 


1642 


87 


479 


1 Bridford 


4114 


104 


508 


§ Sherwood villa (b) . 


— 


1 


4 


*1 Chagford 


7492 


317 


1530 


4 Sowton . 


1094 


83 


398 


§1 Cheriton Bishop 


4875 


130 


647 


*1 Spreyton 


3606 


79 


418 


3 Christow 


3218 


177 


872 


3 Stoke Canon . 


1217 


85 


445 


t2 Combeinteignhead (c) 


2407 


108 


469 


t2 Stokeinteignhead (c) 


2531 


135 


681 


*1 Drewsteignton 


6937 


221 


1001 


3 St. Leonard . 


172 


295 


1712 


2 Dunsford 


5948 


153 


815 


t2 St. Nicholas (c) . 


790 


327 


1243 


t2 East Ogwell (c) . 


1249 


58 


298 


3 St.Thomas the Apostle 


3700 


934 


5156 


*1 Gidleigh. 


3449 


29 


154 


*1 South Tawton 


10879 


342 


1517 


t2 Haccombe (c) . 


363 


3 


7 


1 Tedburn St. Mary . 


4433 


136 


721 


3 Heavitree 


3469 


725 


3848 


*1 Throwleigh . 


1943 


70 


323 


§1 Hitt] sleigh . 


1155 


31 


160 


3 Topsham 


1740 


663 


3121 


3 Holcombe Burnell . 


1836 


44 


214 


3 Upton-Pyne . 


1852 


97 


430 


3 Huxham 


761 


27 


125 


t2 West Ogwell . 


683 


5 


31 


3 Pinhoe . 


1735 


120 


530 


3 Whitestone . 


4077 


113 


544 


3 Pol ti more 


1710 


64 


332 


















Total . 


94888 


6048 


30090 



References. — Marked * are in Okehampton union ; f in Newton Abbot union ; § in Crediton union ; and the 
rest are in St. Thomas union. 1 are in Crockernwell, 2, Teignbridge, 3, Wonford, and 4, Woodbury division. 

Notes. — (a) Rewe parish is partly in Haybridge hundred, (b) This parish is also returned with Crediton 
hundred, it formerly being included in Whitestone parish, but even then its rates were claimed by Newton St, Cyres. 
(c) East and West Ogwell, Haccombe, Combeinteignhead, Stokeinteignhead, and St. Nicholas are detached members. 



DEVONSHIRE. 

TOWNS, VILLAGES, HAMLETS, ETC 



ARRANGED IN ALPHABETICAL ORDER. 



N.B. — To avoid inciclmts distinctions ive have in the Directories appended ^ Esq,^ to Members of Parliament and 

Justices of the Peace only. 



ABBOTS BICKINGTON is a parish nine miles south-west of Torrington, in Holsworthy union, county 
court district, petty sessional division and rural deanery, Barnstaple archdeaconry, and Black Torrington 
hundred, and Southern division of the county. It had 50 inhabitants (21 males, 29 females) in 1871, living 
in 8 houses, on 1078 acres of land. The parish formerly belonged to Hartland Abbey. The Hon. Mark 
Rolle is now lord of the manor and owner of most of the soil. The Chuech (St. James) consists of chancel, 
nave, south transept, and tower containing three bells, and in 1868 was newly roofed and reseated, the 
south wall rebuilt and three windows inserted, and a new pulpit and reading desk furnished, at a total cost 
of £300, defrayed by the Hon. Mark IloUe. In the chancel are sedilia and two monuments to the Pollard 
famil3^ The Eegister dates from 1567. The living, a vicarage, in the patronage of the Hon. Mark Rolle, has 
lately been united to Bulkworthy, together worth £'140 a year. There is no vicar, but the Rev. W. Edgcombe 
is curate. There is no vicarage house at present, but great efforts are bemg made to remedy this defect, and 
probably a residence will be erected this summer. The Hon. Mark Rolle is impropriator of the great 

I tithes, which are commuted for £25 a year ; the vicarial tithes are commuted for £45 a year. 
I Letters via Brandis Corner, but Holsworthy is the nearest Money Order Office and Railway Station. 



leverdou Charles, farmer, East Cliol- 
ladon 
)le William, farmer, Youlden 



Edgcombe Rev William, curate; h 

Bulkworthy 
Hern William, parish clerk 



Skinner Mrs Jane, farmer, South pi. 
Yeo William, farmer. Court Barton 



ABBOTSHAM, a parish and village nearly two miles west of Bideford, is in Bideford union, county 
court district, and petty sessional division, Northern division of the county, Barnstaple archdeaconry, Hartland 
rural deanery, and Shebbear hundred. It had 421 inhabitants (198 males, 223 females) in 1871, living in 
62 houses on 1758 acres of land, extending westward to the shore of Bideford or Barnstaple Bay. E. U. 
Vidal, Esq., is lord of the manor, but Dr. Heywood Smith, Mr. Richard Turner, Mr. Taylor, and a few 
smaller owners have estates here. The OnrRCH (St. Helen) is a small antique structure, consisting of nave, 
chancel, and a low tower containing four bells. The church was thoroughly restored in 1870 at a cost of 
£1300. A window has been filled with stained glass in memory of Mr. Richard Turner, inserted by his sons ; 
and there are two others erected by Dr. Heywood and E. U. Vidal, Esq., respectively. The living is a 
vicarage, valued in K.B. at £16 4s. 7d., in the patronage of E. U. Vidal, Esq., and incumbencj'- of the Rev. 
Philip Richard Pipon Braithwaite, who has about 37 acres of glebe and a good house. He is impropriator 
of nearly all the great tithes which were commuted in 1840 with the small tithes for £123 12s. a year ; 
besides this there is £70 lOs. added under the Lord Chancellor's Augmentation Act. The Baptists erected a 
chapel in the village in 1852. The National School is near the church, and was rebuilt by W. C. Hey- 
wood, Esq., M.D., in 1851. 

Post Office at Mr. Thomas Henry Glover's. Letters are received at 7.30 a.m. from, and despatched at 
6.10 p.m. (weekdays ; 5.10 p.m. Sundays) to Bideford, which is the nearest Money Order Office. 

Those marTced * are in the Westward Ho postal district. 



* Alley Miss, Buckleigh 
Bird Joseph, shopkeeper 
Braithwaite Rev. Philip Riclid. Pipon, 

vicar, The Vicarage 
Brown James, farmer, East Pusehill 
Cook George, farmer, West Pusehill 

* De Vetrie Major John, Buckleigh 
Pernie Mr Thomas, Middle Bowwood 

* Gayer Edward, M.D., Highfield 
Glover Thos. Hy. mason & postmaster 
Grant Robert, blacksmith 

* Hamilton Mrs Marian, Highfield 

* Hamilton Captain Thomas Brice, 
Buckleigh 



Heywood Joseph, farmer, Lake farm 

* Hodges Lieut. Edward, Leigh villa 

* Jacquot Fran9ois, belles-lettres, 
master of modern languages U.S. 
College, Westward Ho 

Moase Edwd. farmer and carpenter 
Pettle John, farmer, Westacott 
Pickard Charles Henry, farmer, Bow- 
wood ; h Parkham 
Pickard Miss Elizabeth, farmer. Pit 
Pickard William, farmer. Chatter- 
borough ; h Northam 
Pridham Thomas, victualler. New Inn 
Shenner Miss M. C. schoolmistress 
q2 



Silk William, carpenter 

Taylor James, railway contractor, Ab- 
botsham court 

Tickle Mr Samuel, Kenen 

Turner Charles, farmer. The Barton 

Turner George, farmer, Rixlade ; h 
Bideford 

Turner John, farmer. Combe Barton 

Turner William, farmer, Greenacleeve ; 
h Bideford 

Venningjs Henry, farmer, Com 

Vidal Edward Urch, Esq. J.P. Corn- 
borough 

Walters John, farmer, Bowwoocl 



}(X) 



A.lh>t>ot is»kei*««i>vell , 



AliBOTSKERSWELL, or Abbufa Carsiuell, is a paiisli and pleasant village, 13 miles S.W. of Newton 
Abbot, in Newton Abbot union and county court district, Teignbridye petty sessional division, Newton 
Abbot polling district of East ])(!Von, Ilaytor hundred, Totnos archdeaconry, and Moreton rural deanery. 
The parish, which includes the hamlet of Aller,\md 45^} inhabitants (2.'>1 'males, 222 females) in 1871, 
living in 1)9 houses, on 1401 acres of land. It had formerly within it two numors, namely, that of Abbots- 
kerswell proper, belonging to the Abbey of Sherborne, in liorsetshire, and tliat of Aller; parts of the ancient 
manor-houses still remain. William Creed, Esq., is lord of the manor, nnd the principal owners of the soil 
are the heirs of the late Captain Marcus Hare, R.N., Messrs. John and William Creed, llichard Ford, John 
Vicary and — Nickels. Some of the smaller holdings have been in the families of their present proprietcnvs 
for many generations. Kerswell is a corruption of Carsewell, the more ancient way of writing the name, 
Carse being Saxon for cress, for which the stream running through the village was formerly noted. It was 
called Abbot's Carsewell to distinguish it from the neighbouring parish of King's- Carsewell, the manor of 
which belonged to the king. There are many springs and wells in the village, one of the latter on the 
Court Estate, belonging to the late Captain Hare, being called Ladewell, evidently a corruption of Our Lady's 
Well : its water was formerly supposed to be efficacious in the cure of eye diseases, and it is still occasionally 
resorted to by the inhabitants for that purpose. The Church (Virgin Mary) is a very ancient structure, 
exhibiting specimens of Norman, Decorated and Perpendicular work. It is divided into two aisles, the 
pillars supporting the arches being of granite. It has a handsome screen in a tolerable state of preservation. 
The church is seated with unsightly pews. The tower contains three bells, but they are in a very imperfect 
condition. The Register dates from 1C08, but there is notice of the parish accounts as early as 1573 ; both 
of these are, however, imperfect. The living is a vicarge, valued in K.E. at £1 lis. 3d., in the patronage 
of the Lord Chancellor, and incumbency of the Rev. Yesey G. Hine, who has a vicarage-house, built in 
1837, with money borrowed from Q.A.B. The vicarial tithes are commuted at £204 a year, and there 
are 60 acres of glebe ; the impropriate rent-charge, amounting to £116 a year, is payable to the vicar of 
Cornworthy. In the churchyard is a dilapidated old sarcophagus tomb, and near it is a plain marble cross 
enclosed by iron railings, in memory of the Hon. Mrs. Marcus Hare, as stated in ' Memorials of a Quiet 
Life.' The Baptists and Wesletans have chapels here. The School Board was formed in March 27, 
1875, and consists of Messrs. John Creed (chairman and clerk), William Creed (vice), Richard Ford, William 
Venning, Thomas Maddicott. The Board School was erected in 1876, at a cost of £600 (including £100 paid 
for the site), and has accommodation for 75 children. The Abbot of Sherborne in 1524 gave a certain house 
in the parish, the rent of which is applied to church expenses. 

Post Office at Mr. George Jeffery's. Letters are received at 6.40 a.m. from, and despatched at 6.50 
to Newton Abbot, which is the nearest Money Order Office and Railway Station. 



Cornish Miss Emma, Board school- 
mistress 

Creed Mr John, Whiddon 

Creed William, solicitor at Newton; h 
Burrow park 

Dyer William, cowkeeper & victualler, 
Tradesman's Arms 

Elliott Samuel, farmer 

Ferries William, veterinary surgeon, 
Myrtle cottage 

Ford Mr Ki chard, Abbotsford 

Hannaford Mrs 

Hare Mrs Marcus, Court Grange 



Henley AVilliam Codner, cider mer- 
chant, Mallands 
Hine Rev Vesey Germain, B.A. 

vicar, The Vicarage 
Jeifery George, postmaster 
Lake Mr William 
Maye Richard, farmer. Court farm 
Mudge Thomas, farmer, Manor farm 
Norton John, beerhouse 
Paddon William, poulterer, &c. 
Palk Edward, butcher and farmer 
Partridge John, whlwrght. & blcksnith 
Phillips John & Co. architectural pot- 



tery, sanitary pipe and terra-cotta 
manufacturers ; h Moor park 

Pickard Job, farmer, Whiddon farm 

Prowse Frederick, blacksmith 

Roworth Mr Job 

Skinner John, farmer, Cross farm 

Smith Thomas, shoemaker 

Stockman George, jun. fellmonger, 
artificial manure manufacturer, and 
agent for Northern Insurance Co., 
Aller Bone and Manure AVorks 

Taylor William, (j) stonemason 

White George, farmer, Aller farm 



ALLINGTON (EAST). (See East Allington.) 

ALPHINGTON. (See Ottery St. Mary.) 

ALPHINGTON, a parish and pleasant village on the western side of the river Exe, 1^ mile S. of 
Exeter, is traversed by the South Devon Railway and Exeter Ship Canal. It is in St. Thomas's union, Exeter 
county court district, Wonford petty sessional division and hundred, Exeter polling district of East Devon, 
Exeter archdeaconry and Kenn rural deanery. It had 1166 inhabitants (561 males, 605 females) in 1871, 
living in 251 houses, on 2471 acres of land. The Earl of Devon owns most of the soil, and is lord of the 
manor of Alphington, which was obtained by his family in the reign of Richard II., in exchange, from the 
Seagraves. Matford, formerly the seat of the Smith and other families, belongs to Sir L. V. Palk ; and 
the Gibbs family and others have estates here. Alphington had cattle fairs on the first Wednesday after the 
20th of June, and on the Wednesday after Michaelmas- day, but they were abolished in 1870. The village 
was one of the principal quarters of Sir Thomas Fairfox's army in 1646, when he was blockading Exeter. 
Risdon says, a man named Stone died here, at the age of 120 years, in the time of Queen Elizabeth. On 
July 2, 1760, by the sudden overflowing of the rivulet running through the village to the Exe, upwards 
of twenty houses are said to have been thrown down, and the damage was computed at more than £1000. A 
flood on October 20, 1875, washed several houses away ; and by another which occurred in April, 1877, about 
100 sheep belonging to Mr. William Hawkin, and 35 sheep, the property of Mr. Robert White, were 
drowned. The Church (St. Michael) is a large antique structure, consisting of chancel, nave, north and 
south aisles, and tower, rising to a height of 70 feet, and containing eight fine-toned bells. The chancel is 
separated from the pave and aisles by a rood-screen. The church was newly-roofed, re-seated, and other 



I 



I>evoii!5»liii*e. 



101 



improvements effected in 1878, at a cost of about £3000. The living, a rectory, valued in K.li. at £34 Os. Scl., 
is in the patronage of E. Brown, Esq., and W. J. Battishill, Esq., and incumbency of the Rev. W. Butter- 
field, M.A., who has a good rectory house, on an eminence near the church. The glebe is 24a. 3r., and 
the tithes are commuted for £794 a year. The School- Board was formed on March 31, 1875, and consists 
of Thomas Woodman, Esq. (chairman), Mr. Frederick Loram (vice), the Rev. Dr. Dennett, Messrs. Robert 
White and John Way, and for the contributory parish of Exminster, Mr. John Wills. Mr. John Hutchings 
is clerk. Shillingford St. George is also a contributory parish. New schools, with teacher's residence, were 
built in 1877, at a total cost of £2300, and will accommodate 190 children. Mr. J. W. Rowell, of Newton 
Abbot and Torquay, was the architect, and Mr. H. Phillips, of Exeter, the builder. The Church House, 
worth £20 a year, was built by the parish in the reign of Elizabeth, on land given by William Courtenay, Esq. 
The Poor's Land comprises about 22a. 2r. 36p. and a farm-house at Ilolcombe Burnell, purchased in 1756 with 
money left by John Bliss and other donors. The land was sold in*1876 for £800, and the money was 
invested, the dividends being distributed in bread. The poor parishioners have also 30s. a year out of 
Matford estate, left by Francis and Daniel Vinnicombe, in 1675; and the dividends of £230 Three per Cent. 
Consols, purchased in 1784, with £110, left by Edward Leach and another donor. They have likewise the 
interest of £5 left by James Pitman. The Poor Houses, comprising four small cottages, were purchased in 
1675, with £45 given by various donors, and are occupied by poor families, who pay a weekly rental of 3c?. 

Post Office at Mr. John Hele's. Letters, via Exeter, are delivered at 7 a.m. and 6 p.m., and despatched 
at 6 and 8.20 p.m. St. Thomas's Exeter is the nearest Money Order and Telegraph Office, and the nearest 
Railway Station. 



Addems Mrs Mary, board schlmstrss 
Bale John Adney, trade protection 

secretary, Exeter 
Bassett John Davie, M.D., The Laurels 
Bastin James Richard.manufacturer of 
thrashing andagricultm*al machines 
Bell John, board schoolmaster 
Bidgood Henry, market gardener 
Bray Jas. surveyor, Mandrake house 
Brownlow Mr Edward M. Exe view 
Butterfield Rev Wm.,M.A.The Rectory 
Chichester Arthur Chamberlyne, 

Esq., J.P., Rosemont 
Clark Jno. cattle dIr.Alphington cross 
Coles James, builder and undertaker, 

Gidley house 
Collicott John, market gardener. Rai- 
ling house 
Colljns Rev John Edwd. Mile End cot 
Cotton Mr William, The Elms 
Dennett Rev Richard, D.C.L. curate 
Dudley Mr Alfred, Home Bush house 
Eales Richard, solicitor, Exeter ; h 

Underwood 
Elliott Mr William Browne 
Gray Mr Robert John, Newlands 
Griffin Mr William Royle Mortimer, 

Rock house 
Harding Mrs Elizabeth 
Hart Mrs Maria, Alphington villa 
Hartnell Mr Alfred S,, Swiss cottage 
Hawkins Mrs Ellen, ftirmer, Cuttridge 
Hawkins William, farmer, Westwood 
Head Robert Thomas, solicitor,Exeter ; 

h The Briars 
Head Robert William, M.A., solicitor, 

Exeter ; h The Briars 
Heard Mrs Ann, shopkeeper & china 

and earthenware dealer 
Hele John, postmaster 
Hews Mrs Eliza, Osborne house 
Hurley Robert, sliopkeeper 
Hussey John Richards, auctioneer, i 
Exeter; h Brooklands i 



Hutchings George, butcher and cattle 

dealer, Flint cottage 
Hutchings John, cattle dealer 
Hutchings Saml. cattle dlr. Flint cot 
Jarman William, market gardener 
Joint John, farmer, Marks farm 
Jones Wm. Luxmore, Home Bush 3ot 
King Henry, baker and confectioner 
Kingdom Mr Charles, Delmont house 
Knott John, bricklayer and mason 
Knott Mr Samuel Dyer, Bartletts 
Lendon Joseph, shoemaker 
Letheren Charles Radcliff, farmer, 

Ball and Andrew's farm 
Loram Frederick, frmr. Alden's farm 
Loram William, farmer and vict. Bell 
Mallett Mrs Ann, Caroline house 
Mallett William Millford, miller, Al- 
phington mill 
Mayne Frederick, mason 
Milton Thomas Matthew, farmer, 

Rose bridge 
Mitchell William, markft gardener 
Newberry RichHrd, market gardener, 

Marsh Barton 
Norrish Mr Thomas, The Lodge 
Palmer William Godfrey, coal mer- 
chant, Exeter ; h Myrtle cottage 
Pearce William, vict. Duuble Locks 
Perkins Richd. blcksmth. & whlwrght 
Pet hy bridge John, farmer. Marsh 

Barton 
Phjsick Henry, nurseryman and mar- 
ket gardener, Hatherleigh house 
Physick Mr William 
Pike James, market givlnr. & thatcher 
Pike John, thatcher 
Pitts Frederick, farmer and miller, 

Matford farm 
Pocock James, market gardener 
Pope Robert, blacksmith. Wheatley 
Ramey Maj.-Gcn. Hy., C.B. Lie lodge 
Rew John Comer, tanner (Wippell & 
R.) ; h Bridge cottage 



Sage John, cowkeeper. Marsh Barton 
Sanders Henry, milk dealer, Flint cot 
Seare William, beerhouse and market 

gardener 
Seaward James, farmer, Eastwood 
Shaw (Exors. of) Mr Benj. Horatio, 

Bel voir house 
Shaw Mrs Blanche Amelia, ladies' 

boarding and day school, Belvoir hs 
Short Richd. joiner & bldr. Willow cot 
Smale Miss Christiana, dressmaker, 

Rose cottage 
Smale Mr George, Moss cottage 
Snell Mrs Mary, shopkeeper and 

market gardener 
Stockham Misses Martha & Caroline, 

Laurel cottage 
Stone (Exors. of) Miss Fanny, shpkpr 
Symes Cornelius, cowkeeper 
Symons (Exors. of) Thomas, shoemkr 
Toman William, market gardener 
Toms Mrs Fanny 
Tozer Henry, basket maker 
Tozer Samuel, vict. King William 
Waters Thomas and Matthew, far 
mers, Pokeham bridge ; h Pinhoe 
Way Henry Trimble (John & Son) ; 

h Sobey's farm 
Way John (John & Son) ; h Sobey's 

farm 
Way John & Son, frnirs, Sobey's farm 
Way Miss Mary, Pixie cottage 
Wheeler James, baker 
White Eobert, frmr. Wheatley Barton 
White William George Leigh, former, 

Wheatley Barton 
Willis Thomas, bank clerk 
Wippell & Eew. tanners 
Wippell Thomas (W. & Rew); h 

Bridge house 
Wolland John Born, vict. Salmon 
Pool Inn, & pleasure garden propr 
Wood Mrs Ann, milliner & dressmaker 
Woodman Mr Thomas, Cross house 



ALVERDISCOTT, or Alscott, parish includes the liamlets of Bulhvorthy hndi Stoneci'oss, and gives name 
to a pleasant, scattered village, 5 miles E. by S. of Bideford Railway Station, on the South Western line. 
The parish, which extends from 3 to 6 miles E. by S. of Bideford, is in Torrington union, coimty court 
district, Great Torrington petty sessional division, Torrington polling district of North Devon, Barnstaple 
archdeaconry, Torrington rural deanery, and Fremington hundred. It had 324 inhabitants (147 males, 177 
females) in 1871, living on 2273 acres of land. Miss Mary Preston is lady of the manor, formerly held by 



J 02 



Alver disc ott , 



the Fleming, Bellew, and other families ; but W. A. Deane, Esq. and several smaller owners have estates in 
the parish. AVebbeuy was anciently the seat of a family of its own name, and was successively held by 
the Lippincotts and Cutclift'es, the latter of whom rebuilt the house about 1820: it stands in pleasant 
jjrounds, and is now the residence of W. A. Deane. Esq. Borough Fakm has been in the occupation of the 
Bridge family for more than 200 years. There was anciently a chapel at Borough, and on enlarging the 
house some years ago the remains were pulled down. The CnuRcn (All Saints), which consists of nave, 
chancel, north aisle, south porch, and tower containing three bells, was rebuilt in 18G6 at a cost of about 
J.'1000. The living is a rectory, valued in K.B. at £1'3 3s. ll^d., in the patronage of J. C. Newbery and J. 
V. Newbery, Esqrs., and incumbency of the Rev. John Warren, M.A., who has a good residence and 
39a. 2r. IOp. of glebe. The tithes were commuted in 1844 for £156 a year. There is a small Wesleyan 
Chapel at Stonecross. The School, with residence for the teacher, was erected in 1876 at an expense of < 
£450 : it is under the management of six parishioners, who are elected yearly at the vestry meeting. The] 
School has an attendance of 45 children. Three tenements and an acre of land, which have been invested 
from an early period for the reparation of the church, now produce £9 a year. 

Post, via, Bideford and Barnstaple. There is a Wall Letter Box, cleared at 5.50 p.m. weekdays only,^. 
Those mar/ccd^ are in the Barnstaple postal district, and the rest are in Bideford district. i^B 

Deane William Anthony, Esq., J.P., 
Webbery 

* Denford John, toll collector 
^ Faircliild G-eo. fcirmer, Bullworthy 
^ Harding John, tailor. Stone cross 
Hookway Edward, farmer, Woodtown 

* Hoyle William, farmer, Stone cross 
^ Pethebridge Geo. farmer, Borough 



y 



* Barker Mr William, Ham pit 

* Bright Simon, bootmkr. Stone cross 
Capel Capt. Algernon, Woodtown lis 
^ Cawsey Kobert, farmer, The Barton 

* Chipman Jas. carpenter, Stone cross 
•" ClementsMrs Mary, fmr. Liippincott 
Copp William, frmr. Webbery Barton 
Davis Col. Frederick John, The Firs 



* Pethebridge Richd. fmr. Nethercott 
^ Pitwood Henry, farmer, Garnacott 
Symons Ambrose, frmr. Clogg's hilli 



John, M.A. rector] 



* Warren Pev 
The Rectory 

Webster Mr William, The Downs 

* Wolstenholme Miss Elizabeth Mary, 
schoolmistress 



ALVINGTON (WEST). (See West Alvington.) 



ALWINGTON parish includes the hamlets of Fairy Cross, Ford, and Woodtoivn ; and its pleasant 
village is on the Clovelly and Hartland road, 4 miles S.W. by S. of Bideford. The parish, which extends 
over 2655 acres of land, is in Bideford union, county court district and petty sessional division, Northern 
division of the county, Shebbear hundred, Barnstaple archdeaconry, and Hartland deanery : it had 353 
inhabitants (173 males, 180 females) in 1871, living in 76 houses. J. R. P. Coffin, Esq., is lord of the manor 
of Alwingtcn, and has a handsome seat here called Portledge, which has been the seat and property of the 
Coffins nearly from the time of William 1. Captain A. Archdale is lord of the manor of South Yeo and 
owner of the pleasant seat called Yeo Vale and of the barton of Wimscott. The remains of an ancient 
chapel formerly stood near this mansion, but they have been removed to a more distant part of the grounds. 
A few smaller owners have CvStates here. The rivulet Yeo runs through the parish. The Church (St. 
Andrew) is a small antique structure, consisting of nave, chancel, south aisle, north transept, and tower, 
surmounted by a spire, and containing four bells. It has memorials of the Coffin, Pine, and other 
families. In 1877 the porch was restored, and the south aisle re-roofed at a cost of £70. The living 
is a rectory, valued in K.B. at £17 4s. 2hd., in the patronage of J. R. P. Coffin, Esq., and incum- 
bency of the Rev. F. H. Mules, who has 74 acres of glebe and a handsome residence. The tithes are com- 
muted for £252 a year. The Parish School was built by the Morrison family in 1836, and is under 
government inspection. The Wesleyaks have a chapel at Ford, which was reseated in 1875 at a cost of 
£40. An Almshouse for three poor people was founded in 1667 by Richard Coffin, who endowed it with 10 
acres of land vested with the successive heirs of his famil)^ The poor have 2|- acres purchased with bene- 
faction money, and the interest of £25 left by Richard Coffin in 1795. 

Post Office at Mr. T. N. Kievill's. Letters are received at 7'55 a.m. from, and are despatched at 6 p.m. 
(Sundays, 5 p.m.), to Bideford, which is the nearest Money Order Office 

Andrews Isaac Jno. farmer, Winscott births and deaths 



Barton 
Archdale Captain Audley, Yeo vale 
Bailey Mr Francis, Ford 
Bailey Miss Margaret, Ford 
Batty Thomas, farmer, Didon 
Becklick Wm. corn dealer & dairyman, 

Ford 
Beer Augustus Ley, farmer, Chiddle- 

combe 
Beer Stephen, blacksmith. Ford 
Coffin John Richard Pine, Esq. J.P., 

Portledge 
Dayman Humphrey, parish clerk, 

assistant overseer, and registrar of 



for Parkham 

district, Fairy cross 
Ford John, farmer. Ford 
Ford Michael, farmer, Parisonago 
Fulford William, farmer, Dothridge 
Grigg Seth,frmr. Ivyhouse ; h Parkham 
Holman Richard, machine maker, 

Horns cross 
Kidwill Richard, farmer & victualler, 

Swan, Fairy cross 
Kievill Thomas Nance, blacksmith and 

postmaster. Ford 
Lott Richd. farmer & carpenter, Ford 
Mathews William, carpenter 
Mules Rev Francis Howard, rector, 

The Rectory 



Pennington William, carpenter 
Pennington William, corn miller, Y 

mill 
Serjeant Mr Joseph Veal. Rollstone 
Kquance John, farmer, Moor pnrk 
Squance John, jun. thatcher & farmer, 

Woodtown 
Tregaskis Miss Rosina Blamcy, school- 
mistress 
Wakeley Wm. farmer, Town farm 
Walters John, farmer, Cockington 
Webber Thomas, farmer, Gillscott 



Carriers — Thomas Colwill & James 
Jeffrey, to Bideford, Tuesday, 
Thursday, and Saturday. 



I 



ANSTEY (EAST and WEST). (See East Anstey and West Anstey.) 

APPLEDORE, a small seaport town and an ecclesiastical district formed, in 1844, out of the ancle 



I 



I>e von shire. 



103 



parish of Northam, contained 2364 inhabitants (1019 males and 1345 females) in 1871, living in 533 houses, 
on 130 acres of land. The town, which is in two divisions, called East and West Appledore, is delightfully 
seated on the coast of Barnstaple Bay, at the mouths of the rivers Torridge and Taw, 3 miles N. of Bideford. 
The town stands on and around the slope of a hill, commands extensive views of the Estuary, and of the 
rivers Taw and Torridge, and is provided with small hotels, and with lodgings for visitors. It is the first 
harbour of importance within the bar of the broad estuary of the two rivers, and is subordinate to the port of 
Bideford. The principal trade is coasting and fishing, while a large and small dry dock, and several ship- 
building yards, a rope manufactory, together with its landing quays for the discharge of vessels, give employ- 
ment to many of its inhabitants, and promote its general prosperity. Appledore has two provision markets, 
on Wednesday and Saturday, mostly held in a small building, erected in 1828. Hubba, the Pane, landed 
here in the reign of Alfred the Great, and was discomfited and slain, with about 2000 men, before Kenwith 
Castle, which stood near Kenwith Lodge, in the adjoining parish of Abbotsham. Tradition says he was 
buried at the southern end of East Appledore, under a large stone, called Hubba stone. The Gas Works, at 
Appledore, were established in 1875, by a limited liability company, with a capital of £3800, of which £3000 
was raised in £5 shares, and £800 on debentures. The construction of the works cost £3500. There are 65 
public lamps. Gas is supplied to private consumers at (js. per 1000 cubic feet, and for public lamps at 4s. (jcl 
Alfred Evans, Esq., is secretary to the company, and Mr. W. H. Slocombe manager of the works. The 
Chuech (St. Mary the Virgin), prettily embowered, is built on the site of an ancient Roman Catholic chapel, 
between East and West Appledore, and consists of chancel, nave and aisles. A tower to contain eight bells 
is about to be erected. In the church are some fine stained glass windows. The living is a vicarage, 
valued at £200, in the gift of the vicar of Northam and incumbency of the Rev. Edward Reynolds, B.A. 
The Baptist Chapel was erected in 1859, and contains 350 sittings. The Presbyterians had a meeting-house 
here as early as 1715, but the congregation is now Independent, and built their present chapel in 1816. 
Wesleyan Methodism was introduced into Appledore in 1818, and a small chapel erected on the Quay in 
1821 ; this was superseded in 1851 by the present chapel, built at an expense of £402, on a site given by 
Mr. Thomas Green. The National School was built in 1844, at a cost of £450, raised by subscription. 
The Wesleyan Day School, built in 1862, at a cost of £300, on a site given by Mr. Thomas Green, will 
accommodate 170 children. 

Post, Money Oeder, and Telegeaph Ofeices and Savings Bank, Mrs. Mary Prance, postmistress, 
Market Street. Letters are delivered at 7 a.m. and 12 noon, and despatched at 1.30 p.m. (for North) and 7 
p.m. On Sundays they are delivered at 7 a.m., and despatched at 5.40 p.m. 



Andrews Mrs Ann, day school, Myrtle street 

Appledore Gas Works Co., AVest App. ; Alfred Evans, sec. 

Baker George, grocer, auctioneer, accountant, surveyor, 

valuer, ship and insurance broker, and vice-consul for 

Norway and Sweden, Bude street 
Barrow Kobert, victualler, Swan Inn, Market street 
Beara Alexander, outfitter, Buds street 
Beara Jerome, draper, Market street 
Beara John, plumber and shipchandler, Quay 
Beare John, ship carpenter, Myrtle street 
Beer John, baker and confectioner, Bude street 
Benson Miss Louisa, Eock cottage 
Berry Mrs Mary Ann, dressmaker. West Appledore 
Bligh Miss Elizabeth, Copner, Quay 
Bolt John Emanuel, master mariner, Odum row 
Bouncly Lewis, victualler, Royal hotel, Market street 
Bowden George, grocer ; and (h) Barnstaple 
Bowden James, national schoolmaster 
Burnicle William, ironmonger and ship chandler, Quay 
Carter George, plumber and painter, Bude street 
Clare Rev Robert Bone (Baptist), Alpha place 
Cubbledick Christopher, vict. King's Head, West Appledore 
Channon Mr Joseph, Bude street 
Chapell Miss Ann, West Appledore 
Cock Mrs Charlotte, maltster and victualler. The Tavern, 

Meeting street 
Cock Mrs Ellen, shopkeeper. West Appledore 
Cock Robert, shipbuilder; h Assells 
Cole Mrs Ann, dressmaker, West Appledore 
Cole William Edward, bootmaker, Meeting street 
Cook Alfred, shipbuilder ; h Rock house {See Advert.) 
Cook Arthur, block maker and boat builder. Quay 
Cutland William, boot maker. Myrtle street 
Larracott Mr George, A¥est Appledore 
Darracott Mr John, Odum row 
Day Mrs Esther, braid maker, Market street 
Day John, victualler. Champion of Wales, Meeting street 
Day Mrs Susan, Bude street 
Dennis Mrs Emily, beerhouse. West Appledore 
Dennis Mrs Mary, shopkeeper, New street 



Drew Mrs Elizabeth, Bidna 

Dunsford John, master mariner, Bude street 

Ellis Rev Joseph (Independent, retired), Quay 

England Mr John, Myrtle street 

Evans Alf, sec. to Appledore Gas Works Co. ; h Myrtle ler 

Evans Alfred, clerk. Market street 

Evans George, master mariner. Quay 

Evans John, master mariner. Quay 

Evans Josiah, shopkeeper, Market street 

Ezra William, shipwright. Alpha place 

Earleigh & Co. grocers. Market street 

Farleigh Richard (F. & Co.) ; h Barnstaple 

Fishwick John, master mariner, Bude street 

Fishwick Thomas Haynes, ship chandler, Quay 

Fursey Samuel, bootmaker. Market street 

Furscy Samuel, jun. bootmaker and grocer, Market street, 

and bootmaker, Instow 
Gibson Thomas, master mariner, Bude street 
Gordon Mr James, Richmond house 
Gordon Capt. Thomas, Richmond house 
Guard Mrs Agnes, dressmaker, Market street 
Guard Samuel, master mariner, West Appledore 
Hamlyn Robert, mason. Meeting street 
Hamlyn Thomas, grocer, Market street 
Hane Stephen, master mariner. Meeting street 
Harris Mrs Hannah, shopkeeper. New street 
Harris Richard, master mariner. Alpha place 
Harvey Thomas, grocer and vict. Dock house, Myrtle st 
Hayne John Vernam, block maker, Green Lane cottage 
Hayne Mr William Gunn, Bude street 
Heal Miss Ann, shopkeeper. West Appledore 
Hewer John Webber, grocer & boot factor, Market street 
Heywood Oliver, -farmer. West Appledore 
Hocking Robert, master mariner, West Appledore 
Hookaway Richard, sailor. Myrtle street 
Howe Mrs Emily, draper. Market street 
Howes Mrs Ann, Bude street 
Hucklebridge Mr William, Myrtle street 
Jewell Joseph, master mariner, Quay 
Kelly Richard, master mariner, Bude street 



104 



A-ppleclorCj 



Kelly Stephen, master mariner, AVest Appledore 

Kelly Thomas, grocer, IJude street 

Kelly William, master mariner, Alpha place 

]vinsman John, bootmaker, Ureenhill cottage 

Landay liCwis, grocer and general dealer, Quay 

Lemay William, master mariner, Now street 

Lemon Edward, blacksmith, Meeting street 

Lemon James, cooper. New Quay 

Lemon Mrs Mary, Meeting street 

Lemon William, master mariner, J^ude street 

Lerwiil Thomas, shipwright, Meeting street 

Leslie Rev Thomas James (Independent). Meeting street 

McCallam Mrs Mary, victualler, Globe, Market, (street 

Marshall Thomas, master mariner. Quay 

Martin Henry, master mariner, Bude street 

Mathews Mrs Mary, milliner, Market street 

Mathews Samuel, sail maker, Bude street 

Mayne Mrs Susan, shopkeeper. New Quay 

Mayne William, bootmaker. Market street 

Mead James, grocer and earthenware dealer, Market st 

Mules Henry, shipwright. Alpha place 

Nichol William, officer of Customs, West Appledore 

Owen George, cabinet maker. Meeting street 

Parkhouse George, master mariner. Chapel row 

Parkhouse John, farm bailiff 

Parkhouse John, dairyman, Bude street 

Parkhouse William, watchmaker, Bude street 

Parkin George Edward, boat builder, West Appledore 

Penny Mrs Harriet, Bude street 

Phillips Mark, victualler. Ship Inn, East Appledore 

Pickard AYilliam, ship builder, Quay 

Pile Mrs Margaret, shopkeeper, West Appledore 

Popham John, sail maker, Bude street 

Prance Mrs Mary, postmistress, Market street 

Pratt Charles, M.D., medical officer for northern district 

of Bideford union and for Northam, Bude house 
Pratt Frederick Thomas, M.R.C.S., L.S.A., surgeon. Quay 
Rew Miss Jane, shopkeeper and baker, West Appledore 



Reynolds Rev Edward, vicar, Tlio Vicarage 

Reynolds Miss Sarah Elizabeth, Odum row 

Richards Miss Elizabeth Pickard, milliner. Meeting street 

Richards Herman, master mariner. Meeting street 

Richardson Mrs Agnes,vict.Princeof Wales, West Appledore 

Riorden Mrs Ellen, West Appledore 

Riorden Lewis Smith, master mariner, West Appledore 

Rooke Mrs Ann, victualler, Bell Inn, East Appledore 

Scobling John, victualler, Rising Sun, West Appledore 

Scott James, master mariner, Bude street 

Scott William, master mariner, Meeting street 

Sellick Mrs Elizabeth, grocer. West Appledore 

Serjeant James, painter and paperhanger. Meeting street 

Short Mrs Hannah, vict. Coach and Horses, Market street 

Short Samuel, master mariner, Bude street 

Smith Mrs Elizabeth, tailoress, Meeting street 

Shutt William Thomas, manager, East Appledore 

Stambury John, marine store dealer, New street 

Stapledon John, master mariner, Odum row 

Stapledon William Henry, master mariner. Quay 

Stapleton Jno. Combe, bootmaker. Market st ; & (h) Bideford 

Swift Mrs Jane, shopkeeper. West Appledore 

Tatern James, master mariner, Quay 

Tucker William, master mariner. Alpha place 

Turner Mrs Jane, grocer. New Quay 

Vaggers Mrs Caroline, shopkeeper, West Appledore 

Vaggers Mrs Selina, shopkeeper, New sireet 

Vanstone James, coal dealer, Quay 

Vanstone James, victualler. The Beavei', West Appledore 

Vinson James, stationer. Meeting street 

Warren Miss Sarah, shopkeeper. Market street 

Webb John, master mariner, Bude street 

Wilkinson Robert, master mariner. West Appledore 

Williams Mr Edward, Bude street 

Williams Thomas, boat builder, West Appledore 

Williams William, master mariner, Odum row 

Woodley Mrs Elizabeth, infant schoolmistress 

Youatt James, Wesleyan schoolmaster. Chapel row 



ARLINGTON, 6 miles N.E. of Barnstaple, is a parish and village in Barnstaple union and county court 
district, and archdeaconry, Brauntou petty sessional division, Sherwill hundred, and deanery. The 
parish contained 240 inhabitants (123 males and 117 females) in 1871, living in 41 houses, on 253o acres of 
land, and includes the hamlet of Beccott, nearly two miles N. of the church. Sir Alexander Palmer Bruce 
Chichester, whose father was created a baronet in 1840, is lord of the manor and owner of most of the soil, 
and has a handsome seat here, called Arlington Court. The manor was settled on his family in the reign of 
Plenry VII. The Cuukch (St. James) is an ancient structure, consisting of nave, chancel, and tower con- 
taining six bells. In the church are many memorials of the Chichesters. 'J'be living is a rectory, valued in 
K.B. at £13 18a\ Ihd., in the patronage of Sir A. P. B. Chichester, and incumbency of the JRev. James 
Hamilton John Chichester, M.A., who has a rectory house and 84 acres of glebe. The tithes are commuted 
for £270 a year. The National School was erected in 1876, at a cost of £620, raised by voluntary rate. 
The Rev. William Bampfield, who held the rectory fifty years, died in I7I9, and left a farm of 54 acres at 
Goodleigh, and a house and 16a. 3r. 2p. at Barnstaple, in trust for the education of a boy at school till he is 
nineteen years of age, and at one of the Universities till he is twenty-six, or has taken the degree of M.A. 
The donor directed that one of his name and kindred should have the preference. The property is now let 
for about £85 a year, and the rectors of Eastdown, Bratton-Fleming, and Goodleigh are the trustees, and are 
also patrons of the rectory of Bradford, which is always presented to a clergyman who has been a scholar 
under this trust. The poor of Arlington have about 58^. a year from the gifts of Rebecca Crocombe, 
Rebecca Hayes, and a Mr. Burgoyne. In 1669 the Rev. G. Cauham left the interest of £40 for apprenticing 
poor children. 

Post Oitice at Mr. Thomas Bowen's. Letters, viti Barnstaple, are despatched at 5.30 p.m. (weekdays 
only). 

Best Thomas, farm bailiff to Sir A. P. 
B. Chichester, Bart. Home farm 

Blackmore Richard, farmer, Beccott 

Bowen Thomas, postmaster 

Brooks James, farmer, Beshill 

Bushen Frederick, carpenter and 
shopkeeper 

Carter George, head gardener, Arling- 
ton court 



Chichester Sir Alexander Palmer 
Bruce, Bart. J.P, Arlington court 

Chichester Rev James Hamilton 
John, M.A. rector. The Rectory 

Dinnicombe John, farmer, Beccott 

Fry Mrs Mary, Beccott 

Garrett Miss Jessie Jane, National 
schoolmistress 
i Iluxtable Anthony, corn miller & fmr. 



Pile William, bootmaker Beccott 
Richards John, butcher, Beccott 
Southcombe Chas. frmr. Barton coui't 
Tucker Mrs Elizabeth, fmr. Twitchen 
Tucker George, farmer, Tidycombe 
Tucker Henry, farmer, Beccott 
Tucker James, farmer, Beccott 
Vickery William, farmer, Comlesherd 
Yeo Henry, farmer, Brinscott 



ASHBURTON, a parish, market town, and disfranchised borough, is 19 miles S.W. by W. of Exeter, 24 



Devonsliire. 105 



miles N.E. by E. of Plymouth, 20 miles E. by S. of Tavistock, 7 miles N.W. of Totnes, 193 miles W.S.W. 
of London, and about 7 miles W. by S. of the South Devon Railway station at Newton Abbot. The parish 
is in Newton Abbot union and county court district, Teignbridge petty sessional division and hundred, 
Ashburton polling district of East Devon, Totnes archdeaconry, and Moreton rural deanery. It had 2952 
inhabitants (1375 males and 1577 females) in 1871, living in 581 houses, on 6906 acres of land. The surface 
of the parisli is picturesquely diversified with hills and valleys, and the soil is generally fertile, though it is 
skirted on the east by the lofty hills and barren summits ot Dartmoor Forest. The town is pleasantly seated 
in a fertile valley, opening to the southward, and watered by the Yeo rivulet, which runs through and partly 
under the town, and falls into the Dart, about a mile below. Ashburton is the terminus of the Ashburton 
and Buckfastleigh branch of the South Devon Railway. This branch, which is now worked by the Great 
Western Company, was opened on May 1, 1871. The town consists of two long streets, traversing it from, 
east to west, and two others leading north and south. The serge and blanket manufacture was formerly 
extensively carried on here, about £100,000 worth being made annually, but the mills have been removed to 
the adjoining parish of Buckfastleigh. In the adjacent part of Dartmoor are several tin and copper mines; 
and in 1285 JElward I. made Ashburton a stannary town. Ashburton has been variously wvittan Ay shehertorif 
Aishberton, and Asperton (as in Domesday). "William the Conqueror granted the manor to his Royal Con- 
sort, from whom Judhel de Tolenais held it in demesne. The manor, being escheated on the banishment of 
Judhel, was granted by William Rufus to the Bishops of Exeter, who held it until the reign of James I., 
when it again reverted to the Crown. It was afterwards sold in moieties to Sir Robert Parkhurst and the 
Earl of Feversham. The former conveyed his half to Sir John Stawell, from whom it passed through the 
families of Tuckfield and Rolle to the family of its present owner. Lord Clinton. Earl Feversliam's moiety 
has passed the Duke, Palk, Mathieson, and other families, but is now held by Lord Clinton. The manor of 
llolwell, anciently called Hayawile, or Ilntjawell, now belongs to James Woodley, Esq. Lord Clinton and 
Robert Jardine, Esq., are joint lords of the borough lordship, and are principal owners of the soil. Lord 
Clinton's farms are cliietiy held on leases for lives, but there are many small freeholds in the parish. Ash- 
burton is an ancient borough by prescription, and first sent two members to Parliament in the twenty-sixth 
of Edward I. (1298), and again in the eighth of Henry IV. (1407), after which it ceased to do so until 
1640. From the latter year it regularly sent two members until 1832, when its number of representatives 
was reduced to one ; and by the last Refonn Act it was disfranchised. The port-reeve is elected annually at 
the court leet and baron, together with a bailifi" and other ofiicers. In the reign of Edward IL, Bishop 
Stapledon obtained a charter for a market and fairs here ; and a charter for two other fairs was obtained by 
John Quicke, Esq., one of the borough members, about 1712. The market for corn and provisions is held 
on Saturday ; and here are now four fairs, for cattle, &c., held on the first Thursdays in March and June, 
and on August 10 and November 11, provided these dates fall on Tuesday or Thursday, and if not, on the 
Tuesday or Thursday after. The March fair has a large supply of cattle, and the November is a great sheep 
mart. The old market-house, which stood in the middle of Nortli street, was taken down, and a handsome 
new Maeket House and large Public Room: were built on the opposite side ot the street, in 1849-50, at 
the cost of about £3000, in the Italian style. The Public Room, for assemblies, concerts, public meetings, 
&c., is over the market ; and the latter has ranges of stalls for fiesh, fish, &c., and is supplied with excellent 
spring water. A turret, containing a bell and public clock, rises at the southern angle of the building. Gas 
Works w^ere erected in 1840, at the cost of £1500, raised in £5 shares. These works are now leased to Mr. 
I. Brown, and Mr. S. Starr is the manager. The total improvement expenses in connection with these 
works has been about £150 during the last twelve years, and during the last seven years £22 have been 
expended on the actual buildings, which are situated in St. Lawrence Street, behind the railway station. 
There are thirty-six public lamps, and the gas is supplied to all the shops, and to many of the private houses 
at the cost of 7*'. Qxl. per 1000 feet. The consumption of coal is about 180 to 190 tons per annum. Mr. R. 
G. Abraham, solicitor, East Street, is secretary to the company, and Mr. Samuel Ilannaford, East Street, is 
the treasurer. Ashburton possesses two ancient' conduits, the repairs of which from a very early date have been 
I charged on the parish lands, and the supply from these sources is perfectly free. About twelve years ago 
I Robert Jardine, Esq., the last member for the borough, brought a copious supply of water from a never- 
j iailing spring on his estate called Chuleigh (where he has built a large reservoir) to a large granite conduit 
(which he also caused to be constructed)"in the centre of the town, and from the latter the pipes branch oft' 
for the supply of the difierent houses. A small charge only is made to keep these pipes in repair, and the 
works are under the management of Mr. Distin. 

The Ashburton Highway Board meets on the third Saturday in each month. The expenditure for 
the year ended Lady-day, 1878, was £1060 19s. 2d., and the receipts £1659 13s. William lohn Watts, Esq., 
is treasurer; Robert Tucker, Esq., chairman ; Mr. Francis Oliver, surveyor; and Mr. II. Mallaby Firth, clerk. 
Ashburton was taken by General Fairfax, in his march westward, in 1646. (See Exeter.) The 
general had his head-quarters 'here on January 10, and on his departure he left a regiment of soldiers in 
possession of the town, lla lodged at the Mermaid Inn, now a house and sliop, retaining much of its ancient 
appearance. I'he residence of Mr. Edward Cruse, in West Street, was held by the Piideauxe?, the Dolbeares 
and Parkhams, more than 300 years, and is said, without the slightest foundation, to have been a private resi- 
dence of tlie abbots of Buckfastleigh. It contains a room about fourteen feet square, wainscotted from fioor to 
ceiling with carved oak, and having on its westward side a crocketted canopy, with finials of fieur-de-lis, 
representations of the Four Evangelists, and busts of Queen Mary and her consort, Philip of Spain. This 
canopy was removed from the church in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, when the churchwardens sold it for 
one shilling. 

The Parish Church (St. Andrew), supposed to have been rebuilt about 1137, is a spacious cruciform 
structure, with a western tower rising to the height of 90 feet, and crowned by pinnacles at the 



106 -A.Hlil>iirtoii, 



corners, and by a semi-octaf^onal turret on its southern face. The north aisle was built in I.jLO, and the 
south aisle in the middle of the 15th century. The handsome stone pulpit, which was elaborately carved, 
and the brass eagle, were sold to the neighbouring parish of Bigbury in 1777, for .L'll 11."?., and the present 
unsightly pulpit and reading desk were substituted. The beautiful screen, of the date of 1/525, which sepa- 
rated the nave and chancel, was removed about 1718, and partly used in the construction of the west 
gallery. Originally there was a parvis over the porch in which was kept the armour of the two soldiei-s 
that the lords of the manor had in feudal times to find for the king. The arch of this porch is of 
Transition Norman date. The chancel underwent a complete restoration in 1840, when several ancient 
earthen vases were discovered in the walls, and a handsome new east window, enriched with stained 
glass, was inserted. These vases are thought to have been used for acoustic purposes. The reredos, 
of Bath stone, is divided into live compartments. Several of the windows are modern insertions, 
and on taking down part of the ceiling in the south aisle in 1849, various emblematical paintings 
were discovered on the old paneled ceiling. In this aisle is a mural tablet in memory of the first 
Lord Ashburton, with an inscription written by Dr. Johnson. The north porch remains, but that on the 
south side was removed in the early part of last century. A handsome stained glass window was inserted 
in 1877 over its site, as a memorial to Thomas and Bartholomew Michelmore, by their brothers and sisters. 
The lights are filled with figures of SS. Andrew, Thomas, Bartholomew, and Lawrence. Another beautiful 
window has just been placed in the north aisle by parochial subscription, and contains figures of the four 
Evangelists. The parishioners have also subscribed for two additional bells, to augment the present peal of 
six, and this addition will make the Ashburton peal one of the finest in the county. There were anciently 
four chapels in the church. The Registers commence in 1G03. The living, a vicarage, valued in K.B. at 
i%38 8s. 11^^/., with Buckland-in-the-Moor annexed, is in the patronage of the Dean and Chapter of Exeter, 
who are also appropriators of the great tithes. The Kev. Charles Worthy, B.A., is incumbent, and has a 
good residence and 85a. 1e. of glebe. The rectorial tithes were commuted in 1840 for £390, and the vica- 
rial for £528 a year; but of this latter £110 a year is paid to the vicar of Bickington. The vicarage stands 
in a large lawn, shaded by magnificent walnut, lime, chestnut, beech, and sycamore trees, and has a kitchen 
garden of over half an acre. 

Near the church stood the Chantry Chapel of St. Lawrexce, of which the ancient tower and spire are 
still standing, but the body was rebuilt about a century ago, and is now the Grammar School, as afterwards 
noticed. This chapel was founded in 1314 by Bishop Stapledon, and given by him to the Guild of St. Lawrence, 
consisting of the port reeve and burgesses, on certain conditions, one of which was that they should keep a 
free school, and pay the master £4 13s. The total value of the possessions of the Guild was £10 15s. a year, 
and the balance was directed to be spent in the conveyance of water to the town, and in relief to persons 
struck with the plague. The Chantry was suppressed in 1535, and its revenues seized by the Crown. 

The Wesleyans, Baptists, and Independents have chapels in the town. The Independent Chapel was 
built in 1737, but was enlarged some years ago, and a schoolroom has recently been added to it. It will seat 
about 800 hearers, and has a small endowment. The present Wesleyan Chapel was built in 1835, at the 
cost of about £1500, and has room for 600 hearers. Sunday Schools are attached to the church and 
chapels. An Infant School is supported by the vicar and other subscribers, and the parish has two en- 
dowed schools, and various charities for the poor. Here is also a Subscription Library, containing about 
2000 volumes, and a Parish Library. 

The Grammar School was founded as just noticed by Bishop Stapledon in 1314, and was held in the 
chapel of St. Lawrence. This chapel was purchased of the Crown, and afterwards (in 1594) vested in trustees 
to be used as a school house, and as a place for holding the manor courts. The ancient tower and spire 
remain, but the body has been rebuilt. In the 2nd of Charles L, £418, derived from the bequest of William 
Wareing, was laid out in the purchase of 16a. 19p. of land at North Huish and Loddiswell, and 22a. 3r. 7p. 
at Aveton Gifibrd, for the support of the schoolmaster. These lands are now let for about £45 a year. He 
lias also the rent of 13a. 3p. at Staverton, let for £15, and purchased with £200 left by Edward Gould in 
1735. A yearly rent-charge of £4, left to the schoolmaster by Lawrence Blundell in 1637, is paid out of a 
house, formerly the Mermaid Inn; and he has yearly 20s. from the churchwardens and 30s. from the over- 
seers, as the gifts of Mr. Wareing and another donor. Of the £2000 left by Dr. Ireland in 1842, £1000 was 
laid out in purchasing a house for the master ; £500 was lost by the failure of the Totnes Bank, and the 
master has the interest of the other £500. The above-named Lawrence Blundell also left two yearly rent- 
charges of £6 and £4, to be paid towards the support of two boys at this school preparing for either of the 
Universities, and until they should attain the degree of Master of Arts. The donor charged these annuities, 
(and 20s. a year for five poor widows), on land belonging to Sir L. V. Palk, Bart. A new scheme for the 
management of the Grammar School and Bourne's Elementary School was approved by the Charity Com- 
missioners on February 17, 1876, by which the above Foundations are to be administered as one Founda- 
tion. The governing body consists of two ex-otiicio, six representative, and four co-optative members. 
Boys are admitted to the school between the ages of 7 and 16. The curriculum embraces religious instruc- 
tion, reading, writing, and arithmetic, geography, history, English grammar, composition, and literature ; 
mathematics, Latin, at least one European language, natural science, drawing, and vocal music; and Greek 
as an extra subject. Scholarships, called Foundation Scholarships, have been established, by which the 
governors grant total or partial exemption from payment of tuition fees. There are two other scholarships, 
respectively of the value of £6 or £8, called Blundell Scholarships, which are competed for ; and as long as 
Dean Ireland's gift is applied for the purposes of the School, the governors provide two other scholarships of 
£6 each. As soon as the income of the Foundation is sufficient, the governors are to apply £32 yearly i 
providing other scholarships, tenable at the school for two years, and of the yearly value of £8. Thei 
scholarships are open to boys who have been educated for at least one year at some public elementary sch 



1 



I> e vonsliir e * 



107 



in the school district of Ashburton. Mr. James Mortimer, B.A., is head master, and the Rev. J. B. Mattock, 
B.A., second master ; R. Tucker, Esq. is secretary to the governors. 

Free School. — In 1754, £500 was given by Lord Middleton, and £140 by the Hon. John Harris (two 
representatives of the borough), were laid out in the purchase of an estate for the support of a schoolmaster 
3r schoolmasters for instructing the children of this parish in reading, writing, and arithmetic. The 
estate purchased is called Bourne Farm, and comprises 81a. 17p., let for about £110 per annum. Out of 
the rent about £70 per annum was paid to the master and mistress for teaching about 50 free scholars on Dr. 
Bell's system. The rest of the clear income is expended in buying books, &c. for the children. The school 
was rebuilt about 14 years ago, at the cost of £640, and is commonly called Bourne School. A yearly rent- 
charge of £6, left by Mary Dunning in 1805, out of three fields at Halsworthy Hills, in Staverton, is paid to 
the schoolmistress for teaching ten poor girls. Mr. S. Husson is the master. 

A School Board is about to be established for this parish. (See Addenda.) 

The AsHBTJRTON AND Btjckfastleigh Cottage Hospital was established in 1875, and contains six beds. 
R, C. Tucker, Esq. is treasurer ; Messrs. Fabyan Amery and H. Mallerby Firth, hon. sees. ; and Mr. H. 
Ubsdell, and Dr. Adams, medical officers. 

Benefactions to the Poor. — In 1676 Robert Phipps left £80 to be laid out in land, and the yearly 
rents to be distributed in linen among the aged poor parishioners. The money was laid out in the purchase 
of 3a. 1r. 20p. of land, now let for £12. An old almshouse, left to the poor by Thomas Gaunter in the 
34th of Elizabeth, fell down in 1801, and the site was leased on lives in 1807 for £2 a year. A legacy 
of £100, left by Edward Bovey in 1709, was laid out in the purchase of 2a. 1e. 26p. of land, now let for 
about £10 a year, which is distributed among the poor not receiving parochial relief. For weekly distri- 
butions of bread, the poor have £5 4s. per annum, left by Thomas Prideaux and Sir John Acland in the 7th 
and 13th of James I. For distribution in clothing, they have two annuities of 20s., left by George Knowling 
and John Bounde in 1625 and 1642. An annuity of £8 for schooling poor children, was left by John Ford in 
1667, out of the profits of the market for wool and yarn, which was held here every Tuesday till 1800, when 
it was discontinued. In 1702 William Stawell left a yearly rent-charge of £10, out of the town mills, for 
distribution in linen among the poor. To provide a blue coat for a poor man yearly, Edward Gould left an 
annuity of 20s. out of the Bottom Park. For a weekly distribution of bread among the poor parishioners, 
John Bickham left £370, which was laid out in 1783 in the purchase of Park Field (7a.), now let for about 
£25 a year. In 1778 Richard Harris left a yearly rent-charge of £11 7s. Qd. to this parish, out of land at 
Woodland, to be applied as follows : — £10 for the use of 50 poor people ; 21s. for the vicar ; 2s. 6d. for the 
clerk ; and 4s. for the two sextons. The dividends of £200 Navy 5 per cent. Stock, purchased with the gifts 
of Eleanor and Sally Adams, in l&OO, are distributed in linen cloth among the poor. Five poor widows have 
the interest of £2S 16s. left by Alicia Donkin in 1812, secured on the Newton and Ashburton turnpike. 

The Church Lands, &c., most of which are supposed to have formed the endowment of St. Lawrence 
Chapel, have been vested since the Reformation for the use of the church. They comprise about 36 acres of 
land and 11 houses, let in 1821 for only £86 7s. 11(7. per annum, in consideration of large fines paid by the 
lessees. Some years ago, this estate was saddled with a mortgage debt of £1480, the interest of which 
absorbed most of the income. About £3 per annum out of the rents ought to be distributed among the poor, 
in consideration of property derived from the gifts of Robert Hayman, Robert Page, and William Feymouth, 
in the reign of Elizabeth. 

Eminent Natives. — John Dunning, Esq., a native of this town, having distinguished himself by 
great professional abilities, was made Solicitor-General in 1767, and created Baron Ashburton in 1782. He 
was born in 1731, and died in 1783, when he was succeeded by his son, Richard Barre Dunning, who died 
without issue in 1823, when the title became extinct ; but it was revived in 1835, when that distinguished 
statesman, Alexander Baring, was created Lord Ashburton. The late William Gifford, Esq. was born 
here in 1755, of poor parents, and having displayed considerable poetical and mathematical tcilent, he was 
taken from his apprenticeship as a shoemaker by some friends, and sent to the Grammar School. He after- 
wards rose to eminence and wealth, and was editor of the Quarterly Review. He published several valuable 
works and translations, and died in 1826, leaving £2000 Stock for the foundation of two scholarships at 
Exeter College, Oxford, for youths from Ashburton Grammar School. Another worthy native of this town 
was Dr. John Ireland, Dean of Westminster, who died in 1842, and left £2000 to the Grammar School, and 
£1000 3 per Cent. Consols, in trust for the yearly payment of £5 each, to six reduced housekeepers of this 
parish, attending the church, and of the age of 60 years or upwards. The dean's house is now occupied by 
Mr. Varder, and is the property of Mr. E. Foot. 

Post, Money Order, Telegraph, and Government Insurance Office and Sayings Bank is at Mr. 
"William H. Edgecombe's, East Street. Letters are received from London and {ill parts at 6 a.m. daily, and 
from the North at 10.55 a.m. (weekdays only), and are despatched to London and all parts at 7 p.m. week- 
days, and 2.40 p.m. Sundays, and to the North at 2.15 p.m. weekdays only. Money order, insurance and 
savings bank business is transacted from 8 a.m. to 6 p.m., and on Saturday to 8 p.m. The telegraph office is 
open from 8 a.m. to 8 p.m. weekdays, and from 8 to 10 a.m. Sundays. There is a Wall Letter Box in 
North Street cleared at 6 p.m. weekdays only. There are two deliveries on weekdays at 7 a.m and 11 a.m., 
and one on Sundays at 7 a.m. Letters are delivered at the counter from 8 to 10 a.m. on Sundays. 
Railway, Great Western. — John Harris, station master. 



Abbott "William Henry, farmer, Lower Bowdley 
Abraham Robert George, solicitor, clerk to turnpike trus- 
tees, sec. to Gas Co. & agent for Atlas Ass. Co. East st 
Abraham William, baker and confectioner, North street 



Adams James, M.D. M.R.CS. assistant surgeon to 9th 
Devon Eifle Volunteers and surgeon to Cottage hospital, 
East street 

Amery Mr John, Druid 



lOS 



.^sli1>iiirtou9 



Amery Mrs — , Druid 

Amery Mr Peter Fabyan Sparke, Druid 

Andrews William, letter carrier, and Mrs Mary Jane, 

dressmaker, Station road 
Ashhurtwi ^- Buckfastleigh Cottage Hospital, Mrs Christian 

Daw, matron, Church lane 
Ashburton Gas Co. Kobert George Abraham, secretary 
Ashburtoii Subscription Library, John P. Poot, secretary 

and librarian. East street 
Badcock George, (j) mason and shopkeeper. North street 
Baker Miss Elizabeth, shopkeeper. East street 
Baker John, general smith, East street 
Baker Miss Mary, Pree schoolmistross, Bowling green 
Ball Mrs Dinah, shopkeeper, Station road 
Ball Miss Louisa, Woodville house, East street 
Barnes Mrs Susannah, West street 
Baskwill Samuel, captain of Gurrington Slate Quarry Co 

Woodland ; h Eiist street 
Bate Mrs Harriet, Chuleigh 
Batten Joseph, house decorator and registrar of births, 

deaths and marriages. East street 
Battershill Joseph, Sexton, Bovvden hill 
Battershill Wm. Hy. baker & confectioner, West street 
Bearne Kobert, victualler, Victoria Inn, North street 
Beck George, chemist and grocer, East street 
Beck Miss Susan, agent for Devon and Exeter Savings' 

Bank, East street 
Bennett Miss Elizabeth, Station road 
Berry John (John & Sons) ; h East street 
Berry John & Sons, woollen manufacturers, Kingsbridge 

lane and Buckfast, Buckfastleigh 
Berry Joshua, farmer, Halshanger 
Berry Simeon (John & Sors) ; h East street 
Berry Misses Susan and Mary, East street 
Bickford John, bank manager, West street 
Bickham Mrs Mary Ann, shopkeeper, West street 
Bickley Amos, mason, Heavyhead lane 
Bovey William Henry, clerk, Kingsbridge lane 
Bowaen Henry, master mariner. East street 
Bowden John, tailor. East street 
Bradridge Mrs — , West street 
Browning James, captain of East Vitifer Tin Mining 

Co. Limited, North Bovey ; h Western road 
Browning John, Berlin wool and fancy goods repository. 

West street ; h Bowling green 
Burston John, -watch & clock maker & jeweller. North st 
Butcher Eev. John Henry, B.A. curate of Buckland-in- 

tbe-Moor ; h East street 
Butchers Mrs Harriet, West street 
Oampion George, blacksmith, Lemonford 
Caunter Miss Elizabeth Jane, shopkeeper, East street 
Caunter Mrs George, East street 
ChafFe Roger, farmer, Higher Barn 
Chafte William, dairyman, Heavj'head lane 
Chalk Joseph, marine store dealer and shopkeeper. North st 
Chalk Samuel Henry, boot and shoe maker, North street 
Chalker Mrs Sarah, Haremount house, East street 
Chappie James, organist, West street 
Chappie William Waycott, printer, bookbinder, and sta- 
tioner, North street 
Chudleigh Richard, shopkeeper, Caton 
Clarke Elon, (j ) carpenter and vict. Rose & Crown, West st 
Clarke Thomas, baker and confectioner, East street 
Clymo James, draper. North street 
Cock Jonathan, captain of Devon and Cornwall Umber 

Co ; h Dolbear 
Cockey Misses Rachel Sarah, Charlotte Ellen, and Susan 

Lewis ; h East street 
Cocld Jolm, boot and shoe maker. West street 
Collins Miss Jane Alatilda, fancy repository. East street 
Coney bear Mrs Susannah, Station road 
Conneybear Miss Mary, cider retailer, West street 
Cousins Mrs Betsy, East street 
Craddoek Mr Prederick, Hazlewood house, East street 



Cruse Mr Edward, West street 
Cumming William, carpenter and farmer, Hooks 
Daniel Philip, tailor. Station road 
Davies Mr Prederick, The Rosery, Buckfastleigh road 
Daw Mrs Christiana, matron. Cottage hospital 
Daw Henry James, grocer, West street 
Daw Mrs Mary Ann, grocer & eartlienware dealer, North st 
Daw William, miller and baker, Lemonford 
Devon and Cornwall Umber Co. Jonathan Cock, captain 
Devon and Exeter Savings Bank, East street ; open on 
Tuesday, 12 to 2 p.m.; Saturday, 2 to 5 p.m.; Miss 
Susan Beck, agent 
Dicker William, market gardener, Church lane 
Distin William, ironmonger, plumber, gasfitter, bell- 
hanger, and tinplate worker, North street 
Dobell Henry, cooper. North street 
Down John, grocer & agent for Travers' wines. West st. 
Dunn Mrs Elizabeth, East street 
Eales George, mason. East street 
Eales John, bootmaker and letter carrier, Station road 
Easterbrook Mrs Elizabeth, East street 
Easterbrook Richard, brewer. Griffin brewery ; h Bowl- 
ing green 
Easterbrook Thomas, farmer, Higher Headborough 
Eddy Henry, architect and surveyor. North street 
Eddy John, painter, &c. St. Lawrence street 
Edgecombe Mrs Melina, saddler &^ harness maker, North st. 
Edgecombe Richard, tailor, East-street 
Edgecombe Samuel, cartman. Back lane 
Edgecombe William Henry, solicitor's clerk, postmaster, 

and agent for the Guardian Assurance Co. East street 
Eggbeer John, potato and wood dealer. West street 
Eggbeer Thomas, jobbing gardenei*. West street 
Elliott Mrs Ann, cider retailer, Bowden hill 
Elliott Miss Mary Ann, dressmaker, Station road 
Elliott Miss Philippa, boarding & day school. East street 
Ellis Robert, shopkeeper, p]ast street 
Endacott John, carpenter & greengrocer, Station road 
Ferris Miss Susan, Hope villa. Western road 
Ferris Thomas, tailor. West End cottage. Western road 
Firth Henry Mallaby, solicitor, clerk to county magis- 
trates, to commissioners of taxes (Teignbridge divi- 
sion), and to highway board, and agent for West of 
England, Alliance, Guardian, and Economic Insurance 
Companies, East street ^ 

Fisher Rev J. T., W^elstor ; and Herringford, Cornwall 
Poaden John, stamp distributor, and agent for Clerical, 
Medical, and General Insurance Company, West street 
Poaden Jolm Hannibal, builder, contractor, lime burner, 
and merchant; agent for Lancashire Insurance Company; 
and victualler. Globe hotel. North street 
Foot Henry, tailor, AV'est street 
Foot John, carpenter, Heavyhead lane 
Foot John Peter, boot and shoe maker, and librarian and 

secretary to subscription library. East street 
Foot Robert, baker, North street 
Foot William, land agent (Whiteway and P.), and coal 

and building materiril dealer. Station road 
Ford Edward Steel, cashier. Station road 
Ford Mrs Elizabeth, laundress, East street 
Franklyn Mi's Elizabeth, dressmaker. West street 
French Mrs Elizabeth, shopkeeper, East street 
French George, blacksmith. North street 
Gervis Walter Soper, M.D., M.R.C.S., L.S.A., F.G.S., 
medical officer 1st district Newton Abbot Union, 
surgeon to 4th Bat. D.R.V,, West street 
Gidley Mrs Ann, shopkeeper, North street 
Gidley Mr George, West End terrace 
Gidley Richard, coal merchant, Station road 
Giles Henry, boot and shoo maker. East street 
Gill Mr William, Station road 

Gribble Misses Josepha Wynne, Caroline, & Emma, West st 
Grose John, boot and shoe dealer. North street 
Hamlyn Thomas, farmer, Welstor 



Devonshire. 



J 09 



Hannaford Miss Mary Ann, milliner and dressmaker, 

West street 
Hannaford Mr Samuel, East street 
Harris John, Great Western Kailway station master, 6 

West End terrace 
Harrogan William, chimney-sweeper, Back lane 
Harvey Alfred Merchant, draper, ^orth street 
Hays Adrian, watchmaker and jeweller, North street 
Hern John, farmer, Scobetor farm, Widecombe-in-the- 

Moor ; h Staverton place 
Hext John, coal and firewood dealer, Kingsbridge lane 
Hext Richard, farmer, Yolland hill 
Hext Thomas, builder, furniture broker, baker, and beer 

house, North street 
Hext Thomas, jun., draper. North street 
Hill Abraham, druggist and grocer, North street 
iill Josiah, clerk, 5 West End terrace 
3ill Thomas, foreman tailor, West street 
lill William, posting house &vict. London Hotel, Westst. 
lines John, victualler. Swan Inn, Nortli street 
lonywill John Hannaford, maltster and brewer, Old Mill 

brewery, wine and spirit merchant and victualler, 

Commercial Hotel, Nortli street, 
louywill Miss Margaret Bessie, draper. East street 
looper Mrs Susannah Sophia, East street 
lorton Henry, blacksmith, West street 
lorton John, general smith and agricultural implement 

maker, West street 
iouston Miss — , Peartree 

lusson Samuel, Free School master, Bowling green 
iuxham Miss Agnes, baker and grocer, North street 
reland Mrs Mary Ann, refreshment house, Station road 
rish Henry, farmer. Higher and Lower Rushlade 
rish Mr William, Buckland view 
I'ish William, farmer, Pitt 
fackman William, beerhouse. North street 
Fewell Samuel, blacksmith, Station road 
Tohns Edwin, grocer, letter carrier, town crier, and bill 

poster, East street 
'oint, William, mason. East street 
{^ingwell Mrs Jane, shopkeeper. North street 
iingwell Mrs Mary, West street 
vingwell Mrs Mary, farmer, Westabrook 
{^ingwell Mr Richard, East street 

inapman Mrs Elizabeth, baker and confectioner. East st. 
I Cnapman Joseph, miller, Lurgecombe mills 
knight John, mason, East street 

Knowling Edwin James, baker and grocer, North street 
inowling William, wheelwright, North street 
jamason Mrs Maria, baker, brush, mat, and rope dealer, 

North street 
^angler George, saddler and harness maker, North street 
^ay Rev John Ward, M.A., Hele 

jee John Ball, hairdresser and parish clerk, West street 
jee Philip, shopkeeper, East street 
joye Albert, joiner, and china, glass, and earthenware 

dealer, Station road 
j laddock John, cabinet maker, Heavyhead lane 
:iann Mrs Louisa, East street 
lann Miss Mary, day school, East street 
iann Peter, farmer, Sigford 
lann Richard, farmer, Higher Goodstone 
lann & Son, auctioneers and surveyors. East street 
lanu Thomas William, stonemason, East street 
lann William (M. & Son) ; h West street 
lann William, jun. (M. & Son), and butcher, East street 
'lann William, farmer. Lower Goodstone and Lower 

Waye ; h Lower Goodstone 
lathews Richard, mason and baker, Heavyhead lane 
latterface William Henry, butcher, East street 
lattock Rev John Best, B.A. curate and second master of 

Grammar school ; h School house, East street 
launder Thomas & James, butchers. West st. ; h East st 
launder Mr AVilliam, West street 



May James, grocer. North street 

Mead Mrs Mary, day school. East street 

Merryfield Richard, victualler, Exeter inn, West street 

Metherell Mr John, Violet cottage 

Mole Rev Joseph (Wesleyan), Stone park 

Moorman Rev Andrew Cook (Independent), Eatt street 

Mortimer James, B.A. headmaster of Grammar school ; h 
School house. East street 

Mortimore Mr Edward, West street 

Mugridge Henry Gard, baker. North street 

Mugridge Richard, dairyman. Ivy cottage, Western road 

Nichol Robert, miller, Eurzeleigh mill; and Town mill, 
Buckfastleigh 

Norris Henry Albert, baker and confectioner, East street 

Northcott Robert, farmer. Lower Whiddon 

Northway Richard, shopkeeper. East street 

Osbaldeston Ernest William, brewery manager, 2 West 
End terrace 

Palk Richard, farmer, Alston 

Palk William, jobbing gardener. Old Totnes road 

Pascoe Nicholas, captain of Roborough Umber Co. ; h 
Balland cottnge 

Passmore Mrs Charlotte, West street 

Pearse Mr Thomas, East street 

Perkins Mrs Elizabeth, baker, brewer, and victualler, 
Golden Fleece, Station road 

Pidsley Thomas, farmer, Rew 

Pitts William, farmer. Lower Lemonford 

Pope Charles, tailor, outfitter, hatter and shirt maker, 
West street ; h Newton Abbot 

Pope Mr William, North street 

Popplestone Daniel, nursery and seedsman. East street 

Port Sergeant James, drill instructor to 9th Devon Volun- 
teers, Church lane 

Preston John James, wheelwright, North street 

Preston Richard, Great Western Railway Co.'s goods and 
parcels agent, and victualler. Red Lion, East street 

Pugsley James, grocer, Avheelwright, millwright, and ma- 
chinist, North street 

Richards William, mining captain. West street 

Roborough Umber Co. ; Nicholas Pascoe^ captain 

Rogers Mrs T. E., Waye house 

Rowland John, farmer. Lower Headborough 

Rowland William, farmer, Higher and Lower Aswell 

Sanders Thomas, miller, and agent for Golding's manures, 
Town mills 

Saunders John, house decorator. East street 

Sawdye Edward (S. & Son), and agent for Royal Farmers', 
and Edinburgh Life Ins. Cos., Laburnum house, AVest st 

Sawdye Edward John (S. & Son) ; h Sparnham hs. Westst 

Sawdye & Son, land surveyors, auctioneers, general, com- 
mission & estate agents. Laburnum house. West street 

Sexton Mrs Maria, posting house and victualler, Golden 
Lion, East street 

Shilston Henry, farmer. Higher Waj'^e 

Skinner Charles, linen and woollen draper, East street 

Skinner George Wills (J. & G.) ; h Caton 

Skinner John, farmer. Higher Lemonford 

Skinner Joseph, farmer (J. & G.) ; h Caton 

Skinner Joseph, grocer and farmer. North street 

Skinner Joseph, jun. saddler and harness maker, North st 

Smerdon Charles, butcher. North street 

Smerdon Mrs Charlotte, 1 West End terrace 

Smerdon Elijah, farmer, Summerhill 

Smerdon Elisha, farmer. Higher mead 

Smerdon Elisha, shopkeeper, West street 

Smerdon John, farmer. Lower mead 

Smerdon John, farmer. Higher Brownswell 

Smerdon John, pork butcher. North street 

Smerdon Richard, butcher and farmer. East street 

Smerdon Mr Thomas, Bowdley cottage 

Smerdon Mr Thomas, Lower Brownswell 

Smerdon William Henry Soudon, farmer, Higher Bowdley 

Soper Frederick, carpenter. East street 



110 



^ «!i]il>iii* t o n , 



Sprague Mrs .Sarali Cosens, boarding & day school, P^ast at 

Stamp Office, West street (open from a.m. to 7 p.m.) ; 
John Foaden, distributor 

Stanbury John, farmer, Iliglier AVhiddon 

Stanconibe James, farmer, Furzeleigh 

Stear George, veterinary surgeon, East street 

Steele Mr Henry, Wood place 

Steer William, dairyman, cartman and coal dealer. East st 

Stephens James, victualler, Town Arms, North street 

Stephens Henry, builder and contractor, Ilazeldeno 

Syms John, sawyer. Spring gardens 

Tanner Mr Edmund Eearnley, High prove 

Taylor Mrs Agnes, basket maker. Mill lane 

Taylor Mrs Charlotte, shopkeeper and lodgings, Station rd 

Thorn Samuel, greengrocer. West street 

Tippett J. Collins, surgeon dentist. East street (attends at 
Mr Saunders', first Monday in month) ; and Torquay 

Tozer Henry, solicitor, agent for Liverpool and London 
and Globe I us. Co. East street 

Tozer Mr John, Abbey view 

Tozer Mr Solomon, Abbey view 

Truman Mrs Jemima, victualler. Royal Oak, East street 

Truran Thomas, shopkeeper. East street 

Tucker Edwin, maltster, and seed, grain and manure mer- 
chant, Kingsbridge lane 

Tucker Robert (T. & Son), h The Hall 

Tucker Robert Coard (T. & Son), h The Hall 

Tucker & Son, solicitors. The Hall 

Turner Mr. Robert, Leat Park 

Varder John Lavington, chemist, druggist, Italian ware- 
houseman, & agent for Gilbey's wines & spirits. West st 

Varder Lavington Broom, printer, bookseller and stationer. 
East street 

Wadge Edwin Harvey, statuary, Tudor buildings. North 
street ; and coal merchant, Eowler's square, Buckfast 
leigh {See Advertisement) 

Walker John, chimney sweeper, North street 

Ward Daniel, farmer, Prestaford 

Warren John Francis, thatcher, Dolbear 

Warren Richard, thatcher, Dolbear 

Watts, Whidborne & Co. bankers (draw on Williams, 
Deacon & Co.), West st. (open Mon. Tues. Wed. Thurs. 
Fri. and 3rd Sat. in month, 10 a.m. to 3 p.m., on other 
Saturdays 10a.m. to 1 p.m.), John Bickford, manager; 
and Teignmouth, Newton Abbot, and Dawlish 

Watts Wm. John (W., Whidborne & Co.) ; h Ford house, 
Newton Abbot 



Weatherden Mr Thomas, Gages, Buckfastleigh road ► 

Weeks Robert, boot and shoe maker. East street 
Weeks Samuel, boot and shoe maker. North street ; 

Weeks Thomas, tailor. West street '■ 

Westaway James, victualler. Duke's Head, East street ; 
Westaway John, greengrocer. West street 
Westington Richard, farmer, Lower Brownswell 
Whidborne John, banker (Watts, W. & Co.); h Gorway, ; 

Teignmouth 
Whiddon John, marine store dealer, town crier and bill : 

poster. North street 
Whiddon Mrs Susannah, marine store dealer, North street j 
Whiddon Thomas, fish dealer. North street \ 

Whiddon William, wheelwright. Browses buildings ! 

White Frederick, china, glass & earthenware dlr. West st" 
White Mr Matthew, Rose cottage i 

Whitewiiy & Foot, land agents, East street 1 

Whiteway William Rolstone (W. & Foot), and agent for j 

Sun Assurance Company ; h East street 
Widger Mr William, Goodstone 
AVill cocks Thomas, dairyman, East street 
Wills Mrs Amelia, sho]pkeeper, North street 
Wills James, beerhouse, and lamp and oil dealer. North st 
Wills John, agricultural seed, manure, corn & coal mcht. & 

agt. for C. Norrington's manure, East st. ; h North st 
Winsor Joseph, victualler, Culloden Inn, North street 
Winsor Samuel, farmer, Horsehill 
Woodley James, Esq. J.P. Halshanger house 
Woolaway William, baker and grocer. North street 
Worthy Rev Charles, B.A. vicar. The Vicarage 
Worthy Lieutenant Charles, The Vicarage 
AVotton John Endacott, painter, glazier & plumber, West st 
Yates Mrs W. W., East street 

Yeldham Brothers, brewers and maltsters. East street 
Yeldham Mrs Martha (Bros.) ; h Station road 
Yolland Charles, butcher, East street 
Yolland Mrs Elizabeth, farmer, Pitleigh 
Yolland Mr George Wills, West street 
Yolland James, tailor and draper. North street 
Young Mrs Colonel, Sinclairs, Western road 



Railway Carriee, &c. — Richard Preston, Great Westerii 
Railway, agent for goods and parcels, East street 



I 



Conveyance — Omnibuses from Golden Lion Hotel 
Red Lion Inn meet all trains 



and 



ASHBURY is a parish 5 miles S.W. of Hatherleigh, in Okehampton union, county court district, and 
rural deanery, Totnes archdeaconry. Black Torrington hundred, Hatherleigh petty sessional division, and 
Okehampton polling district of South Devon. The parish had 50 inhabitants (26 males and 24 females) in 
1871, living in 8 houses, on 1700 acres of land. Nearly all the parish is the manor and property of the Ven. 
Henry Woollcombe, Archdeacon of Barnstaple, who lives at AsHBtTRY House, a fine old mansion with 
tasteful grounds, where his family has been seated since 1685. The Church (St. Mary the Virgin) is very 
ancient, and consists of chancel, nave, and west tower containing three bells. The church is beautifully 
situated in the picturesque park of the Woollcombe family. It was rebuilt on the old foundations, and on 
the original plan, by the Ven. Archdeacon Woollcombe, in 1871. The Register dates from 1612. The living, 
a discharged rectory, valued in K.B. at £5 13s. Ad., is in the patronage of the Crown ; the tithes amount to 
£73, and there is a glebe of 139 acres. In 1876, the benefice was united to the adjoining parish of Northlew, 
and the united living is held by the Rev. Thomas England. 

Post from Exbourne, but Hatherleigh is the nearest Money Order Office. Okehampton is the nearest 
Railway Station, but it is expected that the station on the Holsworthy extension will soon be opened. 



Copp Caleb, farmer, Wadland 
Hutchings James, parish clerk 
Vallance Daniel, farmer, Stoney 



Voaden William, farmer. Pinnacle 
Wood John, farmer, Scobchester 



Woollcombe Henry, Esq. J.P. Ash- 
bury house 



ASHCOMBE is a parish and scattered village near the source of a rivulet, 3 miles E, of Chudleigh, 5 
miles N.W. of Teignmouth, in St. Thomas's union, Exeter county court district and archdeaconry, Wonford 
petty sessional division, Eastern division of the county, Kenn rural deanery, and Exminster hundred. It had 
213 inhabitants (117 males, 96, females) in 1871, living in 37 houses, on 1932 acres of land, including about 
500 acres of waste and plantation. Sir Lydstone Newman, Bart., is lord of the manor and owner of most 
of the soil. The Church (St. Nipap^us) consists of chancel, nave, nortlj aisle and transepts, and was 



I>evoiisliire, 



111 



repaired and partly rebuilt in 1825, at a cost of about £1000. The living is a rectory, valued in K.B. at £18 
and now at £300 (gross), in tlie patronage of the Lord Chancellor, and incumbency of the Rev. W. H. Palk, 
M.A,, J.P., who has 31 acres of glebe, and a good slated residence, with tasteful grounds. The tithes are 
commuted at £247 a year. The National School for this parish has a house for the teachers, and was 
built by the lord of the manor. In 1802, Eobert Moalle left £3 a year for schooling poor children. 
Foot Post from Dawlish, which is the nearest Money Order Office and Railway Station. 



Adams Charles, farmer, Newhouse 
Adams William Carrol (Exors. of), 

farmei', Langdon Barton 
Cornelius John, farmer, Woodhouse 



Coysh Eichard, blacksmith 
Downing Miss Fanny, Natl, schlmstrss 
Endacott Jas. farmer, Westleigh farm 
French William, farmer 



Palk Eev Wilmot Hy. M.A. J.P. vicar 
of Chudleigh, & rector, The Rectory 
Pudner John, carpenter 
White John, farmer, A shcombe Barton 



ASHFORD, a parish and small village on an acclivity on the north side of the estuary of the Taw, 
■Jh miles W.N.W. of Barnstaple, in Barnstaple union, county court district, archdeaconry and rural deanery, 
Bmunton petty sessional division and hundred, and Braunton polling district of JMorth Devon. Its parish 
liad 152 inhabitants ((38 males, 84 females) in 1871, living in 33 houses, on 359 acres of land. The manor 
was successively held by the Beaumont, Bassett, Moore and Bampfylde families, and was sold in lots, about 
1815, by Sir C. W. Bampfylde. It now belongs to the executors of the late George Langdon, Esq., Sir W. R. 
Brake, Messrs. J. M. Fisher Lewis, and Wm. and Thos. Badcock, and a few others. The church (St. John) is 
an ancient structure, consisting of nave, chancel, north aisle, and tower, surmounted by a spire and containing 
two bells. The chancel was rebuilt in 1861-2 by the present rector at a cost of £300 ; the other portions of 
the church were rebuilt in 1854. The east window is filled with stained glass in memory of the Rev. Jno. 
Blackraore, M.A., a former curate. The seats are of ancient oak, having finely carved ends, and the church 
contains a good organ. There are several handsome monuments to the Drake and other families. The 
Register dates from 1700. The living is a rectory, valued in K.B. at £8 135. 9d., and now at £110, in the 
patronage of the Lord Chancellor and incumbency of the Rev. Charles Whittington Landon, T.A.K.C. The 
glebe is (3 acres, and there is an old-fashioned rectory house, from the grounds of which a good view of the 
Taw estuary can be obtained. The tithes are commuted at £85 a year. The Baptists have a small chapel 
here. A INatio^'^al School was erected in 1859, but the parish forms, with that of Heanton Punchardon, a 
united district for school board purposes. (See Heanton Punchardon). 

Post through Barnstaple, which is the nearest Money Order Office and Railway Station. 



Eudeock Lewis, farmer, Furseroft 
Badcock Thomas, farmer, Upcott 
Badcock William, farmer, Topshill 
Braily Mr, Edgecombe cottage 
Brooks William, bootmaker 



Clarke John, victualler, Ashford Inn 
CutclifFe George, bootmaker 
Giddy Richard, tailor 
Graddon Mr James, W^oolstones 
Hammond Mrs Mary Ann, Cliff cot 



Hodge William, farmer 

Landon Rev, Charles Whittington, 

T.A,K.C. rector, The Rectory 
Langdon George, yeoman 
Reardon Roger Jackson, postmaster 



ASHPRINGTON, a parish and village picturesquely seated on a gentle slope near the confluence of the 
river Harbourn with the estuary of the Dart, 2^ miles S.E. of Totnes railway station, eight miles N.W. 
of Dartmouth, and twelve miles S. by W, of Torquay. Its parish, which includes the hamlets of IVesfhourn 
and Yeatson and part of that of Tuckenhay, is in Totnes union, and county court district, Stanborough and 
Coleridge petty sessional division. Brent polling district of South Devon, Totnes archdeaconry and rural 
deanery, and Coleridge hundred. It had 565 inhabitants (265 males, 300 females) in 1871, living in 128 
houses on 2790 acres ; the parish includes 145 acres of water. At Tuckenhay are a corn mill and large 
quarries of hard stone, of which great quantities are exported to London, &c. for macadamising roads. 
Richard Durant, Esq., J.P,, owns a great part of the parish, and is owner of the manor of Sharpham, which 
has been successively held by the Winard, French, Prideaux, Drewe, Cliles, Yarde, Cockey, Pownall, and 
Bastard families. The Rev. G. T. Carwithen, Mr. W. D. Adams, Mr. Edmonds, Mrs. Chilcote, Mr. Jeffry 
Edwards, Mr. Freer, and Mrs. Adams, have estates here. Painsford, an ancient mansion on the banks of 
the river Harbourn, and the residence of Mr. Richard Coaker, is the property of Mr. Philip Michelmore, and 
has been successively held by the Piperell, Halwill, Somaster, Kellond, Courtenay, and other families. It 
was formerly much larger than at present, and its chapel, disused since the middle of the last century, had a 
suite of armour hanging over the communion rails; but the chapel has been removed. The left wing of the 
house has a fine row of arches. Mr. Durant occupies a large and handsome Portland stone mansion, with 
extensive and well-wooded grounds, descending to the western bank of the river Dart, amidst some of the 
most beautiful scenery of the valley. The Church (St. David) is a liaudsome structure in the Perpendicular 
style, consisting of chancel, nave, and two side aisles. It was restored in 1845, and new windows with 
muUions and tracery of Bath stone inserted, chiefly at the expense of Richard Durant, Esq. The clustered 
columns of the nave have foliated capitals. The church is seated with square pews, ex-cept the chancel, 
which has solid oak open benches. The chancel is divided from the nave by a dwarf screen of Portland 
stone, surmounted with ironwork and brass, marble columns inserted in the pillars, and is laid with encaustic 
tiles ; those within the communion rails are in memory of the Ley and Carwithen families, and were laid at 
the expense of the Rev. Jacob Ley, and the rest at the cost of the present rector. The improvements in the 
chancel were carried out in 1865 at the cost of £300, under the supervision of Mr. Thomas Lidstone, of 
Dartmouth, The east window has been filled with stained glass, executed by Beer, of Exeter, at the 
expense of R. Durant, Esq., and beneath it is a tine Caen stone reredos, in seven compartments. In the 
church are several mural marble tablets, in memory of members of the Somaster, Kellond, Bastard, and 
other families. The living is a ]-ectory; valued in K.B. at £29 Is. 8d., in the patronage and incumbency of 
the Rev. G. W. T. Carwithen, who resides in his own house, the rectory house being occupied by Geiy' "^ 



112 



A.Hlip]:*iii|2^ton, 



Yeo, Esq. The glebe is 28a. 3r. ]7r., and the tithes were commuted in 1844 for £5.37 a year. The Parish 
School is held in a buildiui^ erected by the present rector, and supported by a voluntary rate ; it has an 
average attendance of 45. A plot of ground, the site of the old aluitshouses, is let lor 10s. a year, which is 
given to the poor at Christmas. 

Post Office is at Mr. Samuel Janes's, Tuckenhay. Letters are received at 7.55 a.m., and despatched at 
5.10 p.m. weekdays, and 8.55 a.m. Sundays, • via Totnes, which is the nearest Money Order Ollice and 
llailway Station. 



Adams Mi's Mary, Spring bank, Tuck- 
enhay 
Bowden John Hy. boot & shoe maker 
j>uckingh{im Henry (Ileury and Son) 
Buckingham Ily.jun. (Henry and Son) 
Buckingham Henry & Son, builders 
Burgoyne John Baker, mason 
CHrwithen Eev. Geo. W. Terry, rector 
Child ley John, miller, Washboiirne 
Coaker Richard, farmer, Painsford 
Cornelius Mr John. Steps cottage 
De Schmid Mr Charles, Springfield 

house, Tuckenhay 
De Schmid Madame Eliza, Myrtle cot 
Durant Richard, Esq. J.P. Sharpham 
Earle John, farmer, Brooking 
Elliott John, baker and grocer 
Foale AVilliam, butcher, Bow bridge, 

and Totnes market (on Sat.) 
Fowler William, miller, Tuckenhay 



Goss George, farmer, Newhouse ; Palk Harry Frank, farmer, Sharpham 

Hannaford John, carpenter and vie- j Barton 

tuallor, MaUsters'Arms, Tuckenhay ! Palk James, miller&farmer,Bow mills 



Harris John, farmer, Washbourno 

Harvey John, dairyman 

Janes Samuel, (j) mason, shopkeeper, 
and poi-tmaster, Tuckenhay 

Landon Mr Henry, Whittington Lid- 
diard, Yeatson 

Loder John, storekeeper for T. Pitts 
and Sons, and blacksmith, brcAver 
and victualler, Waterman's Arms, 
Bow bridge 

Mann TJios. farmer. Higher Yeatson 

Manning Charles, maltster, coal mer- 
chant, and agent for Barnard, Lack 
and Alger's manures, Tuckenhay 

Newland Mrs Elizabeth, shopkeeper 

Paige William, farmer, Higher Wash- 
bounie 



Pedrick John, farmer, Coombe 
Peters John, thatcher 
Pinhey Wm. farmer. Lower Yeatson 
1 i ts T. & Sons, manure merchants, 
&C. Tuckenliiiy,John Loder,storekpr 
Roper Thomas, blacksmith 
Seccombe Frdk. paper mfr.Cornworthy 
Shinner Jas. farmer,Ashprington court 
Short Samuel, dairyman and victu- 
aller, Ashprington Inn 
Thuell Henry, sexton 
Tope Henry, miller, Painsford 
Wind borne James, farmer, Frogmoro 
Williams Mrs Elizabeth 
Wyatt Samuel, tailor & parish clerk . 
Yeo Mr Gerald, The Rectory 



ASHREIGNY or King's Ash parish includes the hamlets of Riddleeomhe and Great Hayes, and is in 
Torrington union, county court district, Southmolton petty sessional division, Northern division of the 
county, Barnstaple archdeaconry, Chulmleigh rural deanery, and North TaAvton hundred. Ashreigny 
village is 4 miles VV. by S. of Chulmleigh. The parish had 786 inhabitants (403 males, 383 females) in 
1871, living in 165 houses, on 5663 acres of land. J. G. Johnson, E>q., M.P., is lord of the manor formerly 
belonging to the Keigny and other lamilies, but part of the soil is held by Earl Portsmouth and a few 
smaller owners. Here is an annual fair on the Wednesday after January 30lh. The Church (St. James) 
is an ancient structure with a tower containing six bells. The living is a rectory, valued in K.B. at £24, in 
the patronage of the Kev. J. F. Johnson, and incumbency cf the liev. R. L. P. Samborne, M.A., J.P., who 
has a good residence and 78 acres of glebe. The tithes are commuted at £460 a year. The Wesletans have 
a chapel here, and at Bridgereeve is an Independent Chapel. The National School was built in 1860 
at a cost of £600, raised by voluntary contribution, aided by Government grant. 

Letters by foot post, via Chulmleigh, which is the nearest Money Order Office. There is a Wall 
Letter Box in the village, cleared at 5.40 p.m. weekdays only. 



Ashplant John, boot and shoe maker 
Ashplant Richd. boot and shoe mnker 
Babbage James, farmer, AVoodrow 
Bird John, farmer, Pitt 
Boundy Andrew, victualler. New Inn 
Boundy James, tailor & shopkeeper, 

Riddlecombe 
Bouudy John, draper and grocer 
Boundy Richd. farmer, Riddlecombe 
Boundy Saml. house agent and parish 

clerk 
Boundy Samuel, farmer, West yard 
Callard William, blacksmith 
Carter John, wheelwright and shop- 
keeper, Riddlecombe 
Carter Samuel, farmer, Riddlecombe 
Cole Mrs Joan, farmer, Denshanr 
Cole John, farmer and manure mer- 
chant, South 
Cole John Budd, farmer, Isaacs 
Cole Joseph, farmer. Ham 
Cole Saml. yeoman. Church water 
Cole Thomas, farmer, Beera 



Cook John, rope maker & shopkeeper, 

Bridgereeve 
Cook John, jun. rope maker, Bridge- 
reeve 
Cook John, farmer. Coal House 
Dunn Saml, Chappie, farmer, Horridge 
Ellis James, blacksmith, Bridgereeve 
Ford John, farmer and road surveyor 

for Chulmleigh district 
Gay William, miller, Marsh mill 
Greenslade John, blacksmith, Riddle- 
combe 
Hancock John, farmer and maltster, 

Goodcott 
Harris Mrs Hannah, farmer, Riddle- 
combe 
Harris Jeremiah, farmer and assessor 

of taxes, Riddlecombe 
Harris .John, farmer. Cold Harbour 
Harris Robert, farmer, Riddlecombe 
Harris Robert, farmer. Hole 
Harris Thomas, carpenter 
Harris William, farmer, Hook 



Ilea don Isaac, farmer, Westaeott 
Josling Mrs Mary Cowman, National 

school mistress 
Josling William Richard, National 

school master and orgnist 
Lane Wm. saddler & harness maker 
Mitchell Mrs Jane, South cottage 
Mitchell John, farmer, Eagledown 
Reed Edward, yeoman, Arson 
Samborne Rev Richd. Lane Palmer, 

M.A., J.P. rector. The Rectory 
Short Bernard & Son, farmers. Bridge 
Short John (B. & Son); h Bridge 
Short Richard, farmer, Northcott 

Barton 
Simmons Thomas, carpenter 
Skinner Thos. farmer, Hansford 
Skinner William, farmer, Redland 
Squire John, yeoman, Furze Barton 
Squire John, farmer, West Arson 
Thorne John, farmer, Crabdown 
i Turner Christopher, farmer, Heale 
I Wedlake John, farmer, Bourne Barton 



ASHTON, a parish, on an acclivity, rising from a small rivulet, 4 miles N. by W. of Chudleigh, 
includes two villages called Higher and Loivcr Ashion, and has a station on the Teign Valley Hailway. It 
is in St. Thomas's miion, Exeter county court district and archdeaconry, Wonford petty sessional division, 
Exeter polling district of East Devon, Kenn rural deanery, and Exminster hundred. Its parish had 255 
inhabitants (127 males, 128 females) in 1871, living in 48 houses on 1709 acres of land. John Treeby, 



Devoiisliii'e. 



113 



Esq., is lord of the manor and principal owner of the soil. The Chiidleighs were lords of the manor, and 
were seated here from 1320 till about 1750, and the remains of their mansion may be seen in a farm house. 
Sir Georg-e Chudleigh was created a baronet in 1620, but the title became extinct on the death of Sir James, 
who was killed at Ostend, in 1745. Their house, which had been garrisoned for the King, was taken by the 
Parliamentarians, December 29, 1G45. Tlie CnuRcn (St. John), is an ancient fabric, with a tower and six 
bells. In the interior is an old painted screen. The Register dates from 1517. The church contains a 
wooden monument to Sir George Chudleigh. first a Parliamentarian, and afterwards a lloyalist commander 
in the Civil War of 1G57, and liis wife who had 'nine sons and nine daughters.' The living is a rectory, 
valued in K.lJ. at £11 10;?. 2^d., in the patronage and incumbency of the llev. Henry Roberts, M.A,, 
who has 58 acres of glebe, and a large residence with pleasant grounds. The tithes are commuted for 
£250 10s. a year. The National ScnooL was built in 1830. Two small Almshotjses, built in 1054, 
by Sir George Chudleigh and other contributors, are endowed with £5. a year, left in 1G75, by John Stooke, 
who also left 20s. a year for the poor parishioners. 

Post from Newton Abbot, through Bovey Tracey, but Chudleigh is the nearest Money Order Office. 



Barber Francis, farmr, Blachforcl farm 
Bartlett William, farmer and vict. 

Fisherman Inn 
Bradrich Henry, farmer, Greorge.Teign 
Bradrich William, farmer, Higher 

Barton 
Cleave Walter, farmer. Bramble 



Coble}'- Mrs Mary, National school- 
mistress 
Kelland Mrs, farmer, Rydon 
Knowles John, wheelwright and 

victualler, New Inn 
Mortimer — , farmer, Goombe 
Nosworthy — , farmer, Cowley 



Rich John, shopkeeper and tailor 
Roberts Rev Henry, M.A. rector, The 

Rectory 
ToAvnsend Richard, shopkefeper 
Vooght Henry, f^irmer, Bridgelands 
White John, farmer, Place Barton 



ASIIWATER, 7 miles S.E. by S. of Ilolsworthy, is a large village and parish in Ilolsworthy union, 
county court district and deanery, Ilolsworthy petty sessional division, South division of the county, Black 
Torrington hundred, and Barnstaple archdeaconry. Its parish had 849 inhabitants (451 males, 398 females), 
in 1871, living in 1G8 houses, on 8587 acres of land, and includes the hamlet of Quoditch, 2 miles east of 
the village. It has fairs on the first Tuesday in May, and the first Monday in August. Miss Mary Preston 
is lady of the manor of Ash water ; Lady Molesworth, lady of Ilunscott manor, and owner of Henford 
Barton ; and W. B. Coham, Esq., owns the manor of Greenworthy. The Church (St. Peter), has a tower 
and five bells, and contains a rich monument of the last of the Carminow family; one to John Short, J]sq., 
and another to Peter Spoure, Esq. The Register dates from 1558. The rectory, valued in K.B. at 
£2G (Ss. Sd., is in the patronage of W. W. Melhuish, Esq., and incumbency of the Rev. J. ]M. Feild, B.A., 
who has a good residence and 94 acres of glebe. The tithes are commuted at £5G9 a year. The Baptists 
and the Bible Christiaij^s have small chapels here. 

Post Ofpice at Mr. John Wadland's. Letters are received at 11 a.m., and despatched at 3.15 p.m. 
via Lifton, which is the nearest Money Order Office. 



Baker Thomas, blacksmith, Long lane ' 
Beale Richard, farmer, East down 
Beare John, farmer, Statford 
Beare John, miller. Ash mill 
Beare Samuel, yeoman, Pristacott 
15otterell Joseph Dennis, farmer, 

South Quoditch 
Braund John, farmer, Ilegadon 
Bray Richard Veysey, tailor, grocer, 
draper, ironmonger and agent for 
Briton, Medical and General Life 
and Norwich and London Accident 
Insurance Companies 
Bray Thomas Martin, farmer 
Ching Richd. farmr. Little Claw moor 
Clifton Henry, plumber, glazier, 

painter and paperhanger 
Clifton Richard, carpenter, Henford 
Clifton Robert, Mason 
difton Thomas, tailor 
jClifton William, carpenter.. Henford 
^ole John, carpenter, Cross lanes 
Cole William, farmer and butcher, 
■ Pristacott 

pCory John, day school and registrar of 
: births and deaths for Broadwood 

Widger district 
I Crocker John, farmer. North end 
jCurtiee Greorge, farmer, Larkworthy 
I.Dinnis Samuel, farmer, Barton 
Docket James, tailor and draper 
Docket John, jobbing gardener, Long- 
land 
Docket John, jun. blacksmith 



Ellacott George, farmer, Larkworthy 
Facy Alexander, yeoman, Langa- 

ford 
Facy Samuel Pearce, yeoman, Langa- 

ford 
Facey Thomas Martin, yeoman, Muck- 
worthy 
Feild Eev James Meyrick, B.A. rector, 

The Rectory 
Friend John, ffirmer, West Venn 
Fry Thomas, M.R.C.V.S. 'veterinary 

surgeon, Cross lanes 
Furse William, farmer. West down 
Gerry John, tailor, Cross lanes 
Gerry William, farmer, Pristacott 
Gilbert Henry, farmer, Muckworthy 
Gimblett John, farmer, Hunscott 
Hamly John, carpenter, Pristacott 
Harris James, farmer, Pristacott 
Hatch Emanuel, farmer. Burrow 
Beard Arscott, farmer Langaford 
Heard Marwood, farmer, Hunscott 
Hicks John, farmer, Widdon 
Hill John & Co. ironmongers, grocers, 
drapers, farmers, manure merchants 
and agents for West of England 
Ins. Co. and agricultural imple- 
ment agents, Blagaton 
Hill Richard, farmer, Hunscott 
James Jeremiah, farmer, Clawford 
Jenkin William, farmer & victualler. 

Manor Inn 
Jones Hy. higgler & f^irmer, Henford 
Jordan John, farmer, Braddon 



Jordan Richard, farmer and shop- 
keeker. Beach cottage 
Jordan Richard, jun. farmer, Statfonl 
Lunn Abraham, farmer, Forda 
Maynard James, farmer, Barriton 
Medland William, farmer, Swingdou 
Metherell John, yeoman, Buckhorii 
Murley Richard, farmer, NewEnglaii 1 
Nancekivell Thomas, farmer and cattle 

dealer, Reuson 
Nancekivell William Beale, catile 

dealer, Renson 
Northcott James, carpenter, Ash mill 
Northcott Thomas, carpenter 
Oliver John, yeoman, Pristacott 
Oliver Thomas, yeoman, land sur- 
veyor and collector of Land and 
Income taxes, Henford 
Palmer Richard, farmer, Langaford 
Parsons James, farmer. Hay 
Parsons John, farmer, Viza 
Petheriek Arthur, higgler and carrier, 

Thorney cross 
Priscott William, builder 
ReddiclifFo Richard, farmer. Quo liteh 
Rogers Mrs Mary Ann, farmer, Saiui- 

bury moor 
Rogers Richard, farmer, Clawmoor 
Scoins William, farmer, Quoditch 
Smale Robert, carpenter & machinist, 

Quoditch 
Sobey Benjamin, farmer, Blagaton 
Sobey Emanuel, boot and shoe maker, 
Lipson cottage 



114 



^sli^vater. 



Spry Jno. blacksmith, Sandlmry moor j Tom John, vict. Union Inn, Ash mill 
Spry Philip, fanner aiul l.lacksniii li. i TrcliLle William, tailor, Ash mill 

Uuoclitch 
Spry Philip, jun. J'annui- .•uid luilcln'i 

Blagatou 
Spry AVilliam, farinur, Luckcron 
Steulako John, boot and shoo inakur 
Symons William, farmer, Laiigalbrd 



ble William, tailor. Ash 
\r:\\o Miss Ann, Ilegadon 
\ ealo liobert, yoomaii, Ho! 
Veysoy Charles, boys' I >' .;i V' 

llainpden hoiuse 
Vcysey Mrs Cluu'Irs. 1,-dieh 

school, Hampdeu In disc; 



mill 

i!j, school, 
boarding 



Wadland John, draper, grocer and 

y)ostmastor 
AVatkins Thou I.I.-, lunn !■, Arscott 
Watkins Thomah, jun. iarmer, Grcnds- 

wortliy 
Yelland Samuel, farmei-, Middlecroft 
CAituiEii — Arthur Petherick, to P///- 

moiith, Tliurs, 



ATIIElllNGTON is a pleasant village and parish on an eminence, 7 miles S.S.E. from Barnstaple, 
8 miles W. by S, of South jNLolton, and E.N.E, of Torrington. Its parish is in Ijarnstaple union, arch- 
deaconry, rural deanery, and county court district, Braunton petty sessional divi.sion, Northern division of the 
county, and North TaWton hundred. It had o78 inhabitants (285 males, 29'i females) in 1873, living in 110 
houses, on 3320 acres of land, and includes tlie hamlets of Lcmc/ridye and Eastacomhe. The Rev. A. C. 
Bassett is lord of the manor of IJmberleigh, which extends over this and High Bickington parish, and had an 
ancient chantry chapel, which was pulled down in 1800. Buriate is an estate belonging to Gonville and 
Cains College, Cambridge ; and Woottmi belongs to the representatives of the Melhuish family. The manor 
of Umberleigh was formerly held by the Beaumonts, whose heiress (Jane Beaumont) carried it in marriage 
to Sir John Bassett, ancestor of the present owner, llisdon says that Athelstanc had a palace at Umber- 
leigh, and that he founded a church at Atherington, which he endowed with two hides of land. The 
Church (St. Mary), a fine old structure, consisting of nave, chancel, north aisle, and tower containing seven 
very good bells, was improved in 1870 by lamps being added, and the church re-decorated at the cost of .£'oO. 
Many of the seats in the nave have handsome carved ends. On the south side of the chancel are two 
windows filled with stained glass — one in memory of members of the rector's family, and the other of Amy 
Chichester, who died in 1803; and two others on the north side are also enriched with stained glass. On a 
tombstone in the chancel are brasses in memory of Sir John Basset (who lived in the reign of Henr}'- VII,) 
and his two wives and twelve children ; in this part of the church are also two recumbent effigies (male and 
female). There is a very fine oak screen which was brought from Umberleigh chapel. The rectory, valued 
in K.B. at £20 '2s. Ic?., has a manor attached, and is in the patronage and incumbency of the Bev. James 
xVrthur, B.A., who has 205a. 3r. 21p. of glebe and a good residence, erected in 1837, at the cost of £1000. 
The tithes are commuted at £410 a year. In the village is a small chapel belonging to the Baptists. The 
Chuech ScnooL, erected in 1864, to hold 60 children, at a cost of £300, is attended by 30 pupils ; a house 
for the teacher was built in 1876 at an outlay of £150. The British School, in connection with the 
Baptist Chapel, is attended by about 60 children. The poor have £2 10^. yearly as the interest of Lady 
Chichester's charity. 

Post Ofpice at Mr. Thomas Loosemore's. Letters are despatched at 3.45 p.m., via Barnstaple, which is 
the nearest Monev Order Office. 



Andrew John, farmer, Umberleigh 

Barton 
Arthur George, farmer, Eastacombe 
Arthur Rev James, B.A. rector, The 

Rectorj- 
Bedford Richard, fanner, Wootton 
Beer John, bootmaker 
Beer John, carpeuter 
Beer William, carpenter 
Bowden Wm. fruit dealer, Chantry 
Brown Mr Edwd. Umberleigh House 
Brown Mrs Jane, shopkeeper 
Brownscombe John, vict., Ci^rpenters' 

Inn, and assistant overseer 
Burgess Wm. vict., Rising Sun, and 

farmer, Umberleigh 
Champion Walter, iarmer, Little Wore 



Clarke William, blacksmitli 
Delbridge John, farmer, Buriate 
Delbridgc Wm. farmer, Fishley Rock 
Down John, farmer, Little halt 
Down John, farmer, Overv/ore 
Bown Thomas, farmer, Langridge 
Down William, farmer. Partridge 
Downing Richd. Baptist shcoolmaster 
Guard By. corn miller, Umberleigh 
(.ios.'< Philip, farmer, Higher house 
Harris John, farmer, Bremridge 
Jones Richd. farmer. Little Knowles 
Joslin Willia.m, farmer, Langridge 
Lake William, bootmaker and shop- 
keeper, Langridge ford 
Lemon Mr John, Rose cottage 
Lemon William, farmer, Wixland 



Loosemore Thomas, blacksmith and 

postmaster 
Mayne Frederick, bootmaker 
Reed William, farmer 
Russell Mr Robert, Eastacombe 
Scoyne John Milton, victualler, White 

Hart, and bootmaker 
Slee Richard, bootmaker 
Smyth John, Church schoolmaster 
Tucker Mrs Grace, frmr. Gt. Knowl 
Warren Thomas, farmer 
Webber Joseph, carpenter 
White Samuel, farmer, Langridge 
Whitehead Rev Geo., B.A., curate 
Woanacott William, shopkeeper 

CAuraER -'Bi\did,\.QBarnstai)le, Eridi 



i 



AVETON GIFFOIIB parish, which includes the small hamlets of AsJiford, Lixton, JFaterhead, and 
Ilarraton, in Kingsbridge union, and county court district, Ermington and Plympton petty sessional division, 
Kingsbridge polling district of South Devon, Ermington hundred, Totnes archdeaconry, and Woodleigh rural 
deanery. It had 839 inhabitants (425 males, 414 females) in 1871, living in 191 houses, on 3182 acres, in- 
cluding 130 acres of water. The village is pleasantly situated in the picturesque valley of the river Avon, 
3^ miles N.W. of Kingsbridge, and S.E. of Modbury. The river, which is crossed by a good bridge, is navi-, 
gable for barges, and has a salmon fishery. The manor was anciently held by the Gilfords or Giffards, 
and afterwards passed to the Bynkam, Prous, Mules, Bamarell, and Berry families. It now belongs to 
Baldwin John P. Bastard, Esq., wdio holds a court-leet here every two 3^ears ; but there is a small 
manor called Heathiield, belonging to the trustees of P. Hyne, Esq. The principal owners of the soil are 
John Alfred Pearce, Esq., William Eroude, Esq., Archdeacon Woollcombe, Admiral George Parker, Messrs. 
llobert and James Parsons, Thomas Elliott, James Adams, and Samuel Wroth. A market and two fairs were 
granted to the lord of the manor in 1289, but they have been obsolete some centuries. The Church (St. 
Andrew), one of the finest and oldest churches in South Devon, is a large cruciform structure in the early 
English Pointed style, and has a fine peal of eight bells. The church was restored in 1868-9 at a cost o*f . 



I>evoiisIiii*e. 



il5 



£2441 Ss. Id., of which £500 was borrowed on rate, £500 derived from legacy left by Miss Fronde, and the 
residue from subscription. The east window is filled with beautiful stained glass, executed by Clayton and 
Bell, in memory of the late rector. An organ was erected in 1875 at the cost ot £435, the parishioners sub- 
scribing £50, the remainder being given by the late rector and friends and John Alfred Pearce, 
Esq. The living is a rectory, valued in K.B. at £38 Is. 8cZ., in the patronage and incumbency of the llev. 
W. D. Pitman, M.A., who has 97 acres of glebe and a good house, erected in 1849 by the late rector. The 
tithes are commuted at £667. The Baptists, Wesleyans, and Bible Christians have small chapels here. 
Here is a Reading Room, supplied with daily newspapers, periodicals, and having a library of 600 volumes ; 
there are about 40 members. The National School was built in 1857, at a cost of £800, raised by sub- 
scription and government grant : it has an average attendance of 172. There are 2 acres of land and several 
tenements and rent-charges given by Peter Bateman and others in the reign of Elizabeth, for the repairs of 
the church, and now producing £17 17s. Od. The poor have 3s. 4d. yearly, left by Mary Modlin. Mrs. Lucy 
Wilcox, in 1875, left £500 for the benefit of the poor of this parish, not being inmates of the Union Work- 
house, the interest to be distributed in provisions by the churchwardens and overseers yearly on Christmas 
eve. The money is invested in the Three per cent Annuities. A tablet recording this charity has been 
erected in the church. The poor of this parish also received for a great number of years iOs. a year from 
Horscombe estate, in the parish of Marlborough. 

Post Office at Mr. Thomas G. Holman's. Letters are received at 8 15 a.m. from Kingsbridge, and at 
4.45 p.m. viji Ivybridge ; and despatched at 8.10 a.m. via Ivybridge; for Kingsbridge and all partt^ at 4.45 p.m. on 
weekdays ; and at 8.30 a.m. to Ringmore ; Bigbury and Kingston at 8.30 a.m. On Sundays letters are re- 
ceived at 8.15 a.m., and despatched at 12 noon, via Kingsbridge, which is the nearest Money Order Office. 
Kingsbridge Road is the nearest Railway Station. 



Adams Jas. farmer, Higher Stadbury 
Anthony Richard, farmer, Lixton and 

Wakeliam ; h Lixton 
Baker Jno. mllr. & frmr. Ashfordmill 
Beer Elias, butcher 
Best Trevosso Carbis, farmer, South 

Efford 
Brown John, farmer, Hellyers 
Burner William, coal dealer 
Chubb Edward, tailor 
Cowles William, farmer, Grrove park 
Crocker John Lavers, farmer, Titwell 
CrockerRichd. farmr, Coltons Borough, 

and (h) Chance Combe, Kingston 
Damarell Henry, blacksmith 
Darey Robert, baker 
Drew John, farmer, agent for Hunt's 

manures, & tax collector, Chilliton 
Edgcombe Greorge, mason 
Elliott Thos. Lakeman, frmr. Babland 
Ellis John, miller, Marsh mills 
Farley Henry, vict. Commercial Inn 
Friend Charles, farmer. Heath 
Fronde Miss Emma, shopkeeper 
Garland Edward, farmer, Stockadon 

and Lower Wizaller ; h Stockadon 
Garland Mr Richard Lewis, Fishleigh 
Hannaford John, mason 
Harding Geo. frmr. Higher Wizaller 
Harris i3ros. wheelwrights 
Harris Frederick (Bros.) 
Harris George (Bros.) 
Harris William, timber dealer 



Hodder John, farmer, Harraton 
Holman Thomas Gill, draper, grocer, 

and postmaster 
Horn William, shopkeeper 
Hosking William, shoemaker 
Kerswell Wm. farmer. North Efford 
Lakeman Samuel, carpenter 
Luckraft Joseph, builder, timber 

dealer, and farmer 
Luscombe John, baker 
Moore Thomas, pork butcher & carrier 
Moore William, farmer, Waterhead 
Morgan John Hingston, draper 
Morgan Peter, blacksmith 
Pearce James, farmer, Court Barton 
Pearce Mr John Alfred, Chantry 
Pengelly Thomas, letter carrier 
Phillips Thomas, shoemaker 
Pitman Rev William Daniel, M.A., 

rector, The Rectory 
Prowse Mr George, AValnut cottage 
Rogers Christopher, mason 
Rogers John, mason 
Rogers William, farmer, Idston 
Roll Wm, vict. Harraton Inn, Harraton 
Ruth Benjamin, mason and sexton 
Sandovor John (R, J. & J.) 
Sandover Richd. John (R. J. & J.) 
Sandover R. J. & J., wheelwrights and 

smiths, Chilliton 
Saunders Roger, thatcher 
Saunderson P. H. and Mrs E. J. 

National school teachers 



Sibley Isaac, shopkeeper 

Steer Fredk. vict. King's Arms Hotel 

Steer John, mason 

Steer William Henry, farrier 

Steere Thos. frmr. J^dwards Borough 

Tarring James, farmer, Ashford 

Terry Mrs Annie, dressmaker 

Tolcher John, baker & horse clipper 

Toms Joseph, baker, grocer, & parish 

clerk 
Toms William, tailor 
Tuckerman Jno. vict. Bridge Inn 
AValk Mrs Ann 
Widdicombe Samuel, miller & farmer, 

Town mill 
W^iddi combe William, shoemaker 
Willcocks George, jun., farmer 
Willcocks John, wheelwright & tim- 
ber dealer 
Wills George, farmer, Lov/er Stadbury 
Winzer Edwin, butcher 
Wood William, fcirmer, Chilliton 
Wroth Saml. farmer. Ley; and Stover 

Lake, Kingston ; h Ley 
Wroth Samuel, farmer, Heathfield 
Yabsley Josias, fai'mer, Ashford 
Yabsley Richard, farmer, Binnick 
Carrieb — Thomas Moore, to PIt/- 

mouth, Saturday 
Conveyance. — All conveyances from 
Kingshriclgs to Modlmry and Fly- 
moioih pass through. Mail cart 
daily to Ivyhridge 



AWLISCOMBE, AzvIesco7nhe, or Oivrs Combe, is a parish and village, 2 miles W. by N. of Ilouiton 
Kailway Station, 9 miles S.E. from Cullompton Railway Station, and 16 miles N.E. from Exeter; its parish, 
which includes the hamlets of Weston and Wolverston, is in Tloniton union, county court district, petty 
sessional division, Payhembury polling district of North Devon, Exeter archdeaconry, Dunkeswell runil deanery, 
and Hemyock hundred. It liad 581 inhabitants (270 males, 311 females) in 1871, living in 133 houses, on 
2569 acres of land, whicli rises in bold hills on the north. The parish is said to be called OiuPs Combe, from 
the number of owls which breed here and are heard by night. A handsome bridge over the Otter, connecting 
this and Iloniton parishes, was built in 1817. x\wliscorabe iiad a grant for a market and fair in 1291, but 
both have long been obsolete. An estate of about 207 acres, called the manor of Awliseombe, was given, in 
1491, by Thomas Calwodeley, Esq., to the Corporation of Exeter for the relief of poor citizens. The rest of 
the soil belongs to Colonel Drewe, Mrs. Notley, George Neumann, Esq., F. Pearse, Esq., Lady G. Sawley, 
Mrs. Elliott, the Pring family, and a few smaller freeholders. Mr. Neumann occupies Tracey House. 
The CnuKCH (St. Michael) is in the Perpendicular style, and was restored in 1837 at a cost of £500. 
It consists of chancel, nave, porch with fine groined stone roof, and tower containing five bells and a ciocl:. 
The clock was presented to the parish by G. Neumann, Esq., and in 1877 the bells were rehung at an outlay 

H 2 



J](3 



>VAvli«<:ioiiil>c, 



of £80. The church contains a very beinitifiil stone screen, three windows enriched with stained glass, and an 
organ, built in 18(50, at an outlay of £120. The liegister dates from l/ioO. The living is a vicarage, valued 
in K.P). at £'12 10s. JOd., in the patronage of the Duke of Bedford, and incumbency of the llev. F. T, B. 
AVillesford, B.A., who lias a small but neat thatched house, and 40 acres of glebe. The vicarial tithes have been 
commuted for £220, and the rectorial for i'lTO. The latter are invested in trust for the augmentation of 
small livings and education, and out of them a payment of £10 is made yearly to the schools of Awliscombe 
suul Broadhembury. The National School, which Avill accommodate 00 children, was erected in 1875. 
through the exertions of the vicar, at a cost of £550, on a site given by Mrs. Notley, of Combe Sydenham. 
The poor have £10 a year from Pring's charity for distribution in linen, as noticed with East Budleigh. Agri- 
cultural It^bourers who have brought up their families Avithout parish aid, have, in common with those of 
Budleigh Salterton, the rent of a field in Iloniton parish, called Shipley Close, distributed among them on 
Easter Sunday. At Ilembury Fort are the remains of a lloman fortification. 

Post Oitice at Mr. Aaron Webber's. Letters are received at 7 a.m. and despatched at 5.30 p.m. via, 
Iloniton, which is the nearest Money Order Office, 



I'Jailoy John, -wheelwright 

Bishop Emanuel, yeoman, Westondon 

Bolt Ellis, farmer, IRmthaycs 

Carnell Goo. farmer, Godford Barton 

Channon John, farmer, Cotters Ilayne 

Clapp .Tolm, miller, LoAver mills 

Colo William, farmer, Godfordland 

Darc^ EdAvin, miller, Godford mills 

Dyer Albin, carpenter 

Dyer William, carpenter 

Harris James, farm bailiff to W. 

Porter, Esq. HidgeAvay 
Hughes Major-Gen ei'al William Tem- 

pler, C.B. Egland 
Jarman Frederick, Voluntary school 

master and parish clerk 



Jarman Mrs Martha, National school- 
mistress 
Mugford .John, farmer. Losses 
Mullens John, farmer, Wad hay 
Neumann George, Esq. J. P., Tracey 
Pady .John, farmer, Kents park 
Pearcey Tom, farmer, Waring Stone 

manor 
Pring Francis, farmer. Birds 
Pring Francis, farmer, Heathfield 
Pring James, farmer, Culverhayes 
Pring Thomas, frmr. ToAvn Tenement 
Pabjohn William, shopkeeper 
Padford Thomas, mason 
Richards Emanuel, blacksmith 
Hosier James, farmer, Bennetshayes 






Posier Mrs Sarah Pring, farme: 

Pomhayes 
Rounsevoll John, dairyman 
Sanders W^illiam, farmer, Hayne 
Sansom Robert, farmer, Ibedon 
Saw'le DoAA^'iger Lady Graves, Ashfie] 
Sparkcs Mrs Mary,farmer,Colleyhay 
Staple Robert, blacksmith, Weston 
Starke Richard, A'ict. Iloniton Inn 
Studley William, farmer, Alter 
Toogood Ileni'y, farmer Bishop's Ilayne 
Webber Aaron, thatcher and postmstr 
Willesford Rev Francis Thomas Bed- 
ford, B.A. vicar, Ivedon Penn 
Wilmington Francis, farmer, Marls 



AXMINSTER is a parish and small market toAvn, upon a pleasant acclivity on the south-eastern side of 
the river Axe, near the borders of Dorsetshire, 5 miles N.W. of Ijvme Regis, miles 1*1 by S. of Honiton, 
25 miles E. by N. of Exeter, and 147 miles W.S.W. of London. The ancient parisii includes the tithings of 
Abhei/, BeerhaU, Shapunck, Smallridge, Axminster Town. Trill, Uphmj, West Water, Weycroft, and Wyke, or 
Week. It gives name to a poor law union, a county court district, a hundred, a petty sessional division, a 
polling district of East Eevon, and is in Exeter archdeaconry and Dunkeswell rural deanery. Axminster has 
a station on the London and South Western Ilailway. The ancient parish comprises the Axminster civil 
parish in this county, and Bcerhall tithing in Dorsetshire; the former had 2852 inhabitants (1.394 males and 
1458 females) in 1871, liA^ing in 535 houses, on 6617 acres of land ; and the latter at the same time had 
inhabitants (4 males and 5 females), living in 2 houses, on 441 acres of land. Beerliall Avas annexed to Dorset 
in 1844 (see page 17). In recent times the tithings Avere kept distinct for highAvay purposes only, but this 
has been rendered unnecessary by the adoption of the Highway Act (see page 29). Axminster ancient 
parish had 2154 inhabitants in 1801 ; 2387 in 1811 ; 2742 in 1821 ; 2719 in 1831 ; 2860 in 1841 ; 2769 in 
1851; 2918 in 1861, and 2861 in 1871. The parish is generally fertile, and is watered by the river Axe, 
Avhich abounds in salmon and other fish, and falls into the sea about six miles south of the town. The 
manor Avas in dispute for many years prior to 1871, and was administered under the Court of Chancery, but 
in that year the suits were Avound up, and Henry Knight, Esq., of Cloaldiam House, Axminster, became the 
sole proprietor of what were called the Axminster manor and estate. Smallridge estate was held in the 
reign of William the Conqueror by Ralph de l\:)meroy, and afterwards passed to the Mohun, Raleigh. 
Mallock, and Campion families, the latter of whom sold it to several tenants. Wycroft, or Weycroft, long 
held by the W^igot, Gobodisleigh, and Dennis families, is now held by EdA\'ard Liddon, Esq., of Taunton ; 
and Lodge, a neighbouring portion of the ancient demesne to John Liddon, Esq., of London. Humphrey, 
Duke of Gloucester, and others, as trustees of the family of Sir Thomas Brooke, had license in 1426 to 
castellate Wycroft House, and enclose a park of 800 acres. It was sold, in 1611, to Thomas Bennett, Esq., 
sheriff of London, Avho destroyed the park, and suffered the house to fail to ruins, of Avhich there are still a 
few remains. The estate AA^as afterwards sold to various freeholders. Messrs. Sparkes, Sir G. Baker, Lady 
Tallock, and many others have estates liere. 

Axminster bad formerly a share of the clothing trade, and in 175j the late Mr. Thomas Whitty 
established here a manufactory of carpets, which was discontinued in 1835, after having for many years a 
high celebrity for the beauty and elegance of its productions: its founder received, in 1750, a premium of £30 
from the Society of Arts, for having made the largest and handsomest Turkey carpet that had ever been 
manufactured in this couutry, being 26|- feet by 17^ feet. Another carpet made liere for the Grand Sultan, 
cost more than £1000. The machinery Avas removed to Wilton, and part of the factory has since been con- 
verted into a dwelling house, and pare into the County Court House and offices. At the foot of Castle Hill 
is a flax factory, which was formerly used as a cloth factory. Markets for provisions are held on Tuesdays, 
Tliursdays, and Saturdays, and the great market on every alternate Thursday for cattle, sheep, and horses; 
fairs for cattle are held on the Tuesday after April 25, on Tuesday after June 24, and on the Wednes' 
after October 10. In the cartulary of Newenham Abbey are transcripts of two charters of King John, c 



M 



Devoiisliii'c. 



117 



lirming the Sunday market, and granting that Axminster should be a free borough, and have a fair for eio-ht 



King Atlielstan gave Axminster church to seven priests, who were to pray for the souls of seven knio-hts 
;ii^id many Saxon soldiers, who were slain near the town in a great battle with the Danes. This battle is 
supposed to be that of Brunenburg. In October, 1644, Sir Eichard Cholmondely was stationed here with a party 
of the King's horse, and received his death wound in a battle with the Parliamentarians, fought near the town. 
The manor of Axminster was part of the royal demesne until King John gave it to Lord Briwer or Brewer. 
Sir lieginald de Mohun, in 1246, gave it to Newham, or Newenham Abbey, which he and his brother 
founded in this parish for monks of the Cistercian order. A ffirni house, about a mile from the town, 
occupies part of ttie site of this once splendid and richly endowed abbey ; but all that now remains of the 
monastic buildings are a few mouldering walls. At the dissolution the yearly revenue of the abbey was 
£227 7fi. 8d., and the site and the manor were granted to t^e Duke of Norfolk, by whose family they were 
sold to Lord Petre, in the 17th century. 

Petty Sessions for Axminster division (see page 27) are held here every fortnight, and the magistral es 
usually sitting here are J. T. Still, W. T. Hallett, J. R. F. G. Talbot, J. A. Knight, and 11, M. Davy, Esqrs. 
W. Forward, Esq., is their clerk. 

AxMixsTER lliGHWAY BoARD. — Herbert Williams, Esq., is treasurer; W. Forward, Esq., clerk ; and 
Mr. J. (x. Pinney, surveyor. 

The County Court is held at the Court House, Axminster, periodically, for a district comprising (in 
Devon) Axminster, Axmouth, Colyton, Combpyne, Dalwood, Kilmiugton, Membur}^, Musbury, Koosdown, 
Seaton-cum-Beer, Shute, Stocklaud, and Uplyme ; (in Dorset) Catherstone Lewestou, Charmouth, Chard- 
stock, llawkchurch, Lyme Eegis, Thorncombe, and Wootton Fitzpaine. Serjeant Petersdorff is judge; W. 
Forward, Esq., registrar ; and J. S. Hellier, high bailiff. The district is within Exeter Banla-uptcy 
Jurisdiction. 

Axminster Union is partly in Dorset, and had 20,0o9 inhabitants (9538 males and 10,521 females) in 
1871, living in 4120 houses, on 61,159 acres of land and water : the parishes whose areas include water are 
shown in the subjoined table. When the census was taken there were 212 uninhabited houses and 14 
building. The total average yearly expenditure of the parishes for the support of their poor during the 
three years preceding the formation of the union was £10,218; and during the three years ending 1840, 
£9058. For the year ended Lady-day 1870, it was £13,223. The average weekly cost per head of indoor 
paupers for food during the year ended Michaelmas 1877, was 2s. 10-hd., and for clothing Qd. The Work- 
house at Axminster was built in 1836, at the cost of £7000, but it has been altered and enlarged at the 
expense of £2500. There were 139 paupers (80 males and 59 females) in April 1871. The Board of Guardians 
consists of thirty elected members. W. Forward, Esq., is union clerk ; the Rev. Jno. AVm. Hanson, chaplain ; 
T. Pickering, master, and Mrs. M. J. Hutchings, matron of the workhouse; Miss M. A. Ilockett, nurse ; 
Messrs. S. Griffin, and W. K. Halse, relieving officers. The medical officers are Messrs. Charles Hallett, 
George Evans, F. A. O'Meara, B. Hodges, H. E. Norris, and R. G. Wollaston. Wm. Forward, Esq., is superin- 
tendent registrar, and Mr. John Overmass is his deputy; the registrars are E. Thornton, W. T. Lock, 
B. Hodges, and G. Evans. 

The following enumeration of the parishes, &c. in the union, shows their territorial extent, their popu- 
lation and inhabited houses, in 1871, and their present rateable value : — • 



Parishes, &c. 



Axminster — 

Axminster . 

IBeerhall(Z)orsei;). 
Axmouth 
Colyton . 

Chardstock {Dorset) 
Charmouth (Dorset) 
Combpyne 
Dalwood 
Hawkcliurch 

set) . 
Kilmington 
Membury 



{Dor- 



Acres 


Inhab. 


Popu- 


Rateable 


Houses 


lation 


Value 








£ 


6617 
441 


535 
2 


2852 
9 


1 15782 

J 1 


4723W 


134 


702 


4799 


7196 


510 


2479 


11123 


5800 


278 


1507 


7620 


518w 


136 


644 


2540 


796 


30 


121 


768 


1709 


107 


482 


2622 


4130 


151 


666 


4720 


1760 


105 


568 


3418 


4089 


157 


733 


5094 



Parishes, &c. 



4 Musbury 

1 Lyme Regis (-Dors^/^) 



Eoosdown 
Seaton — 

Seaton 

Beer . 
Shute . 
Stockland 
Thorncombe 
Uplyme . 

Total 



Acres 


Inhab. 


Popu- 


Rateable 


Houses 


lation 


Value 








£ 


2178 


113 


536 


3908 


1499w 


556 


2603 


9702 


200w 


3 


16 


276 


2821W 


ri94 
\269 


1013 
1142 


\ 7827 


2738 


140 


747 


6061 


5849 


224 


1080 


6982 


4896 


261 


1198 


7273 


3199W 
61 159 w 


215 


961 


5012 


4120 


20059 


£105527 



Notes and References.- 



-Marked 1 are in Lyme sub-registration district ; 2, Axminster 
The areas of those marked (w) include water. 



3, Chardstock ; 4, Colyton. 



The CHUEcn (St. Mary) is a large and venerable structure, displaying several kinds of architecture, 
th a massive tower rising from the centre. Leland says, this church, once dignified with the name of 
inster,' was famous for the sepultures of many noble Saxons and Danes, slain at Branesdown and Colecroft. 
bme parts of the edifice have the appearance of great antiquity, particularly a Saxon doorway, that has 
been removed from the south side to the eastern end of the south aisle. The oast window is enriched witli 
litained glass. The advowson of the vicarage, the appropriation of the rectory, to which is attached the 
manor of Prestaller, were given by Edward I. as part of the endowment of the Prebendaries of Warthill and 



^mot 



1 1 8 -A-xiiiinstei", 



Grindal, in York Cathedral, as they still remain. The church was repaired in 1871, and contains three 
sedilia and a piscina. In the chancel are two recumbent effigies, one supposed to represent Gervase de 
Prestaller, first vicar of Axminster in the 12th century, and the other Alice, wife of Reginald de Mohun, 
Earl of Somerset, lord of Axminster manor in the l.'ith century. The living is a vicarage, with the chapelries 
of Kilmington and Membury annexed, valued in K.l). at £44 Gs. Sd., in the alternate patronage of the two 
Prebendaries, and in the incumbency of the Rev. William Bulmer Bailey. The living is now under seques- 
tration, the curate in charge being the Rev. John William Hanson. The tithes of Axminster are commuted — 
the rectorial of Axminster at £070 JOs., ofKilmington for£100, and of Membury for £204 lO*., making a total 
of £'1035 Os. ; the vicarial tithes of Axminster are commuted at £008 13.-?. M. (out of which All Saints' in 
Chardstock in Dorset has an endowment of £30 2s. Or/.), Kilmington for £240, and Membury £330, making 
a total of £1184 135. 4d. The representatives of the Very Rev. W. D. Conybeare, late Dean of Llandalf, 
are lessees of the latter. The vicarage house is a^modern building. 

The Independent Chapel was built in 1828, in lieu of the old Presbyterian meeting house, founded in 
1698. The Wesleyan Chapel was built in 1790, and the Roman Catholic Chapel (St. Mary) was 
erected in 1830 and rebuilt in 1802. The cost of the erection of the latter, including residence for the 
priest, was about £3000, chiefly contributed by the Knight family. Three windows are filled with stained 
glass, and the chapel contains a fine-toned organ, 

The Cemetehy, on the Chard Road, is about half a mile from the churchyard, and comprises 1| acre 
of land, nearly an acre of which is consecrated. The cost of the formation of the cemetery was about £1100. 
William Forward, Esq. is clerk to the Board. 

The School Boaed was formed in March 1874, and the present Board consists of Capt. E. C. Forward 
(chairman), Mr. William Pulman (vice), and Messrs. C. H. Ewens, C. II. Parrett, and Reuben Swain. 
William Forward, Esq. is clerk. A School for boys, girls, and infants was built in 1870 at a cost of about 
£3000, to accommodate 425 children. The South Axminster National School was built in 1875, and 
opened in January 1870, the cost of its erection being defrayed b^ subscription, aided by a grant from the 
National Society. Accommodation is provided for 70 mixed scholars, who are under Government inspection. 
A Sunday School is held here in the afternoon, except on the second Sunday in the month when divine 
service is held. The Roman Catholics have a day school here. 

Axminster was the birthplace of John Prince, author of ' The Worthies,' who was born in 1043 at the 
farm-house occupying a part of the site of Newenham Abbey, and now called ' Prince's Abbey.' He was 
educated at Brazenose College, Oxford, and his first curacy was that of Bideford. He was afterwards elected 
minister of St. Martin's Church, Exeter; about 1075 he became vicar of Totnes; and in 1081 vicar of 
Berry Pomeroy, where he remained until his death in 1723. Dean Buckland, a noted geologist in his day, 
was born here in 1784. 

Puhnan's Weeldy News and Advertiser newspaper was established in 1857, and is issued on Tuesdays at 
Axminster and Crewkerne. The *Book of the Axe,' by G. P. R. Pulman, contains a history of all the 
parishes and noteworthy objects along the banks of the river that meanders through this charming valley. 

AxminstePv Parish Charities. — Some of these are vested in feoffees for the use of the poor, by deeds 
dated the 19th James I., and February 10, 1079, and comprise by modern admeasurement 19a. 1r. 1p., of 
which 2a. Or. 8p. have lately been sold to Mr. Spottiswoode, under the sanction of the Charity Commis- 
sioners; the purchase money being invested in £514 lis. Sd. Consols. The remainder of these lands is now 
let for £34 per annum. There are further under the feoffee management two principal sums invested in the 
purchase of £489 and £240 Stock, realised, it is believed, from the sale of some of the feoffee charity property, 
situated at Honiton and at Axminster, and producing dividends of £21 17s. Ad. per annum ; a building in 
Chard Street, Axminster, let for £5 a year ; and two tenements, also in Chard Street, occupied by poor per- 
sons, from whom no rent is obtained ; the realised income of all which is now distributed to the poor in 
clothing, about Christmas annually, by the feoffees, now ten in number. The house, formerly used as the 
parish workhouse, was given by Walter Younge in 1012. The churchwardens administer the other charities, 
namel}', a yearly rent-charge of £5 out of Ilamclose, left by John Younge in 1012, distributed in shirts and shifts 
among poor old men and women. For a similar distribution annually among 20 poor parishioners, Leonard 
Peream left £100 in 1711. Of this legacy £00 was laid out in the purchase of \^ acre, called the Brickfield, 
or Stagmoor, and now let for £10 a year. The remaining £40, with £5 left by Ann Scriven, is secured 
at interest on the tolls of the Bridport Turnpike, and 4,9. of the interest is laid out in bread, and distributed 
to 8 widows annually on St. Luke's Day, the remainder in clothing for general distribution. The poor have 
also the interest of £100 left by John EUard in 1815, and a rent-charge of 20s. a year, left by Thomas Whitty^ 
in 1713. Ann Palmer's Charity, which was a rent-charge of £5 a year, out of 12a. of land at W^eek, has nol 
been realised for some years, nor has 20s. a ye^ir given by John Sampson in 1018 out of lands in MemburyJ 
called Bathcote. Till the formation of the Board Schools in 1874, and the erection of the extensive elementary ' 
school buildings, the free school for 12 poor boys and girls of Axminster, and 2 of Kilmington, which w£ 
endowed with al30ut 7^- acres of land (then estimated Oa.) at Kilmington, (purchased in 1740 with £1( 
given by Penelope Safhn and other donors), and with 2 acres given by the parishioners of Kilmington, hi 
been closed, and, under the direction of the Charity Commissioners, the income of the charity is now appliec 
as follows : — the rent of 2 acres in payment of school fees of deserving poor children of Kilmington at an] 
public elementary scbool there ; £15, being the present rent of the residue of the real estate of the charitj 
containing about 7a. 2r. 30p. in the payment of the school fees of like children of Axminster at any publi< 
elementary school there ; and the surplus rent, if any, of the last-mentioned property, towards the support 
the Church of England Sunday School at Axminster. 

Post, Money Order, and Telegraph, and Government Annuity and Insurance Oepice, and Savings 
Bank at Mrs. Mary E. Tapscott's, Victoria place. Letters from London are delivered at 7 a.m. and 2.6 p.m.i 



I>evon«li.ire. 



119 



and despatched to London and the North at 10.55 j to London, 2.30; London and all parts, 6.25 p.m. ; 
to Exeter at 2.-30 p.m., and Lyme Regis and Bridport at 12.55 a.m. and 10 p.m. Sunday delivery at 7 a.m. 
"^[oney orders are granted and paid from 9.30 a.m. to 5.30 p.m., and on Saturdays also from 7 to 8 p.m. 
Tflegrapli business from 8 a.m. to 8 p.m. week days and Sundays from 8 to 10 a.m. There is a Wall Lettee 
i'.ox in Lyme road, cleared at G p.m. weekdays only. 
Railway (L. & S. W.) Stevens, stationmaster. 



pletou Thomas, M.D. West Louse 
xlcoek Henry, baker and confectioner, Trinity square 
leer William, seedsman and nurseryman, Soutli street 
iiiuird Rear- Admiral Fredk. Lamport, R.N., lnir'<:ebrook 
rues George, M.D. surgeon. Castle Hill house 
irtley Mr Edgar, Prospect house 
r stone Charles, wheelwright, Abbey gate 
i'.itstone Robert, boot and shoe maker, .Silver street 
r.r.ivis Miss Alice, laundress, Mnsbury road 
i'l'avis Mrs Jane, laundress, Musbui-y road 
liter William, shopkeeper, Castle hill 
I'.crry Edwin, blacksmith. Abbey gate 
Ucrry Mrs AVilliam, Court house 
r.ishop Mrs Emma Louisa, shopkeeper, Routh street 
r.oalch Henry, beerhouse. Trinity buildings, Castle sireet 
I'.oml Mrs Sarah, Trinity house 
lloiid Ca.pt. William Henry, Trinity house 
YUrni James, woolstapler, miller and farmer, Town mills, 
& Uplyme & Axminster factories ; h Cedar hs. Musbury rd 
r.Dwdige Mr John, Western road 
Ih'udford James, farmer, The Mount 
liradford & Sons, corn, coal, salt, timber and slate mer- 
chants and agents for West of England Sack Hiring Co. 
Railway station (Saml. G. Loveless, agent) ; and Yeovil 
Bridle George, cooper and shopkeeper, Chai'd street 
Bucknole John Smith, cabinet makei-, upholsterer, and 
agent for Liverpool & London & Globe Ins. Co. West st 
CaistorMr William Yates, Furzeley house 
Catford William Henry Baker, master, Board school 
Cawdey George, shoemaker, South street 
Cawley Thomas Kibby, victualler. New Commercial Inn, 
and posting house, and goods agent for L. & S.W. Rly. 
Co. Trinity square 
Cemetery, Chard road 
Chappie Edwin, bank manager and agent for Alliance & 

West of England Ins. Cos. The Shrubbery 
Clark Aaron, farmer, Churchill 
€larke George, carpenter, Purzebrook 
Clarke Miss Mary Ann, Castle hill 
Clarke Walter, farmer, Park 

Coglan Miss Julia, Roman Catholic schoolmistress, Lymerd 
Cooke Mr Thomas Owen Preston, Loup house 
Coombs Mrs Joan, plumber and glazier, Chard street 
Copp John, manager. Gas Works, Castle street 
Cossins Francis, farmer. New park 
Cotterell Miss Jane, dairy proprietor, Shools 
Couch Mrs Ann, Chard street 
Couch Miss Jxiliet, Jessamine cottage 
County Court; Mr. Serjeant Peter.-sdorfF. judge; William 

Forward, registrar; John Samuel Hellier, high bailiff 
Cox William Robert & John Francis, day and boarding 

school, Oak House school 
Crabb Charles, cooper. South street 
Daniels James, whitesmith, Castle hill 
Davidson Misses Anna & Mary Elizabeth, Secktor house 
Davidson James Bridge, barrister, becktor house ; & London 
Deane Mr Joseph, Lyme street 
Devon and Exeter Savings' Bank, Lyme street ; William 

Pulman, manager 
Dorsetshire Dank (R. R. & H. Williams, Thornton & 
Sykes), (open from 10 till 3 daily and Thursdays 10 till 
4) (draw on Williams, Deacon & Co.) ; Edwin Chappie, 
manager 
Down Charles, beer retailer, Smallridge 
Edwards Mr Thomas Baylis, Lyme street 
Emmens Miss Mary Annie, yict. "Western Hotel, West bt 
England Mr Robert, Adrian house I 



j Enticott Mrs Ann, marine store dealer, North street 
i Enticott Benjamin, marine store dealer, Castle hill 
! Enticott John, shopkeeper, Lyme road 
Ewens Charles Henry, butter and cheese factor, Lyme rd 
Ewens Mr George Davey, Furzebrook 
Forward Captain Edward Charles, The Coombes 
Forw^ard William, solicitor, registrar of county court, 
clerk to magistrates, guardians, highway board, burial 
board, and school board, commissioner for taking affi- 
davits in all courts and acknowledgements of married 
women, and superintendent registrar of births, deaths, 
and marriages ; h The Elms, Lyme road 
Fowler Mrs Eliza, saddler, harness maker and milliner, 

Victoria place ^ 

Foxwell Mark, farmer, Easthay Beerhall 
Frampton Richard, farmer,, Prestaller 
Frost Alfred, victualler, Lamb, Lyme road 
Fry George, jobbing gardener, Lyme street 
Gage Benjamin, auctioneer and A'aluer, Trinity square, 

and farmei% Sisterhood farm 
Gapper James, wheelwright, Secktor 
Gapper William, wheelwright & coach builder, South st 
Gas Works, Castle hill; John Copp, manager 
Gerrish John, bank manager and agent for London Assu- 
rance Corporation, Victoria place 
Gibbs Misses Ellen and Sarah, teachers. Board school 
Gill William James, confectioner and agent for Uff- 

cxilme Ales, Chard street 
Gillingham Robert, coach and house painter. Chard street 
G-oddard George, tailor, South street 
Gosling Charles, manager of goods department, Lonion 

and South Western station, South street 
Gribble Abraham, farmer, Wyke 
Grilhn John, timber dealer, Willhayes lane 
Grifhn Samuel, relieving officer and vaccination officer for 

Northern district. South street 
Gunn Frederick John, chemist and druggist. Chard street 
Hackett James, chimney sweeper, Castle street 
Hallett Chas. surgeon & surgeon to union. Poplar mount 
HansonRev John William, curate in charge, The Vicarage 
I Harris Gaius, baker, Churchill 
i Harris Thomas, farmer, Frogwell 
I Harvey Edward, farmer. Castle hill 
j Hayes James, shoemaker, South street 
I Hayman Mrs Eliz. milliner & mantle maker. Trinity sq 
j Hayman George, leather cutter and bootmaker. Trinity sq 
I Hayman Geerge Wm. tailor and outfitter, Trinity square 
I Hayman William, grocer and draper. Trinity square 
j Head T. H. lime and cement merchant, Chard street 
Heal George, victualler. Green Dragon, Castle hill, and 

engineer. Castle hill works 
Heal John, English & foreign timber dealer, Castle hill 
Hellier John Samuel, high bailiff of county court, assistant 
to clerk of land and income tax commissioners, and 
registrar of marriages, West street 
Henley John, shoemaker. South street 
Henley Robert, statuary, Lyme road 
Hoare John, farmer, Wyke 
Hockey Mrs Amt, milliner, Musbury road 
Holt David, victualler. Trout Inn, Millbrook 
Hooper AVilliam, farmer, Old Park farm 
Hutchings Mrs Mary Jane, matron, Workhouse 
Hntchings Thomas, fancy repository. Trinity squar3 
Inland Eevcnue Office, George Hotel, Victoria place ; 

Alfred William Stroud, officer 
Jeans Charles, greengrocer and fruiterer, Lvme street 
Keech Mr. William, Chard street 



120 



^x:itiiii{!> tei*. 



Kloer Mrs Ellen, mistress, South Axminster school 
Knight Mr Henry, Cloakham house and Terrace lodge 
Knight James Alexander, Esq., J.P. The Lawn 
Knight Miss Julia Frances, Loretta cottage 
Literary cf Musical Society, Board school, Paradise 
Loring Charles, carpenter, Trinity buildings, Castle street 
Loud John Aplin, butcher, Victoria place 
Loud Saml. Hencher, cheese mer. & shopkpr. Castle hill 
Love James, refreshment house keeper & mason, West st 
Loveless Samuel George, coal agent, and agent for Railway 

Passengers' Accident Insurance Co. Chard street 
Loveridge Isaac Drayton, furnishing ironmonger, plumber 

and tinplate worker, Lyme street 
Loveridge Jas. vict. Eed Lion, & ass. overseer, Lyme st 
Loveridge Jas. Gill, farmer & sanitary in speetorjWyke farm 
Loveridge Mrs Jane, shopkeeper and draper, South street 
Loveridge John Stamp, farmer. Balls & Slymlake's farms 
McNaught Jno. Wm. & Alex, travelling drapers, Market pi 
Mallock Mrs John, South street 
Manfield James, farmer, Undercleave 
Market Hall, William Phillips, collector 
Marley Edwin, blacksmith, Smallridge 
Marley George, carpenter, Smallridge 
Masters Philip Daniel Frank, jeweller and watchmaker, 

Lyme street 
Membury John, farmer, Brick kiln 
Morgan Albert, painter & paperhanger, Lyme street 
Morgan John James, parish clerk & apartments, West st 
Morgan Thomas, cabinet maker. Silver street 
Morrish Henry, miller, Wey croft mills 
Moulding Mrs Margaret, laundress, Musbury road 
Moulding William, shopkeeper, Musbury road 
Neale Christopher, wheelwright, Millbrook 
Newberry James Moore, photographer, South street 
Newberry Mrs Susan, dressmaker, South street 
Newbery Abraham Skinner, dairyman, South street 
Newbery George Henry, baker, Lyme street 
New bery Miss Mary, shopkeeper, Chard street 
Newbery William, artist. South street 
Newbery William, beerhouse, Axminster Inn, and builder, 

Silver street 
Nicholls Elias, hairdresser and perfumer, Trinity square 
Overmass J. & Son, tailors & woollen drapers. Trinity sq 
Overmass John, jun., deputy registrar of births, deaths and 

marriages, Lyme road 
Overmass Walter (J. & Son), and agent for the Ocean, 

Railway and General Accident Ass. Co. Trinity square 
Parrett Charles Henry, linen and woollen draper, clothier 

and milliner, Victoria house, Victoria place 
Parsons Mrs Ann, hiundress, Castle hill 
Parsons Mrs Ann, dressmaker, Lyme street 
Parsons John, coach builder, Chard st; & h Kilmington 
Parsons William B. builder, Willhayes 
Patterson John, butcher. Castle hill 
Patterson Robert, farmer and cattle dealer, Willhay 
Paul Robert, painter, glazier & paperhanger. Chard street 
Penny Charles Balfour, silk mercer, draper and under- 
taker, Chard street 
Perkins Rev Ephraim Henry (Independent), Chard street 
Pcrryman Francis, builder. South street 
Phillips James Aplin, baker, South street 
Phillips William, collector. Market hall 
Phillips William, farmer, Bagley hill 
Phippen Mr James, West street 
Phippen Thomas, boot and shoe maker, Castle hill 
Pickering Mrs Mary, Lyme road 
Pickering Thomas, master union workhouse and agent 

for Church of England Ass. Co. Musbury road 
Pidgeon James, shoeing and jobbing smith, Musbury road 
Pidgeon John, farmer. Hakes, Musbury road 
Pike John, sergeant, Police station 
File George, saddler and harness makei*, Lyme street 
Pinney John George (J. G. & Son), and agent for Alliance 

and Plateglass Ins, Cos. Mount house, Lyme road 



Pinney J. G. & Son, architects, surveyors and land agents 

South street 
Plummer Mrs Ann, victualler, White Hart, Lyme street 
Plummer James, cabinet maker, Lyme street 
Police Station ; John Pike, sergeant 
Poole Misses Mary & Agnes, The Coombes 
Potter Henry, dairyman. Lodge farm 
Pryer Wm. pharmaceutical chemist, bookseller, stationer, 

depot for Christian Knowledge Society and agent foi- 

Imperial and London Guarantee and Accident Ins. Cos. 

West street 
Pulman William, printer, stationer, stamp distributor, 

Weekly News office and agent for Devon and Extter 

Savings' Bank, Lyme street 
Reece Mrs Mary & Misses, ladies' boarding school, Heyop 

house. Silver street 
Rendle John, farmer, Uphay 

Restorick George, cattle dealer and greengrocer. West 
Retter William, farmer, Smallridge 
Roberts William, farmer, Westwator 
Roberts William, farmer, Jack-leigh house 
Robins William, leather cutter, Lyme street 
Rockett Thos. porter, & Mrs Mai-y Ann, nurse, AA^orkhoi 
Rundle Richard, provision dealer, Lyme street 
Ryall John, victualler, George family & commercial hotel 

and posting house, and agent for the London & Soutli- 

Western Railway Co. (passengers and parcels) 
Ryall Robert Butt, baker. Market place 
Salter John, farmer. Great Trill 
Sellwood Mr Thomas, Bellevue 
Seward William, farmer, Woodhouse 
Shore Mrs Emma, Millbrook cottage 
Silk Frank, boot and shoe maker. Castle street 
Slyfield AVilliam, stationer and tea dealer, Victoria 

place 
Smith John Edward, commercial traveller, Lyme street 
Smyth James, grocer and butter factor and agent for Sun 

Ins. Co. Lyme street 
South Axminster School, Woodbury lane; Mrs Ellen Kloer, 

mistress 
Spiller John, farmer, Chubbs 

Spottiswoode George Andrew, -printer, London ; h Chattan 
Stamp Office, Lyme street ; William Pulman, distributor 
Stephens Miss Sarah, milliner & dressmaker. West street 
Stevens — -, L. and S.W. station master, Railway station 
Stone George, cabinet maker, iipholsterer, appraiser, house 

agent and agent for Atlas Ass. Co. Trinity square 
Stroud Alfred William, Inland Revenue officer, West street 
Sutton John, victualler, Old Bell family and commercial 

hotel and posting house, Trinity square 
Swain George & Thornhill, farmers, Wellands ^ 

Swain Henry & Tom, farmers, Higher Abbey farm |H 
Swain Reuben, farmer, Yetlands ^ 

Swain Reuben & James, farmers, Lower Abbey farm 
Symes Mr James Finmore, Castle hill 
Tapscott Mrs Mary Elizabeth, berlin wool and fancy 

repository and postmistress, Victoria place 
Taylor Charles, glass and china dealer. South street 
Toohey Rev John (Roman Catholic), Lyme road 
Trott Walter, builder. South street 
Tucker Edwin, farmer. Higher Bever 
Tucker George, farmer, Westwater 
Tucker William, dairyman, Woodbury lane 
TuUoch Lady Emma, Old park 
Turner James, wine and spirit merchant. Castle hill 
Tytherleigh William Charles, furnishing ironmonger ai 

grocer, Victoria place 
Union WorMouse ; Thomas Pickering and Mrs M. 

Hutchings, master and matron 
Vivian William Joseph, veterinary surgeon, Lynch villa 
Wakely Misses Elizabeth & Charlotte, Rose Mount 
Wakley John, victualler. Black Lion, Castle hill 
Wareham William, farmer. Old Barn 
Warry Mrs Sarah, laundress, Musbury road 



I>evoiisliii»c. 



121 



AVebber Mrs Catherine, ladies' boarding school, Buckland 
house. South street 

Webber Thomas Nichols, professor of music, Buckland 
bouse, South street 

Welch Samuel, mason, Silver street 

Western Mrs Maria, shopkeeper, Musbury road 

White Henry, grocer, earthenware dealer and agent for 
Gilbey's wines, Victoria place 

W^hite John, farmer, Cathayes 

White William, draper. Chard street; h Exeter 

Willey Mrs Ann, shopkeeper, South street 

Williams E. R. & H. Thornton and Sykes (see Dorset- 
shire Bank) 

Willis John, blacksmith and clothes dealer, Lyme street 



Willmott George, clock & watch maker, and glass and 

china dealer, Victoria place 
Willmott Miss M. A, & Co. drapers, Victoria place 
Willmott Miss Mary Ann (Miss M. A.& Co.) ; h Victoria pi 
Willmott Miss Mary Bowdige (Miss M, A. & Co.) ; h 

Victoria place 
Wilts and Dorset BanJc (open from 10 till 3 daily, on 

Thursday 10 till 4). (draw on London and Westminster 

Bank) ; John Gerrish, manager 
Wootton Mrs Rebecca, laundress, Musbury road 
Worthy Mrs Mary, South street 
Wrey Captain Charles, R.N. Hilary house 
Zealley Andrew, farmer, Beerhall 



AXMOUTH is a parish and a pleasant villanre, on the English Chanuel, at the mouth of the river Axe, 
.3 miles S. by E. of Colyton, and G miles W. by S. of Lyme Kegis, and S.S.W. of Axminster. Its parish is 
in Axminster miion, county court district, petty sessional division, polling district and hundred, Exeter arch- 
deaconry, and Dunkeswell rural deanery. It had 702 inhabitants (360 males, 842 females) in 1871, living in 
134 houses, on 4723 acres, including 100 acres of water. The parish is bounded on the sea coast by lofty 
and rugged clifFs, which are crowned by chalky crags, in some places assuming the appearance of shattered 
turrets, pinnacles, &c. ; and in others overtopped by luxuriant plantations. The manor of Axmouth was 
given by the Earl of Devon, in the reign of Henry 11. to Montebourg Abbey, in Normandy ; but Llenry V. 
gave it to Sion Abbey. Edward VI. granted it to Walter Erie, Esq. In 1079, it was sold to Sir Walter 
Yonge, who sold it in 1G91 to Richard Hallett. William Trelawny Hallett, Esq., is now lord of the manor, 
and owner of a great part of the parish, and of the mansion called Stedcombb House, but E. L. Ames, Esq. 
has an estate here. There is a pleasure fair on Shrove Tuesday in each year. 

The range of cliffs extending from Axmouth to Lyme llegis is noted for several remarkable Landslips. 
By one of these convulsions, which commenced on Christmas-day, 1839, 45 acres of arable land were lost to 
cultivation at Bindon and Dowsland ; tv>^o cottages situated in the lower region of the cliff were destroyed ; 
and a great chasm was formed, more than 300 feet broad, 150 feet deep, and three-quarters of a mile long. 
Two of the coast-guard, standing on Culverhole beach, on the night when this great landslip occurred, 
' observed the sea to be in an extraordinary state of agitation ; the beach on which they stood rose and fell ; 
amidst the breakers near the shore something dark appeared to be rising from the bottom of the sea, amidst 
the deafening noise of crashing rocks.' On Eebruary 3, 1840 there was another landslip at Whitlands, much 
smaller than the former. By taking a central position on the imderclift" between Pinhay and Whitlands, and 
looking inland, the visitor sees the precipitous yet wooded summit of the mainland, and the castellated crags 
of the ivy-clad rocks on the terraces immediately below, and the deep dingle at the bottom ; and by turning 
towards the sea, he beholds the whole range of the great bay of Dorset and Devon, skirted by coast scenery 
of the finest character. 

In the early part of the 17th centurj^, large sums were expended by tlie Erie family in an unsuccessful 
attempt to construct a new haven at Axminster. During the present century, piers have been constructed at 
the mouth of the Axe, where vessels of 100 tons burden can now discharge their cargoes in safety. 

The CHUEcn (St. Michael) is an ancient structure, consisting of short chancel, aisle, nave, porch (now 
used as a vestry), and western tower containing three bells. There is a tine Anglo-Norman doorwa}', and the 
chief alterations made to the original late Norman structure are a rebuilt chancel and the Perpendicular west 
window. In the interior are several monuments of the Erles and the Halletts, and in a recess on the north 
side is an antique recumbent figure of a man with a dog at his feet. The living is a vicarage, valued in K.B. 
at £22 19s. 2t7., in the patronage of W. T. Hallett, Esq., the impropriator of most of the great tithes- these 
were commuted in 1846 for £309, and the vicarial for £175. The Rev, Samuel Clement JDavis, M.A. is the 
incumbent. The vicarage house was built in 1815-6, The Independent Chapel was built in 1861. 
National ScnooLS, with teachers' residence, for the parishes of Combe Pyne, Rousdon, and part of this 
parish, have been recently erected by Sir Henry Peeke, who principally supports them, and provides the 
children with a substantial hot dinner daily. In 1726 William Searle left a yearly rent-charge of 32s. for 
schooling poor children of Axmouth. 

Post Office at Mr, Timothy Beer's, Letters vifi Axminster are received at 9.30 a.m. and despatched 
at 4.5 p.m. Seaton is the nearest Money Order Office. Seaton and Colyton, on the London and South 
Western Railway, are the nearest Railway Stations. 



Ames Mr Edward Levi, Clevelands 
Bagwell John, tailor 
Bartlett Wm. carpenter & vict.ShipInn 
Beer Mrs Mary Ann, vict.Harbour Inn 
Beer Tim. boot & shoe mkr. & postmtr 
Bole Robert, blacksmith 
Bond Francis, blksmith. & gen. smith 
Buck Miss Louisa, Nat, schoolmistress 
Burgess Wm. National schoolmaster 
Butt Mr William, Borough house 
Chappell Miss Alice, Bindon 
Chappell Mr James, Bindon 



Chappell Thos. Dare, yeoman, Bindon 

Coles Joseph, farmer 

Coles William, farmer, Glebe 

Crichard James, wheelwright 

Dampier William, butcher 

Davis Rev. Samuel Clement, M.A, 

vicar. The Vicarage 
Froom William, farmer, Bosshill 
Gage Miss Mary, National infant 

schoolmistress 
Game Thomas, farmer 
Gratton George, farmer, Charlton 



Lwn^', 
J.P. 



Hallett Colonel Clement Trelai 

Haven cliife 
Hallett William Trelawny, Esq. 

Stedcombe house 
Harris Robert, farmer, Whitlands 
Jefford John, boot and shoe maker 

and parish clerk 
Kibbey John, farmer, Crabhayne 
Knight Mr James, Southcott villa 
Leigh Misses, Brook house 
Love Bryan, farmer, Hawksdown 
Lumbbard William, farmer, Bnllmoor 



Mr I. 



122 

]\liiiiri) il('iii'\', fanu hailitl' 

Ames 
Norimui William, farmer, Haven farm 
Pudy Jiobcrt Baker, limo mtu'chant 
Quick iMattliOA^-, jxroccr 
Vu-n\ .laiiu's, liou; ana slnu- maker 



A-xmoiitli, 



l\oal John, Ijoot and .shoo maker 
Kual John, jun. grocer 
Kcst rick Jjcvy, shopkeeper 
Ilichards Joim, farmer, Stodcombe 

farm 
Kichards Simtjii, farmer, Coombe 



8ehvay William, farmer, Higher 

Erooklands 
SI cm an John, farmer, Dowlands 
Smith John, farmer, Low. Brooklain 
Spiller Charles, fanner, Jlay 
Templeiiiaii li'i/lu rt, farmer, Coombe 



AYIjESBEAUE is a jiailsli and small l)ut picturosqiK! villago, pk a.'-antly .situated on the western 
declivity of the bold rang<^ i>i' hills between the vales of the Exo and the Otter, 8 miles east of Exeter. 
Tlie parish, which includes the tything oi Newton Vopplcford (noticed at a su])sequent page), i,s in 8t. Thomas 
union, E.xeler county court district, Ottery petty sessional division, Ottery St. Mary polling district of East 
Devon, J'Lxetev arcluleiieonry. Aylesbeare rural deanery, and East ]^»udleigh hundred. It had KM30 inhabitants 
(503 males, .■)S7 reiuales) in 1S71, living in 231 houses, on 2048 acres of land; of these C7G persons (300 
males, 270 feniales) living in 147 houses, are in Newton Poppleford tithing. Tlie parish contains 541 acres of 
common land and unenclosed, known as Aylesbeare hill, and dividing the western from the eastern portion of 
the parish. All freeholders of Aylesbeare and their tenants Inive a customary and long-established right of 
cutting turf and furze, as well as of pasturage for their cattle, on this common. The manor of Aylesbeare 
was long held by the Courtenays as part of the barony of Oakhampton. After the attainder of Sir Francis 
Englefield, one moiety was granted to the Earl of Essex, who sold it to the tenants. The other moiety was 
sold to an ancestor of the late Lord llolle, and is now vested in the trustees of thellolle estate, who own 
the greater part of the parish. The vicar of Aylesbeare has a portion of a small manor, ' Woods,' now Glebe 
farm. MiNcni:^ Couht, adjoining the vicarage, is an ancient edifice, Avith some interesting remains, notably 
the arms of Yarty and of Hurst, carved on the exterior of an old chimney. ""Minchin Court, with its estate 
of about 70 acres, formerly belonged to the prioress and convent of St. Catharine at Polslo. It is now, with 
freehold land adjoining, "the property of the Rev. William H. Carwithen. John Elliott, Esq., W. C. 
Walker, Esq., Edward Johnson, Esq., with a few others, have also freehold estates here. 

The parish (mother) church (Blessed Virgin Mary) is an ancient structure with an embattled tower and 
three bells, surrounded by a turret at the north-eastern angle, overtopping the fine old lime trees in the 
churchyard. There is a handsome lich-gate at the eastern entrance, erected in 1873. The living is a dis- 
charged vicarage, valued in K.B. at £1(3 2s. 4d.. and in 1831 at £155. The Rev. W. H, Carwithen, M.A., is 
the patron, and the present vicar, and has a good thatched residence with 60 acres of glebe. The tithes were 
commuted in 1841 for £143 los. 2d. to the vicar, £81 7s. 3d. to the rector of Huxhani, and £74 17s. 7d. to 
Rev. H. W. Marker. The School Boaed for the united district of Aylesbeare, Harpford, and Venn Ottery 
was formed on 14th June, 1875, and consists of (vacant) (chairman), R. H. Lipscomb, Esq. (vice), tlie 
Rev. W. H. Carwithen (hon. clerk), and Messrs. Thomas Yelverton. Jonathan Taylor, and Abraham Smith. 
The principal Board school of the district is here. In 1606 Richard White, by his will, left QOs. a year out 
of Porch House (now the Cannon Inn) ' for the schooling of six poor children, to learn to read English, in 
trust to the churchwardens of Aylesbeare and to their successors for ever.' 

Post Oefice at Miss Mary Tilke's, Newton Poppleford. Letters are received at 8,20 a.m., and despatched 
at 4.50 p.m. via Ottery St. Mary, which is the nearest Money Order Office, There is a Wall Lettek Box 
at Aylesbeare cleared at 4.35 p.m. week days only. Broadclyst is the nearest Money Order Office and Rail- 
way Station. This Directoey includes Newton Poppleford. ^ 



Ashford Charles, blacksmith, Newton Poppleford 

Ashford James, grocer, Newton Poppleford 

Bastine Samuel, boot and shoe maker, Newton Poppleford 

Bastyan Thos. grocer and provision dlr. Newton Poppleford 

Batstone Clement, farmer, Beaiitiporte 

Bayley James, factory manager, Newton Poppleford 

Beer Mrs Henrietta, farmer, Upton Barton, Newton 

Poppleford 
Berry Ellis, thatclier, Newton Poppleford 
Bolt John, farmer and road contractor. Browns 
Broom Edward, Ijlacksmith, Newton Poppleford 
Carwithen Rev. William H. M.A. vicar, The Vicarage 
Clarke George, dairyman. Homer 
Clarke Mrs Jane, farmer, Rill 
Cly.st William, farmer, Huntisbeare 
Coles Henry, fiirmer. Halls and Eveleighs 
Cooper John, mason, Newton Poppleford 
Ebdon Samuel, baker, Newton Poppleford 
Eveleigh George, carpenter and wheelwright 
Eveleigh Richard, farmer 

Payter John, boot and shoe maker, Newton Poppleford 
Giliard Robert, farmer and victualler. Halfway Hotel 
Ilallett William, baker and grocer, Newton Poppleford 
Ham Arthur, grocer and baker, Newton Poppleford 
Ham John, mason, Newton Poppleford 
Knowles Mrs Piiscilla, grocer, Newton Poppleford 
Newbery Giles, farmer and landowner, Manor farm 
Newton Walter, baker and victualler, Blue Anchor 
Ocock John, beer retailer, Newton Poppleford 



Parsons James, victualler, Exeter Inn, Newton PoppleforP 

Parsons William, Board school master, Newton Poppleford 

Peek George, i'armer 

Phillips John, farmer. Glebe farm 

Pile William, boot and shoo maker 

Plimsoll James, butcher 

Plimsoll Thomas, farmer and butcher. Lower Withen 

Podbury Thomas, cabinet maker, Newton Poppleford 

Pomeroy John, f;irmer, Topshayes 

Pratt William, dairyman 

Pring Francis, blacksmith 

Pring Richard, farmer 

Pring William, farmer, Parsons, Newton Poppleford 

Pyle James, carpenter and wheelwright 

Quaintanc9 William^ sexton 
j Quick Samuel, farmer, Minchen court 
j Retter David, farmer, Perkins 
I Eickard James, Board school master 
j Roberts Charles, butcher. New-ton Poppleford 
I Roberts James, china dler. & shopkpr. Newton Poppleford " 

Roberts William, grocer, New^ton Poppleford 

Roberts William, Inttcher, Newton Poppleford 

Sage William, tinplato worker, Newton Poppleford 

Salter Charles, farmer, Mount Rogers 

Sellek Echvard, farmer, Lansford, Newton Poppleford 

Small George, butcher, Newton Poppleford 

Small John, victualler. Cannon, Newton Poppleford 

Smeath Joseph, farmer, Aylesbeare Barton 

Smith Mr Abraham, Rosamondford 



Devoiisliire. 123 



Tremlett Mrs Mary 

Webber Robert, dairyman 

Wheaton Jonathan, carpenter, XeAvton Poppleford 

Wood William, thrown, silk manufacturer, Victoria Silk 
mills, Newton Poppleford ; h Lorver Clapham, London 

Carriers to Exeter — John Mitchell passes through Ncav- 
ton Poppleford Monday, AYednesday, and Saturday, 
returning same days ; and Jolin White passes through 
Wednesday and Friday, returning same days. 



Si)urway Oliver, baker and grocer, Newton Poppleford 

Squire John, tailor, Newton Poppleford 

Stile James, farmer, Nutwalls 

Street Robert, boot and shoe maker, Newton Poppleford 

Taylor George, boot and shoe maker 

Taylor Jonathan, farmer, Seniors, Newton Poppleford 

Taylor Jonathan, draper and grocer, Newton Poppleford 

Tilke Miss Mary, postmistress, Newton Poppleford 

Tozer John, shopkeeper and tailor 

BABBACOMBE. (See St. Marychurch.) 

BAMPTON, a parish and small market town, chiefly built of stone, is situated in the deep valley of 
the small river Batherm, about a mile above its confluence witli the Exe, 7 miles N. of Tiverton, and 
miles S.W. of Wivelscombe. It gives name to a hundred, and is in Tiverton union and county court 
district, Cullompton petty sessional division, Bampton polling district of North Devon, Exeter archdeaconry, 
and Tiverton West ruraf deanery. The parish extends 4 miles N. of the town, to the bold hills on the 
borders of Somerset, and nearly two-thirds of it arc in pasturage. It contained 1928 inhabitants (990 
males, 988 females) in 1871, living in 423 houses, on 778o acres of land. (See also ^ Vital Statistics,' 
page 82). The parish is divided into the Eastern, Western, Petton, and Town Quarters, and comprises the 
hamlets of Petton and Shillingford, and several extensive limestone quarries. Bampton is supposed to 
have been the Beamdune of the ancient historians, where the Britons were defeated by Cyneg-ilous, King of 
the West Saxons, in (314, when the former are said to have lost 204(3 men. The town is irregularly built, 
and has a chalybeate spring. Its weekly markets on Wednesday and Saturday are of trivial consequence ; 
but it lias two great markets for sheep and cattle, on the Wednesday before Lady-day, and the last 
Wednesday in November; and also two fairs on AVhit-Tuesday, and the last Thursday in October. The 
latter is a great horse fair, and one of the largest _ sheep fairs in the West of England, as many as 
14,000 being often brought to it. The sheep bred in this neighbourhood are remarkable for their size, 
and great numbers of tliem are sold at Bampton fairs. The woollen trade was formerly carried on here, 
but it began to decline in 1772, and was given up many years ago. The honour or barony of Bampton, or 
Bathermton, was given by William the (Conqueror to Walter Douay, and afterwards passed to the Paganell 
and Cogan families. In 1330, Richard Cogan had a license from the Crown to castellate his mansion here, 
and to enclose his wood of Uti'culme and 300 acres of land for a park. A mound near the town denotes the 
site of the Castle, but all traces of the building disappeared some centuries ago. Captain W. Leir, who 
has a mansion at Combhead, is lord of the manor ; and at the court leet, a portreeve, bailifi", &c., are 
appointed ; but the parish is all freehold and belongs to many proprietors, the largest of whom is C. A. W. 
Troyte, Esq., of Huntsham Court; but S. Lucas, Esq.. trustees of the late C. E. Rowliffe, Esq., and M. 
Bere, W. Rowlifl'e, T. C. Daniel, B. Loosemore, and J. Collins, Esqrs., Sir Henry Ferguson Davie, Bart., 
Captain W. Lear, W. N. Row, J. Trude, J. Badcock, J. Harris, and the Hon. M. Rolle have estates here. 
The Chuech (St. Michael) is a large ancient structure, with a tower and six bells. The interior has a 
finely ornamented arched coiling, and a carved oak screen. The churcli was repaired in 1872 at a cost of 
£300, given principally by Mr. Philips. Among its monuments is one to John Tristram, who died at 
Duvale in 1722. It had three small endowed chantries, and was appropriated to Buckland Abbey. The 
vicarage, valued in K.B. at £21 II*-. Sd., and now at £150, is in the patronage of J. Chichester Nagle, Esq., 
the impropriator of the great tithes which were commuted in 1843. The Rev. Edward Rendell, B.A., is 
the incumbent, and has 3a. 2r. 17p. of glebe. Pettoi^" Chapel, about 4 miles N.E. of the town, is a small 
chapel of ease, which was rebuilt in 1847 ; but that at Shillingford has been dilapidated many years. In 
the town is a neat Baptist Chapel, in the lancet-Gothic style, and also a Biele Christian Chapel. 
The School BoaFvD was formed on March 31, 1875, and now consists of Mr. Richard Densham (chairman), 
Mr. Francis Davys (vice), the Revs. Edward Rendell, B.A., and Edward Scott, and Mr. John T. Periam. 
Mr. Thomas Rowe Densham is clerk. In 1870 the parochial Infant School, built by subscription in 1858, 
was transferred to the Board, who are now erecting a new school, at Shillingford, to accommodate sixty 
scholars, at a cost, including furniture and building a teachers' residence, of £1000 ; and a Fp.ee School wa's 
founded in 1821 by Mrs. Elizabeth Penton, who endowed it with £2200 Five per cent. Stock, for the educa- 
tion of 100 children. It was further endowed by Mrs. Susanna Webbe witli £1000 like Stock. The poor 
parishioners have 26s. a year, distributed in bread weekly, left by Sir John Acland in 1619, and paid by 
Exeter Corporation. Out of a farm at Bishop's Hull, the poor have £4, and the cburchwardens IQs. 3^early, 
left by Robert Mogridge, in 1645. The poor have also the following yearly sums, viz. : — 36s. left by John 
Tristram, in 1628, out of Little Pilemore ; and £2 As. left by Elizabeth Lucas, in 1808, out of an estate now 
now belonging to S. Lucas, Esq. Bampton Bridge was rebuilt, in 1827, at the cost of £654. John de 
Bampton, a Carmelite friar, who first read lectures in Cambridge on the works of Aristotle, was a native of 
this parish, and died in 1391. 

Post and Moxey OpvDEr Office, Satixgs Bank, Government Anntjity and Insurance Office, 
at Mrs. Harriet Catford's, Fore Street. Letters are received at 6 a.m. and 3 p.m., and despatched at 7.25 
p.m. via Tiverton. Morebath is the nearest railway station. 

Bowden Alfred, farmer, Gumbland 
Bowden Mr Francis, Brook street 



Anstey John Dufty, miller, Shillingford mills 
Attwater Alexander Henly, surgeon. Mill head 
Beamer Lewis, victualler, Castle Inn, Castle street 
Besley Samuel, relieving officer and registrar of births and 
deaths, Brook street 



Bowden Thomas, vict. White Horse Tap, Fore street 
Bray John Wright, victualler,Tiverton Hotel, Britain street 
Bray William, tailor, Castle street 



124 



Saitiptoii, 



Eryan Mrs Ann, grocer, Brook street 

33ryant John, draper and tailor, Erook street 

Bryant John, tailor, Brook street 

Burge Mr John Kopor, Britain street 

Burrow William, miller. Town mills 

Cann Kobcrt, cooper. Brook street 

Capron John, collector of rates, Shillingford 

Catford JMrs Harriet, postmistress. Fore street 

Chard Mr Thomas Digglo, Barnhay cottage 

Chilcott John, baker, Luke street 

Collins John, Esq. J.P., Wonham house 

Cook George, miller. Tucking mills 

Cottrell Alfred, common carrier. Brook street 

Cottrell Janios, farmer. Ganders 

Cottrell William, victnaller. Angel Inn and carrier, Fore st 

Crudge John, grocer and ironmonger. Brook street 

Crudge Mr William, Southmolton road 

Crudge William, builder, Brook street 

Dart Ei chard Henry, grocer and draper. Castle street 

Davey Charles (D. & Hooper) ; h Silver street 

Davey & Hooper, agricultural implement makers, iSilver st 

Davey John, mason, Brook street 

Davey Thomas, farmer, Quartly 

Davey William, miller. Ford mill 

Densham Mr Richard, solicitor, Luke street 

Densham Thomas Row, solicitor & clerk to the Tiverton 

Highways District Board to Local Board and Bampton 

School Board, and agent for West of England Insurance 

Company, Luke street 
Down Robert, veterinary surgeon and agent for Royal 

Insurance Company, Fore street 
Elsworthy Mrs Ann, Daddiscombe 
Elsworthy James, blacksmith, Shillingford 
Endicott Joseph, grocer and draper. Fore street 
F]scott James, blacksmith. Brook street 
F^scott James, bootmaker, Brook street 
F]scott Walter, bootmaker, Brook street 
Escott William, confectioner. Brook street 
F^arrant Mrs Maria, South view cottage 
Finch Henry, butcher, Brook street 
Gale Walter, carpenter, Brook street 
Gare William, grocer and druggist, Newton square 
Gibbings Mrs Eliza, butcher and lessee of market tolls, 

Newton square 
Gillard Wm. Bird, victualler, Foxford Hotel 
Goddard Edward William, farmer, Dipford Down 
Gooding Edward, farmer. Grants 
Greenslade William, wheelwright, Petton 
Greenslade Robert, grocer, Shillingford 
Hawkins George, carpenter and farmer, Daleys 
Henson James & Francis, farmers, Dowhill farm 
Hill Mr Charles, Prospect cottage 
Hill Charles, thatcher. High street 
Hill Martin, victualler, Exeter Inn, Bampton road 
Hill William, farmer, Hayne 
Hobbs Ellas, watchmaker, Fore street 
Hobbs Mrs Jane, fancy repository. Fore street 
Hookway John, mason, Brook street 
Holcombe Nicholas, farmer, Sparkhayne 
Hooper Francis, agricultural implement maker (Davey & 

H.) ; h Silver street 
Inland Bevenue Office, Fore street 
Irish William, farmer, Wonham Barton 
Kemp Frank, farmer, Cudmoor 
Kemp John, farmer, Waterhouse 
Kerslake James, bootmaker. Brook street 
Langdon Henry, chemist, grocer, and agent for Briton 

Medical Life Insurance Company, Fore street 
Lazarus William, carrier. Brook street 
Legg Daniel, farmer, Duval Barton 
Levi Captain William, J.P. 

Local Board, Luke street ; Thomas R. Densham, clerk 
Lock Miss Eliza, Churchyard 
Lock Samuel, farmer, Bowbcirhill 



I 



-'jjgl 



Luxton Thomas Greenslade, builder, Petton 

Mantle Thomas, farmer, Rhyll 

May Miss Mary, milliner and dressmaker. Brook street 

MellhuiHh James, tailor, Shillingford 

Miles Thomas, beerhouse. Brook street 

Millman Abraham, victualler, Red Lion, Back street 

Moody H. L. outfitter. Brook street 

Moore Mark, bootmaker. Fore street 

]\Iurch John, farmer. Zeal 

Nason PklM'ard, surgeon. Castle street 

Needs Thomas, baker, Newton square 

Needs William, baker, W>stgate street 

Nott Henry, ironmonger. Brook street 

Oxenham Henry, carpenter and joiner, Westgatc street. 

Palfrey Thomas, farmer, Holcombe 

Paul John, carpenter, Shillingford 

Pearse Henry, farmer, Birchdown 

Pearse Richard, painter. High street 

Periam John Trowey, brewer, wine and spirit merchant," 

stamp distributor, and agent for Stuckey's Banki 

Company, Britain street 
Phillips John, builder. Silver street 
Phillips Mr John Gooding, Home cottage 
Police Station, Britain street ; — Chappie, sergeant 
Rendell Rev Edward, B.A. vicar. The Vicarage 
Restarick William, draper and grocer. Brook street 
Rockett John, farmer, Pipshayne 
Row Mrs & Miss Farrant, ladies' boarding and day school, 

Brook street 
Row Thomas, solicitor. Brook street 
Salisbury Edward, farmer, Vennmans 
Salter Edwin, farmer, Ben shays 
Sampson John Robert, baker, Westage street 
Scott Rev Edward (Baptist), Fore street 
Serle Samuel, beerhouse keeper & wheelwright, Newton sq 
Short Jacob, Mill head 

Short John, saddler and harness maker. Fore street 
Sloman John, farmer, Brimridge 
Slocombe George, farmer. North Hriyne 
Snell Henry John, boarding and day school, and agent for 

the Sun Insurance Company, Rose house 
Staddon Richard Lewis, cabinet maker and parish clerk, 

F'ore street 
Staddon Robert, auctioneer, and agent for the Royal 

Farmers' Insurance Company, Fore street 
Stam]} Office ; John T. Periam, distributor 
Stokes George, victualler. White Horse Hotel 
Stuckey's Banking Co. Britain street ; J. T. Periam, agci 
Surridge Wilham, Mill head 

Sweet Thomas, sen. farmer, Luttrell ^^h 

Sweet Thomas, jun. farmer, Langs w^H 

Thorn William, carpenter and joiner. High street ^i 

Townsend Frederick, national schoolmaster. High street 
Toze John, jun. harness maker. Brook street 
Trapnell Richard, farmer. Barton 

Trickey Mrs Hannah, victualler, Swan Inn, Luke street ^ 
Trickey Robert, tailor, Westgate street 
Trude John, farmer, Westbrook 
Turner Mr Robert, Churchyard 
Vicary Richard & James, butchers, Castle street ^ 
W^arren James, dairyman. Lower Rhyll 
Watkins Rev William, B.A. curate, South view house 
Webber James, grocer. Brook street 
Webber William, builder and ironmonger. Brook street 
Wensley Mrs Jane, day school. Brook street 
Whitfield William, bootmaker. Castle street 
Williams James, tailor, Luke street 
Winsborow William, farmer. Blights 
Winter Robert, farmer, Coldharbour 
Wood Sidney Smith, Back street 

Young Miss Sarah, Infant Board school mistress. Fore st 
Cakrieks — Alfred Cottrell to Morehath for Bampioa Slu- 

tion daily. William Cottrell to Tiverton, Tues. and Sat, ; 

AVilliam Lnzarus, to Tiverton Tues. and Exeter Fri. 



rent 



II>evoiiHliire. 125 

BARNSTAPLE, the principal port, market town, and borough in North Devon, gives name to a parish, 
a large poor law union, a county court and polling district, an archdeaconry and a deanery, is in Braun- 
ton hundred, and the borough has a commission of the peace, and a separate court of qunrter sessions. 
Barnstaple, which is a very ancient borough, is distant 40 miles N.W. of Exeter, 9 miles N.E. of Bideford, 
11 miles W.N.W. of South Molton, and' 192 miles W. by S. of London. Barnstaple parish had 3748 
inhabitants in 1801 ; 4019 in 1811 ; 5079 in 1821 ; 6840 in 1831 ; 7902 in 1841 ; 8GG7 in 18ol ; 8127 in 1801 ; 
and 8918 (4041 males and 4877 females) in 1871, living in 1717 houses, on 1102 acres of land. Barnstaple 
municipal borough, which comprises Barnstaple parish and parts of those of Bishop'.;^ Tawton and Pilton, 
had 11059 persons (5211 males and 0448 females) at the last census, living in 2318 houses; there .were then 
02 houses uninliabited and 18 building. The boundaries of the parliamentary borough werer extended by 
31 & 32 Vict. c. 46, so as to include a further part of Pilton parish ; this part had in 1871 154 inhabi- 
tants (83 males and 71 females), living in 31 houses, thus making the population of the parliamentary 
borough 11,813, and the number of its inhabited houses 2349. The return for the parish includes 247 




a handsome bridge. Below the bridge the stream expands into a broad tidal estuary, abounding in salmon 
and other fish, and flowing seven miles westward, where it empties itself into the Torridge estuary. The 
North Devon Railway from Exeter to Barnstaple, opened in 1854, is now extended to Bideford and Torring- 
ton ; and in 1874 the line to Ilfracombe was completed. The Railway Station is on the Tawstock side of 
the river, which is here crossed by an iron bridge of seventeen arches ; and on the Barnstaple side of the river 
is the Quay Station. The Taunton and Barnstaple Branch of the Great Western Railway was opened in 
1873, and has a station in Victoria Road. The town has been much improved and enlarged during the last 
twenty years, and extends about a mile in length, including its suburbs of Pilton and Newport. Many new" 
buildings have been erected on all sides of the town, and several new streets and roads made. 

Barnstaple (or Barum) was called in British Abertmve, and has been suggested as the Celtic town Artavia. 
3Sritish pottery, as well as flint arrow heads, knives and celts have been found in the neighbourhood ; the latter 
have led some to think that there was a manufactory of Celtic weapons here. Only a few Roman antiquities 
have been found. Barnstaple Castle was the supposed work of the Danes, but nothing remains of it save 
the artificial mound on which it stood. Tradition tells us that Athelstane repaired the castle and the fortifi- 
cations of the town after he had driven the allied Danes and Britons beyond the Tamar. It is said that ho 
granted the town a charter, and bestowed upon the inhabitants * divers liberties, freedoms and immunities.' 
The town has even claimed to have sent representatives to the Witena-gemote, but there is good reason to 
believe that no representatives wliatever were admitted into that assembly. Athelstane also founded Pilton 
Priory, as noticed at a subsequent page. At the Norman Conquest, Barnstaple was divided into the three 
manors of the Castle Manor, or the ancient town within the walls; the Fee of Magdalene, or Priory of St. 
Mary Magdalene ; and the manor of llog's Fee. The two former, if not the latter, exercised separate juris- 
dictions down to the beginninir of the 17th century. William I. granted the former manor to Judael de 
Totness, who repaired the town walls and strengthened the castle. At Domesday Survey there w^ere forty 
burgesses within the borough, and nine without, and the inhabitants were exempted from serving on any 
expedition, or paying taxes, except at the same time as Exeter and Totnes. The Barony and Castle of Barn- 
staple was escheated at the banishment of Judael de Totness in the reign of William II., and was kept as a 
royal demesne until Stephen granted it to Henry de Tracy. It passed through various hands until Quee}i 
Mary gave it to Thomas Marrow, whose son sold it to Sir John Chichester, Knight. The latter, in 1560, 
conveyed the manor, with the exception of the site of the castle, to the Corpoi:ation, who still hold it. The 
condition on which the Corporation held the manor was to give two fish dinners yearly to Sir John Chichester 
or his representatives, but these were compounded at the beginning of the present century for £1 paid yearly 
to the local charities. One of the former holders, James Lord Audleigh, greatly distinguished himself at tlu; 
battle of Poictiers (1356), and was rewarded by Edward III. with gifts of land. The Corporation also owns 
the manor of Hog's Fee. Barnstaple Priory, dedicated to St. Mary Magdalene, was founded b}'- Judael de 
Totness, the first Norman lord, and made dependent on St. Martin's-in-the-Field, near Paris, but was made- 
denizen in the 15th century, and so continued until the Dissolution, when it was valued at £123 Gs. 7cl It 
was afterwards granted to William, Lord Howard of Effingham. 

In 1228 the slierilf of Devon w^as directed to reduce the walls of Barnstaple Castle, so as not to exceed 10ft. 
in height. But when Leland visited Barnstaple, the wall was almost 'clene faullen,' and the castle in ruins. 
Barnstaple was a naval station in 1344, as is proved by its being one of the places which sent representatives 
to a naval parliament Edward III. called together. Besides equipping five ships for the fleet which destro3'ed 
the Spanish Armada^ it sent out several privateers, one of which returned %vith a prize taken on the coast of 
Guinea, ' having in her four chests of gold, worth £16,000,' and other articles of great value. In consequence 
of the plague being at Exeter, the spring assizes were held at Barnstaple, in 1590, when eighteen prisoners 
were hanged on the Castle-green. During the civil wars, Barnstaple was strongly attached to the interests 
of the Parliament. It was taken for the King by Prince Maurice, in September, 1643. In July following, 
the inhabitants rose and took possession of the town, and the Earl of Es«ex sent Lord Roberts and Sir P. 
Stapleton, with about 500 horse, who repulsed Digby and others sent to the relief of the royalists. The Earl 
of Essex then garrisoned the town, but it surrendered on honourable terms to General Goring, in September. 
; In October 1645, the clubmen of Devon declared for the Parliament, and killed several of the royalists at 
Barnstaple, where Sir A. Apsley was then governor. The Prince of Wales resided here during this time for two 
months, indulging in those pleasures which afterwards earned for him the unenviable surname of the ' Merry 
Monarch.' In March, 1640, Sir Thomas Fairfax blockaded the town, which surrendered to him on April 10, 



126 



B 111*11 «tai>le , 



after the fall of Exeter. The ancient chapel of St. Nicholas, on the (^uay, formerly belon«i;ing to a fraternity 
and abolished at the Dissolution, was used as the Quay Hall until about thirty years ago, when it was pulled 
down. The chapel of St. Anne, in the churchyard, which has ever since its desecration been used as the 
Grammar School, has been recently restored, and is a noteworthy building-, the only one remaining of the 
many chapels Barnstaple once possessed. 

CoiiPOiiATioN, &c. — llisdon says Henry I. incorporated the borough, and that King John enlarged its 
privileges. This last charter is recited and conhrmed by Edward IV. in the seventeenth year of his reign. 
The charter of James I. adds a high steward, recorder, &c. Previous to the Municipal lleform Act of 18'3o, the 
government of the borough was vested in the mayor, high steward, recorder, two aldermen, and twenty-two 
common councilmen. Since the 'JSvd of Edward I. the borough has always sent two members to Parliament, and 
until 1832 the right of election was vested in the corporate body and burgesses. Among the records in tl 
Tower are some inquisitions taken in the reign of Edward VI., in consequence of a dispute between the lo: 
of the manor and the burgesses, the latter claiming various privileges and the right of choosing a mayor, s; 
to have been granted by a lost charter of Athelstane. The municipal borough is divided into two wards 
namely, the north ward, containing (5517 inhabitants in 1871, and the south ward, containing 5142. Th^ 
borough is governed by a mayor, recorder, six aldermen, and eighteen councillors. An Act for improving the 



wo 

i 



» 



town and regulating the markets was obtained in 1818, and another for enlarging the market place in 1851 
but the Improvement Commissioners are no longer in existence, their powers being transferred, through tl' 
adoption of the Local Government Act, to the Corporation. The receipts of the Corporation, including ren 
of municipal property, customary rents and quay rents, averaging about £800, with borough rate and miscel- 
laneous receipts, making a total of about £0000 a year. The payments and expenditure of this income are 
arranged under the diflerent heads of salaries, police, justice, lighting, sewerage, streets and highways, public 
works, &c. Several thousand pounds have also been borrowed of late years for permanent works and im- 
provements, in addition to the ordinary income. The markets, tolls, and dues form a separate account. The 
receipts, amounting to about £1200, are usually applied in maintaining the markets ; taxes and interest on 
the debt, and the surplus in providing a sinking fund for paying off the same. The remaining debt last year 
was £d-j7o. 

PARLIAMENTARY REPRESENTATIVES. 

Thomas Cave, Esq., and Samuel Danks Waddy, Esq., Q.G. 

LoKD High Steward oy the Borough — The Hon. Mark llolle. 



TOWN COUNCIL. 

MAYOR— C. S. Willshire, Esq. 
EECORDEPv— Charles J. Murch, Esq. 

ALDERMEN. 

C- S. Willshire, R. Budd, and T. W. M. W. Guppy, who retire in 1880 ; J. R. Chanter, C. E. Palmer, and 



J. M. Miller, who retire in 1883. 
COUNCILLORS. 








North 


Ward. 


Retires 




Sou 


TH Ward. 


RetiS 


W. Avery . 






. 1878 


AV. Fletcher . 






. 1878 


G. Brown 






. 1878 


J. I. Ivnill . 






. 1878 


J. E, Bavlis . 






. 1878 


J. D. Young . 






. 1878 


J. D. Thomas . 






. 1879 


C. H. Gamble 






. 1879 


J. Harper 






. 1879 


J. Pulsford . 






. 1879 


A. Lauder 






. 1879 


J. Channon 






. 1879 


J. Harris 


\ 




. 1880 


W. Westacott. 






. 1880 


John List 






. 1880 


J. Brady 






. 1880 


C. E. Northcote 






. 1880 


W. J. Sleath . 






. 1880 



Town Clerk, Lionel Thomas Bencraft, Esq. 

Clerk of the Peace, John Hy. Toller, Esq. | Coroxer, Richard Incledon Bencraft, Esq. 

Clerk to Magistrates, Richard Incledon Bencraft, Esq. 

Borough Treasurer, Henry Xing Thorne, Esq. 

Inspector of Weights and Measures, Mr. J. Chappie. 

Superintendent of Police, Mr. George Longhurst. 

Sergeants-at-Mace, Messrs. John Hopkins and William Chanter. 

Inspector of Nuisances, Mr. George Yeo. | Town Crier, Mr. H. J, Hancock. 

Beadles, Messrs. II. J. Hancock and William Gabriel. 



Barnstaple Union, which comprises .39 parishes, had 37,400 inhabitants (17,513 males and 19,89 
females) in 1871, living in 7710 houses, on 140,914 acres of land ; the area of the union includes also 281o 
acres of water. In April, 1871, there were 371 houses uninhabited, and 07 building. At the census of 18' 
the population was 30,293 (10,877 males and 19,410 females) ; the number of inhabited houses 7550; un 
habited 422 ; and those building 37. In the union there were three persons who were blind from birth, 
39 others ; 10 deaf and dumb ; 44 idiots or imbeciles ; nine lunatics ; 05 inmates ot hospitals ; 247 in 



815 

1 



I>evoiisliire. 



127 



workhouse, and six in prison. The Union Workhouse is a large stone building, which was erected in 1837 
at a cost of £4000, including £900 paid for the land. The House has been since enlarged, at a further outlay 
of £1500, and has room lor 320 paupers. It had 247 in April 1871. The Board of Guardians meets at 
the Union House every Friday morning, at 11.30 a.m. The expenditure of the union in 1849 was 
£13,974, and for the year ended Lady-day 1870, £24,384. William Henry Toller, Esq., is union clerk and 
superintendent registrar; the llev. A. E. Seymour, chaplain ; Mr. Wm. and Mrs. Ann Muxworthy, master and 
matron of the wol'khouse ; Mr. W. H. Rice, porter ; Messrs. Fernie, Jackson, and Hartley are union medical 
officers and officers of health for the Rural Sanitary Authority ; Messrs. Henry Hooper (Barnstaple), Philip 
Taylor (Lynton), James Richards (Kentisbury), James Stephens (Ilfracombe), Richard Vicary (Piltou), and 
John Clement (Newport), are the relieving officers ; the registrars of births and deaths are Messrs. Henr}^ 
Hortop (Barnstaple), John Clements (Newport), and Richard Vicary (Pilton). 

Tlie following is an enumeration of the parishes in the union, showing their territorial extent, number 
of inhabited houses and population, in 1871, and their present rateable value : — 



Paiislies, &c. 



II 



Arlington 
Ashford 
Atherington . 
Barnstaple 
Berrynarbor . 
Bishop's Tawton . 
Bittadon • 
Bratton Fleming . 
Braunton 
Brendon 
Challacombe . 
Combmartin . 
Countisbury . 
East Down . 
Fremmington. 
Georgeham . 
Goodleigh 
Heaton Punchardon 
Highbray 
Horwood , 



Acres 


Inhab. 


Popu- 


Rateable ' 


Houses 


lation 


value 


• 






£ 


2535 


41 


240 


2549 


359 


33 


152 


740 1 


3326 


110 


578 


3092 


1102 


1717 


8918 


20640 


j 4958 


159 


751 


4721 


, 4263 


402 


1904 


8690 


1 1018 


10 


56 


885 1 


1 5845 


129 


578 


5771 i 


11983 


439 


2114 


10436 ' 


1 6733 


48 


252 


2031 


5343 


oQ 


283 


2864 i 


3815 


337 


1418 


4517 ii 


3512 


43 


209 


1465 :; 


3643 


84 


406 


3644 II 


i 6810 


273 


1324 


7439 ! 


i 4229 


165 


716 


4607 1 


1 1167 


64 


261 


1402 


1 3020 


105 


516 


3678 11 


4273 


50 


250 


3178 |! 


860 


24 


118 


842 , 

i 



Parishes, &c. 



Ilfracombe 
In stow . 
Kentisbury . 
Land key 
Loxhore 
Lynton . 
Marwood 
Martinhoe 

5 Mortliue 

6 Newton Tracey 

2 Paracombe 

5 Pilton . 

3 Sherwill 

3 Stoke Fivers . 

1 Swimbridge . 

6 Tawstock 

2 Trentishoe 

4 West Down . 
6 Westlcigh 

Total . 



Acres 



5583 
1916 
3129 
3162 
1530 
7193 
5396 
2549 
4621 
3S6 
4363 
1861 
4762 
2426 
7280 
6582 
1571 
4059 
2616 



149729 



Inhab. 
Houses 



954 

127 

76 

141 

57 

240 

216 

36 

66 

30 

76 



Popu- 
lation 



4721 
647 
424 
671 
237 
1170 
995 
210 
352 
108 
366 
435 2033 



Rateable 
value 



107 


525 


38 


208 


311 


1422 


247 


1199 


23 


106 


110 


492 


101 


476 


7710 


37406 



£ 
23412 
2474 
2989 
4412 
1366 
6566 
4961 
1126 
2986 

501 
3359 
5955 
4224 
2120 
6496 
7617 

894 
4155 
2855 



180659 



Notes. — Marked 1 are in Barnstaple sub-registration district ; 2 in Paracombe ; 3, Combmartin ; 4, Ilfracombe ; 
6, Braunton, and 6, Bishop's Tawton. 

Petty Sessions for the borough are held at the Guildhall every alternate Thursday at 12 o'clock. 
The Magistrates are The Mayor (C. S. Willshire, Esq.), The Recorder (C. J. Murch, Esq.), W. Avery, 
G. Brown, R. Budd, M.I3., J. R. Chanter, C. Crasweller, John M. Fisher, C. H. Gamble, T. W. M. W. 
Guppy, J. Harper, J. M. Miller, and W. H. Toller. IncledonBencraft, Esq., is their clerk. 

The County Court for all the parishes in Barnstaple union, except Horwood, Instow and A^'estleigh, is 
held at the Guildhall monthly ; Mr. Serjt. Petersdorff is judge ; L. T. Bencraft, Esq., registrar; and Mr. II. 
K. Thorne, high bailiff. 

Petty Sessions for Braunton petty sessional division (for places, see page 27), are held every 
alternate Wednesday at the Bridge Hall, and the magistrates for the division, are the Rev. J. Arthur, 
Sir B. P. Wrey, Sir A. Chichester, Sir A. B. P. Chichester, C. F. Bailey, Esq., the Rev. A. C. 
Bassett, W. Currey, Esq., R. Chichester, Esq., T. J. Dennis, Esq., George C. Davie, Esq., Lieut.-Col. W. 
Harding, Col. Hibbert, W. H. Hallidav, Esq., (Jage J. Hedge, Esq., T. S. Law, Esq., G. N. Maule, Esq., 
the Rev. II. W. Toms, N. Vye, Esq., the Rev. H. B. Wrey, C.H. Webber, Esq., C. H. Williams, Esq., and 
Colonel R. B. Russell. T. H. Law, Esq., of Barnstaple, is their clerk. 

The Guildhall, in High Street, is a handsome and spacious edifice in the Grecian style. In the public 
room are the portraits of the thirty-one corporators and other worthies of Barnstaple, given to the town in 
1738 by Sir John Chichester and Theophilus Fortescue, Esq., then representatives of the borough. The 
portraits were painted by Hudson, and his pupil, Sir Joshua Reynolds, is said to have assisted in painting the 
draperies. 

The Borough Gaol, in Castle Street, a substantial structure of stone and flint, was built in 1875, at a 
cost of £oOOO; in lieu of the old Borough Prison and Bridewell in the Square, which has been converted 
into cottages. There are twenty cells certified for male criminals and ten for female, as well as one punish- 
ment cell for each sex, making a total of thirty-two certified cells. On September 29, 187C, there were 
: eight prisoners (four male and four female), being three less than on September 29, 187o. The average daily 
number of persons in custody for the year ended September 29, 1876, was ll-2o. The number of persons 
sentenced to different terms of imprisonment during the year was seventy-six, and the average number in 
custody for the preceding five years 9*75. The greatest number at any one time during the year was nine- 



1^8 UiAl'iistiiplo 



teen ; the average greatest number, taken from the average greatest number at any one time during each of 
the preceding live years, sixteen ; the number of re-committals during ihe year of criminals known to have 
been previously imprisoned at any time or in any prison, twenty-six. The estimated value of work done for 
the prison, and the net profit on work done during tlie year by the prisoners, was £00 Is. Ad. The total 
ordinary expenditure of the prison, including the salaries of all the officers for tiie year ended September 29, 
187G, was £'.'>59 '2s. ; the average weekly cost of food per prisoner, 2s, 'o\il. This prison has to be discon- 
tinued forthwith by the ' Prisons Act,' and the prisoners hitherto sent there are to be sent to I'^xeter County 
Gaol. Mr. llichard Webber is governor ; Mrs. Annie Webber, matron ; tlie llev. Joseph Gilford, M.A., 
chaplain ; and J. W. Cooke, Esq., surgeon. 

Trade, Commerce, &c. — The Market and Fairs of Barnstaple have for a long period been in high 
repute, and much resorted to. In the reign of Edward III. it cl.aimed two weekly markets, on Wednesday 
and Friday, and they continued to be held till 1700. The market is now held on Friday only, and is an 
extensive mart for corn, and all sorts of provisions. Four great cattle markets or fairs are held on thi; 
Fridays before March 21 and April 21, on the last Friday in July, and on the second Friday in December ; 
but the great 'Barnstaple Fair commences on the Wednesday before September 19, and continues several 
days, the first day for cattle, &c., the second for horses, &c., and succeeding days for amusement. This fair 
is one of the largest in the county, both for business and pleasure ; and on the second day a stag hunt take^^Bj 
place, starting on the borders of Exmoor. The money expended at this fair* in the purchase of cattl^B 
often amounts to £20,000. A new Market House was erected in 1854, and comprises a grand ball for the 
pale of vegetable and general produce, capable of containing many thousand persons, being 350 feet long by 
70 feet wide, and very lofty ; thirty-live butcher and other shops ; a large corn market ; and over the Market 
Hall is a Music Hall. A Fisli Market has more recently been erected adjoining the above ; the expense 
altogether amounting to more than £10,000. The staple trade of the towm, from a very early period till the 
latter part of the last centur}^, was the manufacture of woollen goods, termed duroys, tammies, serges, 
shalloons, baizes, flannels, plushes, &c., but this trade is now obsolete in the town. Here are, however, 
several woolstaplers, a large lace factory, many malting establishments, four tanneries, two potteries, an 
extensive shipbuilding-yard, and several brush makers, ropers, &c. Since 1822, when bonded warehouses 
were established here, the port has had a foreign trade, and goods are now imported from the Baltic, France, 
Spain, Portugal, North America, &c. An extensive coasting trade is also done, importing coals, timber, 
iron, groceries, spirits, porter, freestone, &c., and exporting grain, wool, bark, leather, &c. The Port of 
Barnstaple includes Ilfracombe, Combemartin, Linton, and all that part of the coast of Devon extending 
north-east from the mouth of the Taw. The total value of the exports of foreign and colonial merchandise 
at Barnstaple was £29,032 in 1872, £27,879 in 1873, £24,084 in 1874, £10,100 in 1875, and £17,934 in 
187G. Tlie gross amount of Customs' revenue received during the same years was respectively £8848, 
£8039, £8908, £9580, and £10,158. The value of the total exports was nil in 1872, 1873, and 1875, £510 
in 1874, and £8 in 1870. The number and tonnage of steam and sailing vessels, including their repeated 
voyages, that entered and cleared with cargo, From and to Foreign Countries in 1870 was — entered, 
7 sailers, 2045 tons ; cleared, nil ; From and to British Possessions — entered, 2 sailers, 490 tons ; 
cleared, nil; there were none of either class in ballast. Coastwise (with cargoes), employed in the 
general coasting trade — entered, 1370 sailers, 00,055 tons; 150 steamers, 11,554 tons; total, 1520 vessels, 
78,209 tons: cleared, 122 sailers, 5031 tons; 102 steamers, 8007 tons; total, 224 vessels, 13,098 tons. 
Employed in the intercourse between Great Britain and Ireland — entered, 11 sailers, 704 tons; cleared, 
1 sailer, 44 tons; steamers, nil. In ballast: Emploved in the general coasting trade — e^itered,^ sailers, 
108 tons, 278 steamers, 21,043 tons; total, 281 vessels, 21,811 tons; cleared, 1283 sailers, 00,800 tons; 
317 steamers, 24.140 tons ; total, 1000 vessels, 84,940 tons : Employed in the intercourse between Great 
Britain and Ireland, nil. Thus the grand total is — entered, 1393 sailers, 70,122 tons ; 428 steamers, 
33,197 tons; total, 1821 vessels, 103,319 tons; cleared, 1400 sailers, 05,875 tons; 419 steamers, 32,213 
tons ; total, 1825 vessels, 98,088 tons. Three vessels were Norwegian, 1 Turkish, 2 United States, 1 
Central and Southern America, and 2 British North America. The total number of vessels belonging 
Barnstaple, with their tonnage, registered under the Merchant Shipping Acts on December 31, 1870, wj 
03 sailers, 2724 tons ; 1 steamer, 15 tons. The number of boats registered under the Sea Fisheries Ac 
1808, was 109, and their aggregate tonnage 254 ; 84 boats had their certificates endorsed in 1870, and 2i 
men and boys are required to work them ; 50 men and boys, constantly employed in fishing, are residei 
within the limits of the port ; and there are 100 persons, other than regular fishermen, that are occasional' 
emploved in fishing. During 1870, four vessels of wood were built at Barnstaple, and these had a tonnj 
of 781 tons. 

The Custom House is a plain building, and Richard White, Esq., is the collector; and Mr. J. 
Gale, examining officer. The Inland Revenue Ofpice is in Bridge Hall Chambers ; W. G. Reed, Esc 
is the collector ; Mr. W. Ley, supervisor ; Mr. Stephen Baker, supervisor of taxes ; and Mr. John Parke 
chief clerk. The present commodious Quay was constructed by the Town Council in lieu of the smalle 
ones which were required for the railway to Ilfracombe. Mr. G. B. Pearse is the harbour master. 

The town has three Banks, besides a branch of the Exeter Savings Bank ; a handsome TheatrI 
in Boutport Street, built in 1834, at the cost of about £1000, and a commodious Assembly Room, 
Boutport Street, erected in 1800, at an outlay of £1100, raised in £30 shares. 

Barnstaple Parish Church (St. Peter and St. Paul), a large ancient structure, consisting of nave, 
aisles, chancel, and a low tower on the south side, containing six bells,' and crowned by a spire, is said to 
have been rebuilt about 1318, and enlarged and altered at subsequent periods. A work of thorough 
restoration was commenced in 1807, under the auspices of the late vicar, the Rev. G. I. Wallas, and up to 
tlie present time upwards of £5000, raised solely by subscription, has been spent upon the works. The 



I>evoiisliiire. 129 



south aisle and the steeple were completed in 1867, and half the nave reseated with oak ; the chancel and 
chancel aisles were restored in 1872, an organ chamber built, and the grand old organ, given by Sir George 
Amyand, one of the borough members in 1764, restored and removed from the gallery. The restoration of 
the north aisle and the remainder of the nave still remains to be done, at an estimated outlay of £2000. The 
pulpit is of ancient carved oak. The east window was filled with stained glass in 1854. The west window 
is enriched with splendid stained glass, executed by Mr. W. F. Dixon, of London, and illustrative of 
the miracles of St. Peter and St. Paul ; it was inserted by the parishioners in 1872, at a cost of £256, 
in commemoration of tlie recovery of the Prince cf Wales from his illness in 1871-2. The Communion plate, 
consisting of two chalice.'^, two flagons, and two patens of massive silver, was presented to the church in 
1684 by the parishioners. The living is a vicarage, valued in K.B. at £15 8s. 9cl, and now at £324, in the 
patronage of Earl WharnclifFe, and incumbency of the Rev. Albert Eden Seymour, M.A. The Rev. F. H. 
Balby is curate. There is a vicarage house. The tithes were commuted in 1841, the vicarial for £245 and 
the rectorial for £36. The great tithes were appropriated to Malmesbury Priory, and afterwards passed with 
the Priory estate to the Incledon family. 

Holy Trinity Church, in the Barbican, was originally built in the year 1843, by the Rev. John 
James Scott, M.A., the first patron and incumbent; but so badly was it constructed that in 1868 it 
became necessary to take the edifice, with the exception of the tower, down, and to rebuild it on a some- 
what different plan, from the designs of Mr. W. White, of London. The cost of the work was £2300, 
raised by subscription ; and the church, which consists of nave, north and south aisles, apsidal chancel, and 
tower, will seat 450 persons. The tower which was built in 1847, is very handsome, rises to a height of 
133 feet, contains two bells, and is surmounted by eight pinnacles. The church was opened in 1870. The 
^eats are open and of oak ; the pulpit and lectern of Caen stone ; and the font, which is the same as was in 
che old church, was presented by Dr. Budd. The church contains a good organ by Holditch, London. The 
ive windows, of two lights each, are filled with stained glass ; and in the south aisle is a brass in memory of 
;he Rev. A. M. Loring, a former vicar, who died in 1874. A new organ was added in April, 1878, at a cost 
)f £500. A district was assigned the church in 1846, and had 2068 inhabitants, in 1871, living on 47 acres 
)f land. The living, a vicarage endowed with £lOOO by the founder, and a like sum by the Rev. A. M. 
Loring in 1874, is in the patronage of the Bishop of the diocese and incumbency of the Rev. Henry W. 
Majendie, M.A., who resides in a handsome house, standing in pleasant grounds, near the church. 

The Church of St. Mary Magdali^ne, standing at the head of 13ear Street, was erected in 1846, and 
3 a handsome building consisting of nave, north and south aisles, chancel and tower crowned by a spire, 
md rising to a height of 115 feet. The nave and aisles are neatly fitted up with upwards of 800 free sittings. 
The burial ground comprises an acre, and the cost of the church was about £4500, raised chiefly by grants 
ind partly by subscription. The living, a vicarage, endowed by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners with £150 
I year, is in the alternate patronage of the Crown and the Bishop of Exeter, and incumbency of the 
Jlev. Henry John Bull, M.A. The district was assigned the church in 1844, and it had 2835 inhabitants 
a 1871. 

The Rev. Jonathan Hammer, the author of many works, and the grandfather of the poet Gay, was ejected 
rom the vicarage of Bishop's Tawton in 1662, and was the first minister of the Independent Church 
yhich assembled in a building in Castle Street. He died in 1687. One of his successors, the Rev. Samuel 
3adcock, was minister here from 1770-78, but he afterwards joined the Established Church, and became 
] 3ishop of Ross. The Independent and Presbyterian congregations were united here about the middle of 
ast century. The first chapel on the present site was erected in 1705, and rebuilt in 1839 at a cost of 
U600, but was again rebuilt in 1870 at an outlay of £3000. The chapel contains a good organ, and will 
eat 700 persons. The Rev. John Rutty is the pastor. The Jubilee Sunday Schools, at the corner of Cross 
street, were erected in 1859 at an expense of £1000, in commemoration of the 50th anniversary of the first 
penin^ of the schools. The Baptist Church was formed in 1814, but it was not until 1824 that the 
bapel in Vicarage Lane was built. The chapel in Boutport Street, which was erected in 1860 in lieu of one 
•uilt in 1833, has sittings for 810 persons. The school and minister's house were erected in 1870 at a cost 
if £503. The Wesleyan Chapel in Boutport Street was built in 1868, at an outlay of £1860, in the style 
'f the 14th century, on the site of one erected in 1814, and has accommodation for 900 hearers. An 
a'gan was added in 1875, at a cost of £400. The Wesleyan Schools, in Gay don Street, were built in 1852, 
.nd the Iniimt School and minister's house added in 1858 at a cost of £320. The Brethren have a chapel 
n Grosvenor Street, which was erected in 1848, and which will seat 800 persons. The school was built in 
856 for a Sunday school, but in 1872 a day school was formed, and is under the management of Mr. Muller, 
if Bristol. The Bible Christian Chapel, in Bear Street, was erected in memory of the late Mr. James 
?horne, one of the founders of this sect, in 1876, at a cost of £2500, raised by subscription. There is a 
:allery on the south-west side, and all the fittings are of pitch pine. The Roman Catholic Church (St. 
vlary of the Immaculate Conception) in Church Street was erected in 1855 in the Norman style, and will 
lold 250 persons. A presbytery was built at the same time ; the school was erected in 1853. The 
ntire cost was about £5000. The Rev. Mgr. Brindle is provost, and resides at the presbytery. 

Barnstaple School Board was formed on Feb. 25, 1871, and now consists of Alexander Lauder, Esq. 
chairman), Charles S. Willshire (vice), the Rev. PI. J. Bull, J. E. Baylis, Esq., J. P. Ffinch, Esq., W. 
^letcher, Esq., and T. M. Hall, Esq. W. Law, Esq. is their clerk. 

The Grammar School is held in an ancient building in the churchyard, and is repaired by the corpo- 
ation. In consideration of the undermentioned endowments, the head master is required to teacli one free 
cholar, who receives a classical education in common with about thirty other boys, mostly day pupils. Mr. 
^homas Wainwright, the head master, takes in ten or twelve boarders. The endowments consist of an 
nnuity of £10, left by Richard Ferris in 1646, and £3 a year as the interest of £100 left by the Rev. John 

I 



130 Barnstaple, 

Wright in 1700. At this school were educated John Jewel, Bishop of Salisbury, and his great polemicul 
opponent, Thomas Harding, the Jesuit professor at Louvain j also Gay, the poet, the learned antiquarian Dr. 
Musgrave, and very probably Sir John Doddridge. 

The Blue Coat Endowed Schools, in the North Walk, were erected in 1844, the boys' and girls' 
schools having been previously held in separate buildings. They form a handsome stone building with resi- 
dences for the head teachers, and were originally intended for the accommodation of 50 boys and 30 girls, 
who were clothed from the proceeds of the endowment. Within the last few years the girls have, however, 
been transferred to the Girls' National School, and their clothing has been discontinued ; whilst the number of 
pupils in the boys' school average about 110, all of whom pay a quarterly fee, dependent on the means of 
their parents, and 40 still receive clothing from the general fund. The boys' school was established by 
subscription, a.d. 1710, and various donations of money and rent-charges have been made to it from time to 
time. An estate called Francis and Bowden, at Ilfracombe, was purchased in 1746, at a cost of £1150, which, 
however, included £100 belonging to the Penrose's Almhouse, to which the estate pays £4 per annum. This 
estate consists of a farm of 160 acres, let on lease at £160 a year. The total yearly income of the school 
from the above-named sources, together with an investment of £115 4s. 6d. in Consols, amounts to about £212 
per annum, which is supplemented by the proceeds of an annual collection at the church. The salary of the 
present master, who is a graduate of the University of London, is £150 per annum, with house. The girls' 
school was founded by Alice Horwood a.d. 1652, for the instruction of 30 poor girls. The endowment 
consists of a house and 3a. 30p. of land, situated at Newport, the rent of the old school house in Church 
Lane, and the dividends payable on £574 5s. 4d. Consols, amounting altogether to about £45 per annum. 
Other large and important elementary schools are the Girls' National School in the North Walk, the Wesleyan 
and St. Mary Magdalene Schools in the district called Derby, the Holy Trinity boys' and girls' schools, and 
the National Schools at Pilton and Newport, 

Holt Trinity Schools, built about 1844 by the founder of the church, at a cost of £300, are attended 
by about 130 children. St. Mary Magdalene Schools, in Lower Maudlin Street, erected in 1860, and 
since enlarged at a total cost of £500, have an attendance of 275 children. 

Barnstaple and Sherwill Plain Needlework Association was formed in 1876, to promote excellence 
in plain needlework among the female children attending the elementary schools in the two deaneries of 
Barnstaple and Sherwill. Prizes are distributed annually to children, and certificates recording that fact to 
their mistresses. Lady Acland is president and Miss R.' Martin, secretary. 

The Cemetery, situated in Lynton road, was formed m 1856, at a cost of £2820 (borrowed from the 
Public Works Loan Commissioners, but now all paid off), comprises 5 acres of ground, half of which is 
consecrated, and has two mortuary chapels. Mr. William Knill is clerk to the Burial Board, and Messrs. 
Robert Jones and James Youngs, sextons. 

Waterworks. — In 1858 a company formed under an Act of Parliament, with a capital of £12,000 in 
£10 shares, purchased the old works, which they enlarged and improved. The reservoir, 100 feet long, 50 
broad, and 14 deep, is in Rawleigh Park in Pilton parish. Mr. Robert Heard is secretary to the company, 
whose offices are on the Quay. 

Gasworks were first established in 1833, at the cost of £2000, raised in £10 shares, but were recon- 
structed and enlarged in 1869-73, under the powers of an Act of Parliament, at a further outlay of £1800, 
of which £1400 was raised in £10 shares and £4000 borrowed. The gas is supplied for 45. M. per 1000 
cubic feet ; there are 160 public lamps, for which 3s. lOd. per 1000 cubic feet is charged. Mr. Richard 
Ashton is the secretary, and Mr. W. C. Rafarel manager of the works. 

Three Newspapers are published here. The oldest, the N'orth Devon Journal, was established in 1824, 
and is published every Thursday by Messrs. Avery and Hayman. The JSorth Devon Advertiser was com- 
menced in 1854, and is published on Fridays by .Jno. Jones and Co. The JVorth Devon Herald was 
established in 1870, and is issued every Thursday by Mr. R. A. Lawrence. 

The Literary Institution, which occupies a large house in High Street, was established in 1845, chiefly 
by the munificence of W. F. Rock, Esq., of London, a native of the town and a subscriber of £100 a year 
for the admission of 100 free members. It has a valuable library of 7000 volumes, a school of art, two 
reading rooms, and a large lecture room, in which lectures are occasionally delivered during the winter. Thei 
library contains a copy of the Bible in each of the 140 languages in which it has been printed, presented byi 
W. F. Rock, Esq. Science and art classes, in connection with Kensington, are held during the season. Thej 
institution also contains a meteorological observatory, where observations are taken twice a day. The| 
Farmers' Club was amalgamated with the institution in 1876. Earl Fortescue is president, Mr. Thomas 
Wainwright^hon. secretary, and Mr. William Knill, librarian. A Parochial Library was founded by John 
Doddridge, Esq. in 1665, but it is now an Ecclesiastical Library of 271 volumes, to which the clergy pay 
£1 Is. a year, and it is held in a room over the principal entrance to the church. 

A Lodge of Freemasons meets on the first Monday of every month at the Masonic Hall, in Queen 
Anne's Walk; and in the town are several friendly societies and other benevolent institutions. 

Chanter's Green and South Walk, between the new road to Newport and the river Taw, were formed 
in 1861 by J. R. Chanter, Esq., at a cost of £1500. The former is a small but well laid-out ornamental! 
recreation ground ; the latter, a fine promenade on the bank of the river Taw. The adjoining grounc^ 
between the Green and Trafalgar Lawn, which has been purchased by W. F. Rock, Esq., of London, isabouti 
to be formed into a small park of about 7 or 8 acres. The Square, about three roods in extent, is beinji 
converted into ornamental grounds, at a cost of about £200, raised by subscription. It will be enclosed b^ 
handsome iron railings, presented by the mayor, C. S. Willshire, Esq. In the square is the Albert Memorial; 
which consists of a lotty and well-proportioned tower, surmounted by an illuminated clock, with a drinkind 
fountain at the base, and was erected by subscription in 1862. The Bridge Hall and Bridge Hall Chamber."; 



I>evoiisliiire. 131 

a handsome range of buildings, were recently erected by the Bridge Trustees, near the ancient bridge which 
was constructed in the thirteenth century. Queen Anne's Walk, on the Quay, near the London and South- 
western Railway Station, is a piazza or corridor, which formerly served as an exchange for the merchants. 
It is 67 feet long and 12 broad, and has a series of stone columns supporting the roof, and a parapet, on which 
is a fine full-length statue of Queen Anne, in whose reign it was rebuilt. The statue is dated 1708, and was 
the gift of Robert Rolle, Esq., and has been recently restored by the Corporation. 

The North Devon Infirmary, at the entrance to the town from Newport, is a neat building, of which 
tlie centre was erected in 1824, when the first stone was laid by the late Earl Fortescue, the projector and 
principal contributor. The wings of the building were afterwards added, aud the interior is now spacious 
and admirably adapted for the purposes to which it is appropriated. The annual income and expenditure of 
tlie institution amount to about £2200 ; the former is derived from investments in stocks, &c., and from 
subscriptions and donations. The Earl of Fortescue is patron ; R. Budd, Esq., M.D,, F.R.C.P., physician ; 
Messrs. W. Curiy and T. S. Law, consulting surgeons ; Messrs. C. H. Gamble, and .1. Harper, surgeons ; Mr. 
Charles E. Prouger, house surgeon and apothecary; Mr. A. Pitowsky, surgeon-dentist; the Rev. J. GifFord, 
chaplain ; Miss S. Williams, matron ; Mr. John Bridgman, secretary. 

The Dispensary, in Boutport Street, was established in 18-32, and in connection with it is a branch of 
the Royal Humane Society. From 1835 to 1875 £1765 14s. was bequeathed to this institution. Sir 
Bouchier P. Wrey, Bart., is patron ; Mr. Joseph Harper, consulting surgeon ; Messrs. Fernie and Jackson, 
surgeons; Mr. C. E. Palmer, hon. secretary ; Mr. J. C. Turner, acting secretary and dispenser. 

Salem Almshouses, in Salem Street, for the residence of 24 poor men and women, were built in 1834, 
at the sole expense of Charles Roberts, Esq., of Bickington. They are neatly built of stone, and com- 
prise 12 cottages, forming three sides of a square, with a grass plot and palisades in front. The founder 
and other donors gave about £1000 for the endowment, and the money was invested in the funds, and yields 
about 30s. per annum for each inmate. .1. R. Chanter, Esq., a descendant of the founder, is sole acting trustee. 

Penrose's Almshouse is a large building in Litchdon Street, consisting of 20 dwellings, each con- 
taining 2 almspeople, who have eacli a portion of a large garden. They are appointed from the poor 
parishioners, a preference being given to natives, and usually to women. Each of the 40 almspeople receives 
85. per lunar month from the funds of the charity. The almshouse was founded in 1624 by John Penrose. 
His gifts now consist of £2999 6s. Consols, producing £89 19s. 6d. a year; two rent-charges on Foxe's Field, 
amounting to £3 5s. ; and various lands and tenements let at £48 5.s. In addition to this, there is £76 a 
year derived from Richard Beaple's gift ; £34 2s. from Palmer's gift ; £3 19s. Qd. from Denys RoUe's gift ; 
and £9 14s, 8d. dividend of £324 12s. lOd. Consols, purchased with money left by Stanbury, Barford, and 
others. 

Horwood's Almshouse in Church Lane, consists of 8 dwellings of 2 rooms each, occupied by 16 poor 
people, with a small garden plot allotted to each dwelling. It was built by Thomas Horwood and his 
widow, who vested it in trust with the mayor and capital burgesses, and endowed it, in 1674, with 7a. 3p. of 
land, and a house, barn, &c. at Newport. The 16 almspeople have each 7s. per lunar month. The income is 
now derived from £129 9s. 2d. Consolidated Annuities, producing £3 17s. 6d. a year ; £29 9s. from various 
persons ; and £56 as the rent of certain tenements, &c. 

Paige's Almshouse, in Church Lane, has rooms for 8 poor persons, and occupies the site of an ancient 
almshouse. It was built on the site of the old one by Elizabeth Paige, who, in 1656, endowed it with £50, 
vested with the Corporation, and now producing £2 10s. a year. It is also endowed with a rent-charge of 
6s. Hd. left by William Crawford in 1553, and with £20 a year from Congerham's Estate, left by Robert 
Appley in 1594. John Phillips, who was a benefactor to the Charity School and Penrose's Almshouse in 
1734, also left £40 to the inmates of Paige's Almshouse. This £40, with £24 accumulated by unapplied interest, 
was vested in the purchase of a yearly rent-charge of £2 10s. out of land at Maidenford. Sir John Chichester's 
gift is £1. Besides the above there is a draft of £15 from Poor Account. The inmates have 6s. each lunar 
month. Harris's Almshouse forms part of a group of cottages in Alms Lane, and was given by Thomas Harris 
in 1646. 

Poor Account. — The poor have a rent-charge of £20 on the barton and demesne of Hedd, left by 
Richard Beaple in 1642 ; £40 as the rent of two houses, left by Robert Appley in 1594 ; £45 as the rent of 
three fields, purchased with money given by Ephraim Skinner in 1677 ; £14 12s. 6d. as the rent of a field 
left by Richard Cornish in 1709 ; £25 2s. as the rent of land purchased with a legacy left by Adam Lugg in 
1622 ; £1 a year as the interest of £20 left by Hugh Horsham in 1653, and lent to the Corporation ; an 
annuity of £1 10s. bequeathed by Roger Jeffrey ; one of £2 left by Richard Ferris in 1622 ; and another of 
£2 12s. from Sir John Acland's Charity (see Exeter) ; they have also Ss. 4d. from Cordwainers' Land. Of 
the above £98 Is. 2d. was bread, coal, and money ; £3 lis. Qd. (Acland's and Horsham's gift) in bread; 30s. 
(Jeftry's) to 6 decayed housekeepers, in sums of 5s. eacli; £15, a draft to Paige's and Harris's account. 
Richard Ferris in 1646 left two rent-charges to be applied in aid of the Grammar School, and in apprenticing 
poor children ; the yearly income is now about £29 15s., of which £10 is paid to the master of the Grammar 
School, and £10 as the first instalment with 5 apprentices. 

Municipal Charity Trustees. — The following are the Municipal Charity Trustees, who manage the 
above charities :— J. R. Chanter, Esq. (chairman), and :Messrs. J. P. S. Marshall, T. S. Law, J. G. King, 
T. Mackrell, W. Hunt, W. Fletcher, W. Gould, J. N. Harding, J. Harper, A. Lauder, J. M. Miller, 
W. H. Tollei", and the Rev. G. I. Wallis, 

In 1636 Katherine Westlake left £300 to be invested for the relief of poor artificers, and £100 to be 
invested and the yearly profits applied towards setting up young men newly come out of their apprenticeship. 
These sums were laid out in the purchase of £439 8s. dd. Old South Sea Annuities, now standing in the name 
of five trustees. Of the dividends £3 is given to apprentices, and the remainder distributed in coal and 

i2 



132 Bai-nKtaple, 



bread to the poor. A yearly rent-charge of £G, left by George Baron in 1081, out of an estate at Brensworthy , 
in Fremington, is distributed among poor weavers or their widows. The trustees of these two charities arc 
Messrs. T. H. Law, John R. Chanter, J. P. S. Marshall, J. M. Miller, 0. E. R. Chanter. 

In 1810 Margaret Newcomnien left two annual sums of £4 each to two dissenting schoolmistresses of 
Barnstaple for teaching poor children to read (see Bideford). An annuity of £5, left by Mrs. Martin, out of 
Great Fisherton Farm, in Bishop's Tawton, is paid to the vicar in consideration of his catechising the children 
of the parish. He has also the dividends of £*2G4 G^. Old South Sea Annuities, purchased with £oOO left iu 
1772, by Joan Stanbury, for the better support of a minister who should read daily morning prayers at the 
church. 

In the reign of Queen Elizabeth there was in Barnstaple a company of cordwainers or shoemakers, 
governed by a master and wardens, but it ceased many years ago to exist. The property belonging to it was 
conveyed to new trustees in 1787, and consists of 3 tenements, let for about £'80 a year. The clear income is 
distributed in small sums among poor shoemakers or their widows. 

The 3rd Administrative Battalion oe Rifle Volunteers (6th, 18th, 21st, and 28th corps) has ii 
headquarters at Barnstaple. Lewis V. Madden, Esq. is lieut.-colonel ; George Pearse, Esq., major; Brevet- 
Major Julius J. Hockley, adjutant; Mr. John Gould, surgeon; Mr. Joseph Harper, assistant-surgeon; tho 
Rev. W. II. Majendie, M.A., acting chaplain. The 6th Corps, whose armoury is in the Market Chambers, 
was formed in 1869, and has a strength of 200 men. Mr. Sydney N. Marsh is captain-commandant ; Mr. 
Charles S. Willshire, sub-lieutenant. ^^—. 

The Royal North Devon Yeomanry Cavalry (Hussars) has its headquarters at Barnstaple, ^jfl 
Arthur Chichester, Bart, is lieut.-col. commandant ; Charles Henry R. Lord Clinton, lieut.-col. ; Alfred !nHI 
Hole, Esq., major; Adderly B. Wren, Esq., William A. Deane, Esq., John George Johnson, Esq., Lawrence Des- 
borough, Esq., Sir A. P. B. Chichester, Bart., Hon. Walter R. Trefusis, and W. H. Holley, Esq. are captains ; 
Charles E. Radclyffe, Ernest J. Oldham, Be Burgho E. Hodge, George L. Lopes, Charles Chichester, George 
Marker Marker, James M. Kirkwood, George E. Davie, Esqrs. and IIughF. Viscount Ebrington, lieutenants ; 
William E. Arthur, Esq., sub-lieutenant; Newton Charles Chichester, adjutant; Charles II. Gamble, Esq., 
surgeon ; F. D. Gregory, Esq., veterinary surgeon. 

Eminent Men. — John Jewel, afterwards Bishop of Salisbury, and Thomas Harding, Hebrew Professor 
at Oxford, were educated at the Grammar School. Gay, the author of the ' Beggar's Opera,' born here 
in 1688, was secretary to the Duchess of Monmouth, and travelled with Lord Clarendon to Hanover in 1714. 
Philip Wyot was town clerk of Barnstaple from 1558 to 1608, and left a very curious diary, referring to local 
and public matters of great interest. This diary, which is frequently referred to by Lysons and other his- 
torians, was edited and published by Mr. .1. R. Chanter, in 1866. 

The North Devon Building Society was established in 1869, and has over 200 members. Mr. John 
Bridgman is secretary. The Barnstaple Freehold Land Society was commenced in 1851 ; it has 1407 mem- 
bers. Mr. Richard Farleigh is secretary. 

Newport is in the ancient parish of Bishop's Tawton, and was constituted an ecclesiastical district in 
1847. It forms part of the municipal borough of Barnstaple, and had 1031 inhabitants (390 males, 641 females) 
in 1871, living in 223 houses, on 355 acres of land. Newport is said to have been anciently a borough town. 
It had formerly a market on Monday, and a fair on the festival of the Nativity of St. John the Baptist, granted in 
1294. Newport Church is a modern building, near the site of an ancient chapel, the ruins of which were taken 
down about the middle of last century. The living is a vicarage, endowed by the Ecclesiastical Commis- 
sioners with £203 a year, in the patronage of the vicar of Bishop's Tawton, and incumbency of the Rev. 
Joseph GifFord, M.A. A vicarage house was built in 1864, at the cost of upwards of £1000, defrayed by the 
parishioners. The National School has been recently improved at the cost of £220. Newport borough 
lands, dating from 1691, and consisting of several tenements in the parish, are now vested in a new trust, and 
the income thence arising will be henceforth applied to the maintenance of the National School. There are 
many good clubs here for the benefit of the poor. 

Post, Money Order, Telegraph Ofeice, and Savings Bank in Cross Street. Mr. John Parker is 
postmaster. Letters are despatched to London, 7.25 a.m., 9.50 a.m., 3 p.m. 7.15 p.m., ; North, 3 p.m. ; South 
West, Southampton, &c., 2.15 p.m. ; Exeter, 7.25 a.m., 2.15 p.m. ; Ilfracombe, 9 p.m., 10.20 a.m., 3 p.m. ; 
Bideford, Fremington, Instow, and Appledore, 9 p.m. ; Bideford and Torrington, 10.20 a.m., 3 p.m. ; Braun- 
ton, 5.45 a.m., 3 p.m. ; Lynton, Lynmouth, Parracombe, Arlington, Sherwill, and Combe Martin, 5,45 a.m. ; 
Local Posts, 5.45 a.m. Tliere are four town letter carriers. There are receiving boxes at Mr. John 
Shaddick's, Newport, and Mr. J. D. Thomas's, Pilton. 

Railway. — (London Sj- South Wester^i), The Quay; Charles Heather, station master. (Great Western), 
Victoria Road; Ephraim J. Tucker, station master. 

Those marked * are in Filton jjarish, hut not in the borough of Barnstaple. All others are in the borough. 
Abbott Felix, dairyman, Pilton j Alford Mrs Ann, Pilton 

Abbott John Jas. ins. broker, Eradiford, Pilton ; & London \ Allen John, clothier, 83 Boutport street 
Abbott Mrs Mary, grocer, Tuly street I Allen William, painter, paperhanger & glazier, 16 High st 



Abraham Miss Mavy Jane, dressmaker, Newport 
Ackland Mrs Mary Ann,butcher, Butchers' row & Church gt 
Ackland Mrs Prudence, vict. Barley Mow, Boutport street 
A.ckland William, cooper and churn maker, Joy street 
A-dams George (S. & Gr.) ; h Taw Vale parade 
Adams S. & G. tanners and curriers. Bear street 
Adams Samuel (S. & G.) ; h Bear street 
Alexander Miss Rhoda, The Square 



Allin Samuel, draper and milliner, 104 High street 
Amier Miss Hester, Newport 
Arnold Edwd. Stribring, cabintmkr. & upliolstr. 50 Highsb 
Arnold Henry & Sons (Henry & George), frencli polishc 

and undertakers, Ayes lane ; and Bideford 
Arnold Miss Kate, lodgings, 50 High street 
Arthur Mr William, 8 Taw Vale parade 
Arthurs Mr William Ernest, Castle house, North walk 



De-vonsliire. 



133 



Arundell Mr George, Newport 

Ashton John, farrier, Bear street 

Ashton Richard, secretary to Gas Co. The Square 

Assembly Booim, Boutport street ; John Lapthorn, hallkpr 

Avery Mrs Alice, Castle street 

Avery & Hayman, publishers and proprietors of Korth 

Devon Journal, 96 High street {See Advertisejnent) 
Avery William (A. & Hayman) ; h 9 Boutport street 
Ayre Isaac, railway foreman, Abyssinia terrace, Newport 
Bailey Miss Ann, Union terrace 
Baker George, auctioneer, house, manure and shipping 

agent, and agent for Sovereign Ins. Co. 12 Joy street 
Baker Henry, corn miller and baker, 1 Boutport street 
Baker Henry, grocer and bootmaker, Queen street 
Baker James, confectioner, 90 Boutport street 
Baker John, vict. Mermaid, & maltster, Boutport street 
Baker Mrs Mary, 51 High street 
Baker Mrs Mary, shopkeeper. Green lane 
Baker Eichard, Wesleyan chapel keeper, Boutport street 
Baker Stephen, surveyor of taxes, Strand ; h Newport 
Baker Mr Thomas, 6 Ebberly terrace 
Bale George, painter and paperhanger, Cooney bridge 
Bale Jno. butcher, 10 & 11 Butchers' row; h Bickington 
Bale Mrs Mary, lodgings, Newport terrace, Newport 
Bale Nicholas, cabinet mkr. North Walk pi. Gammons In 
Bale Samuel, nursery and seedsman. Market chambers, 

Boutport street; and (h) Landkey 
Bale Mrs Sarah Ann, 4 Ebberly terrace 
Bale William, carpenter, Cooney bridge 
Bale Mr William, Holland street 

Ballinger Henry, baker and confectioner, 97 High street 
Balsdon Mrs Annie, 9 Barbican terrace 
Bament Eichard, master mariner. Quay 
Banfield Jno. Thomas, vict. Eoyal Exchange, Joy street 
Bankes Mrs Annie, Ebberly lawn 
Banks Mrs Mary Ann, South street, Newport 
Barnstaple Brewery Co. ale and porter brewers. Taw Vale 

parade ; Jno. Eichards, manager 
Barnstaple ^ North Devon Dispensary, Boutport street ; 

John C. Turner, secretary and dispenser 
Barnstaple Old Ba?i7c (dvnw on Dimsdale, Eowler and Co.), 

83 High street ; Marshall and Harding, proprietors 
Barnstaple Times and Devon Post, Boutport street ; John B. 

Jones, publisher and proprietor 
Barrow George, brush maker and cart owner. Trinity st 
Barrow Miss Mary, grocer, Pilton 
Bartlett Jno. coal mer. & hay & straw dealer. Castle st 
Bartlett Stephen, corn mer. & hay & straw dlr, Boutport st 
Barry Mr Joseph, Ebberly terrace 

Bater Alfred, grocer, tobacconist & smallware dlr. Strand 
Batey John, foreman engineer. Barbican 
BathChas. Jno. master. Holy Trinity school ; h The Square 
Batt Mr Mark, Prospect cottage, Newport 
Baugh Mr, New villas, Victoria road 
Baylis Joseph Edwin, glove manufacturer, Bellaire, Pilton 
Bayly Eobert, dairyman, Gaydon street 
Bear Mrs Sophia, Albert villas 

Beer George, dairyman and cattle dealer, Queen street 
Beer James, market gardener, Eumsom, Newport 
Beer Samuel, post office clerk, Gammons lane 
Beer Mrs Susan Fosse, National school mistress, Newport 
Bencraft Lionel Thomas, solicitor, town clerk, registrar 

of county court, and agent for Eoyal Exchange In- 
surance Co., Quay ; h Highfield house, Victoria road 
;' Bencraft Mrs Lucy, Nelson terrace 
: Bencraft Eichard Incledon, solicitor, borough coroner, clerk 

to borough justices, and commissioner in all courts, 

Strand ; h Boutport street 
' Bennett Mrs Elizabeth, Alexandra place 
, Bennett Mr George, Clarence place, Newport 
Bennett Isaac, grocer,. Lower Maudlin street 
Bennett William, shopkeeper, Hardaway Head 
Bentley Mrs Elizabeth, coal merchant. Castle street 
Berry John, tailor, 16 Boutport street 



Berry Miss Lydia, milliner and dressmaker, 16 Boutport st 

Berry Eobert, bootmaker, Hardaway Head 

Berry Sampson, victualler, Town Arms, Anchor lane 

Berry Samuel, manure merchant, Pilton 

Berryman Wm. agent for Prudential Ass, Co.Eichmond st 

Besley Henry Thomas, bank manager, 51 High street 

Besley Samuel, commercial traveller, Newport 

Bevan & Son, masons and builders, Grosvenor street 

Bevan Thomas (B. & Son) ; h Grosvenor street 

Bevan Thomas jun. (B. & Son) ; h Eichmond street 

Bilham James, draper, 77 High street 

Bilney Mr James, Union terrace 

Bird John Samuel, wine and spirit merchant, 38 Boutport 

street, and 96 Boutport street 
Bird Mrs Susannah, Newport terrace, Newport 
Blackmore Charles, bootmaker. Vicarage street 
Blackmore Eichard, seedsman and corn dealer, Newport 
Blackmore William, tarm bailiff, Westaway, Pilton 
Blackwell Mr Frederick, Newport terrace, Newport 
Blackwell Thomas, basket maker. Castle street 
Blackwell Mr Thomas, Gammons lane 
Blake Mrs Henrietta, Victoria road 
Blake William, wheelwright. Queen street 
Blight Mrs Charity, vict. Golden Lion Tap, The Square 
Blue Coat School, North walk, Chas. Hy. Satterley, master 
Blyth Alexander Wynter, M.D., F.C.S., F.E.H.S., county 
analyst and medical officer for South Molton union, 
Bideford, Torrington, Okehampton, and Dulverton sani- 
tary districts, 3 Trafalgar lawn 
Boatfield Eobert, manure, corn, seed, and oil merchant, 

Tuly street; h The Quay 
Boden Henry, dispenser at Infirmary ; h Abyssinia ter- 
race, Newport 
Bolt Mrs Mary Jane, Newport 
Bond Mrs Grace, grocer. Vicarage street 
Bond Mrs Mary, butcher, 2 Butchers' row ; h Swimbridge 
Borough Prison, Castle street ; Eichard and Mrs Annie 

Webber, governer and matron 
Bosson James, clerk. Barbican terrace 
Bowdell George, shopkeeper and milk dealer. Silver street 
Bowden Mrs Elizabeth, dairy proprietor, Eeform street 
Bowden Francis, bootmaker. Green lane 
Bowden George, grocer, 78 High street, and Market street 
Bowden Miss Lily, dressmaker. Barbican terrace 
Bowden Mrs Mary, Newport 

Bowden William, mason and builder. Queen street 
Bowden William, gardener, 2 Pulchrass street 
Bowden William Henry, bootmaker, 2 Pulchrass street 
Boyle John, commercial traveller, Summerland place 
Boyle Patrick, travelling draper, Salem terrace 
]3oyle William, butcher, 34 Boiitport street 
Boyles John, farm bailiff. Gammons lane 
Bradford Arthur George, grocer, Boutport street ; h Vic- 
toria terrace, Victoria road 
Bradford Joseph, victualler, Eising Sun, Newport 
Brady James, railway contractor, timber merchant, wood 

turner and japanner. Station yard; h Barbican terrace 
Brady John, Avood turner, &c. (Jas.) ; h The Square 
Brailey Miss Annette Clare, Newport terrace, Newport 
Brailey Jno. (Thos. & Son) ; h Boutport street 
* Brailey Thos. (Thos. &Son) farmer, Billand farm, Pilton 
Brailey Thomas & Son, manure merchants, Pilton 
Brannam Charles (B. & Son) ; h Litchdon street 
Brannam & Son, earthenware, sanitary pipe, and Devon- 
shire oven manufacturers. Litchdon st and North walk 
Brannam Thomas (B. & Son) ; h Litchdon street 
Brannan John, grocer, 51 Boutport street 
Bray Eev Wm. (Bible Christian), 10 Alexandra place 
^ Brayley John, farmer, Tutshill, Pilton 
Brayley William, greengrocer, Newport 
Brealey Henry, shopkeeper. Higher Maudlin street 
Brend William, fishmonger, 40 High street 
Brewer Mr Daniel Tremlett (Exors. of), 1 Taw Vale parade 
Brewer Mrs Elizabeth, 2 Park villas 



134 



Bai*iistiitple. 



Brewer Jas. Noifchoote, tailor aud outfitter, 7 Cross street ; 

and (h) Taunton 
Bridgman Jolin, accountant, secretary to Kortli Devon 

Infirmary, North Devon Benefit Building Society, and 

Barnstaple 2nd Annuitant Society, 131 Boutport street 
Bright Miss Mary, 3 Albert villas 

Brindle Kev Kalph, provost (Eoman Catholic), Church st 
Britton Miss Elizabeth, 9 Orchard terrace, Newport 
Britton George, mason and clothes dealer, Anchor lane 
Britton John Charles, victualler, Union Inn, Princes' street 
Britton William, photographer & optician, 23 High street 
Britton William Boucher, landscape painter, 47 Boutport st 
Bromham James Fraser, solicitor, 40 High street ; h 6 

Trafalgar lawn 
Brown Gfeorge, Esq. J.P. land agent, The Square ; h 

lioborough house, Pilton 
Brown Henry, blacksmith. South street, Newport 
Brown Henry Edward, land agent, Lansdown villas, 

Lynton road 
Brown Humphry, victualler, Brauuton Inn, High street 
Brown Thomas, mason and builder. Vicarage street 
Bryan Miss Ellen, Pilton 

Bryant Miss Ellen, dressmaker, Grosvcnor street 
Bryant John, mason, builder and monumental mason, 

Grosvenor street 
Buckingham Miss Ann, shopkeeper, Litchdon street 
Buckingham John, wine, spirit, ale and porter mert. Quay 
Budd George, M.D,, F.K.S., Ashleigh house, Victoria road 
Budd Kichard, Esq. J.P., M.D., E.R.C.P., physician, and to 

North Devon Infirmary, Boutport street 
Bull Rev Henry John, M.A. vicar St. Mary Magdalene ; 

h Ebberly terrace 
Burgess Edv/in, Aactualler, Eolle Arms, Bear street 
Burnett William, plumber and gasfitter, 64 Boutport street 
Bushell Arthur John, draper, 109 Boutport street ; h 14 

Joy street 
Bushen Mrs Catherine Mary, Castle street 
Bushen Thomas, victualler, New Inn, Pilton 
Butcher Miss Laura, 3 Union terrace 
Cann Thomas, eating house, 84 Boutport street 
Capel Alfred, L. & S. AV. booking clerk, Railway station 
Carlyon Henry, travelling draper, 114 Boutport street 
Carpenter Mr William, Littabourne, Pilton 
Carter Miss Ann, grocer, 3 Joy street 
Carter Giles Webber, plumber, brassfounder, blacksmith 

and tinplate worker, 22 .Joy street 
Carter Mrs Sarah, 5 Barbican terrace 
Carter William, grocer, QAieen street 
Catford Henry, butcher, 45 High street 
Catford James Stoyle, photographer, 79 High street; and 

Ilfracombe (See Advertisement) 
Cawsey John, clothes dealer, Queen street 
Chalk Michael, hatter, 52 Boutport street 
Channings Mrs Ann, 3 Victoria terrace, Victoria road 
Channon Mr John, The Square 

Channon Samuel, grocer and chandler, 6 High street 
Chanter Arthur Henry (C, Efinch & C), The Strand 
Chanter Charles Edward Roberts (C.,Ffinch& C), Fort hi 
Chanter, Ffinch & Chanter, solicitors and agents for West 

of .England Insurance Co. The Strand ; and Ilfracombe 
Chanter John Roberts, Esq. J.P. ; h Fort hill house 
Chapman Mr Robert Cleaver, 6 New buildings 
Chappie John, ironmonger and tinplate worker, 4 Joy st 
Chappie Robert AVakriel, baker, Litchdon street 
Chappie Thomas, bootmaker, Silver street 
Charley Mrs Ann, Bradiford, Pilton 
Cliarley George, gardener. Trinity street 
China William, bootmaker. Union street 
Ching Samuel, shopkeeper, Castle street 
Chorley George, gardener, 1 Barbican terrace 
Chugg Miss Mary, Pilton 

Clarke Chas. Snow, painter & paperhanger, 27 Boutport st 
Clarke Mrs Lavinia Carford, 6 Newport terrace, Newport 
Clatworthy Mr Richard, Trinity street 



Clement John, registrar of births and deaths for Bishop's 

Tawton district, relieving officer for Barnstaple district, 

rural sanitary inspector, and vaccination officer for 1 

and 2 districts of Barnstaple union, Newport 
Clement Wm. butcher, 1 Butchers' row; h 1 Albert vill 
Clement William, dairyman, Newport 
Clifford Thomas, butcher, 27-8 Butchers' row ; h Brick yd 
Cobley Andrew, grocer, 110 Boutport street • ' . 

Cock Misses Mary Ann & Caroline, Newport 
Cockram Mrs Mary Ann, clothier. Queen street 
Cockrell John William, agent for W. H. Smith & Sons, 

The Quay .:. - 

Codd Rev Henry Frederick, M.A.,H.M. inspector of schools. 

Pill house, Newport 
Cole Elijah, victualler, Albert Inn, Diamond street 
Collander Mrs Mary, Newport 

Collander Misses Mary & Alice, day school, Newport 
Colman Mrs Harriet, toll collector, Newport 
Combes Misses Rhoda & Phcebe, Pilton 
Comer James, painter, Queen street 
Conibear Miss Elizabeth, milliner, 125 Boutport strept 
Connebear Geo. & Son, cab proprietors & grocers, Newport 
Cook Robert James, grocer, 71 High street; aud Bideford 
Cooke Mrs Grace, Park villas 
Cooke James Wood, M.R.C.S., L.S.A. surgeon, medical 

officer for No. 1 district of Barnstaple union, and for 

workhouse and gaol. Square terrace. The Square 
Cooke John, bootmaker, 78 Boutport street 
Cooke William, carpenter, Pilton 
Co-operative Society (lim.), grocers, bakers and boot 

factors, 11 Joy street (William Huxtable, secretary ; 

Frederick Hennings, manager) ; aud butchers, 92 Bout- 
port street ; James Isaac, manager 
Copp Alfred Henry, butcher, 13 Butchers' row; h- 98 

Boutport street 
Copp Henry, butcher, 13 Butchers' row ; h 98 Boutport st 
Copp John, mason, Bradiford, Pilton 
Copp William John, painter, paperhanger & glazier. Bearst 
Cornish Mrs Maria Ann, printer, stationer and bookseller, 

27 High street 
Cottey James, carpenter. Bear street 

Cotton & Co. wine and spirit merchants, 2 Cross street ^. 
Courteny Samuel, foreman, Gaydon street .^m 

Courtney John, victualler. Rose & Crown, Newport ^| 
Cowell Lewis, mason and builder, Trinity street 
Cowell Robert Burt, accountant and agent for Prudential 

Assurance Company, Trinity street 
Cox Henry John, hairdresser, Newport 
Cox Mr John Russell, Newport 
Crabb Mrs Elizabeth, boot factor, 74a High street; h 

Boutport street 
Crang Misses Alice & Mary Ann, 49 Boutport street 
Crang George Henry, victualler, Chichester Arms, Pilton 
Crang Mrs Harriet, vict. White Horse, 29 Boutport street 
Crang John, dairyman. Bear street 
Crang Richard, saddler. Bear street 
Crang Mr William, Lynton road 
Crassweller Charles, Esq. J.P. glass, china and hardware 

dealer, 29-31 High street 
Cridge John Richard, maltster and brewer, Boutport street 
Crook Mrs Mary, grocer, Pilton 
Crook Thomas Henry, accountant, 5 Nelson terrace 
Croot Walter George, painter, paperhanger and glazier, 

98 High street 
Cummings John, agent for Exeter and Plymouth Gazette, 

53 Boutport street 
Curry William, Esq. .J.P., F.R.C.S., consulting surgeon 

North Devon Infirmary, Boutport street 
Curtis Edwin Darch, plumber, tinplate worker, and lamp 

and oil dealer, Trinity street 
Curtis Mr John, 15 Ebberly town 
Curtis Mr Thomas, Cross street 

Curtis William, M.R.P.S. & chemist. Bridge hs. The Strand 
Curtis William, mason and builder, Wells street 



I>evoii.sliir e . 



135 



Custom House, The Quay; Kichard White, collector; John 

R. Gi-ale, examining officer 

iitcliffe Miss Bridget, 126 Boutport street 

itcliflfe George, grocer and baker, Pilton 
1 utcliffe John, corn miller, Hall mills, Pilton 
L-utcliiFe John, eating house, 60 High street 
1 );ilby Rev F. H. curate of St. Peter and St. Paul's 
Dale Charles, joiner and bellhanger, Diamond street 
Daley Mrs Jane Mary, lace dealer, Boutport street 
Dalling Mrs Ellen, 10 New buildings 
Dalling Mrs Henrietta, hairdi-esser, 2 High street 
Dalling John, lodgings, 4 G-rosvenor terrace 
Dalling Thos. master mariner, High street & North gate 
Dalling William, dairyman. Higher Maudlin street 
Dalling William, coal merchant, Rolle's quay 
Dalton Charles, day & boarding school, North Walk place 
Daniel George, market gardener, Newport 
\ )ark Edwin, victualler. White Lion, Silver street 
Dart Mrs Elizabeth, grocer, 12 Pulchrass street 
Dart Mrs Mary, shopkeeper, Litchdon street 
Davey Mrs Elizabeth, shopkeeper, Litchdon street 
Davey George (George & Son), and commission agent, 

Lion house, Bradiford, Pilton 
I'avey Geo. (George & Son); h Lion hs. Bradiford, Pilton 
Davey George & Son, corn & flour merchants, Lion mills, 

Bradiford, Pilton ; & Market chambers, Boutport street 
Davey James, billposter, Silver street 
Davey Mr, Pilton 

Davie James Headon, saddler, 5 High street 
Davie Mr Thomas, Victoria road 
Davie William, marine store dealer. Queen street 
Davies Mrs Elizabeth, Pilton 

Davis Wm. grocer, 30 High street; h Alexandra villa 
Davoll Mr William, Vicarage street 
Davolls Frederick, provision dealer, 33 Boutport street 
Davolls George, saddler, Pilton 
Davolls George, jun. saddler, 30 Boutport street 
Dawe Saml. outfittr. 13 Highst. & Bideford ; h 6 Nelson pi 
Dawton William, paper manufacturer. Rose hill, Pilton 
Day William Dennis, foreman, Pilton 
Deane Miss Anna Maria, 14 Alexandra place 
Delve James, wheelwright. Green lane ; h Pilton 
Delve John, carpenter, Green lane 

Dendle John, joiner, bxiilder, contractor and timber mer- 
chant, Union terrace 
Dennis Miss Amelia Calmady, day school, 10 Barbican ter 
Dennis Mrs Elizabeth, eating house, 61a High street 
Dennis James Avery, tailor, 5 Richmond street 
Dennis Thomas John, Esq. J.P. Bradiford house, Pilton 
Dennis William, butcher, 20-1 Butchers' row ; h Landkey 
Desborough Mr, Littabourne, Pilton 
Dibble Mr Daniel, Sowden, Victoria road 
Dicker Mrs Ann, Cooney bridge 
Dillon Captain WilliamR.N. (Exors. of), NewListon house, 

Victoria road 
Doble Stephen, commission agent, South view, Barbican 
Dockings Mrs Mary Ann, dressmaker, Bear street 
Domipick Mrs Henrietta, confectioner and fruiterer, 79 

Boutport street 
Dominick John, chimney-SAveeper, Green lane 
Dornat Charles Caraille, mineral water mnfr. Tuly street 
Down Mrs Elizabeth, grocer, Newport 
Down William, machinist & blacksmith & grocer, Bear st 
Down William, timber dealer, Azes lane 
Downes Thos. mason, contractor & chimney-swp. Newport 
Draper Mr Edward, Holland street 
Drew William, tailor. Trinity street 
Drury Mrs Julia, 7 Barbican terrace 
Drury Misses Mary and Edith, day school, 7 Barbican ter 
Dungey Mr William, 3 Ebberly terrace 
Dunstone Mr Joseph John, 3 Vicarage ter. Vicarage st 
Dyer Mrs Eleanor, shopkeeper. Bear street 
Dyer John, butcher, Butchers' row ; h Bishop's Tawton 
Dymond John, greengrocer, 2 Boutport street 



Dymond William, bootmaker, Bradiford, Pilton 

Easton James, carpenter and trunk maker, Holland street 

Easton John, vict. Three Tuns, & tobacconist, 80 High st 

Ebsworthy William, carpenter, Union street 

Eddy Nicholas, bootmaker, Bear street 

Eddy Richard, police sergeant, Vicarage street 

Edger & Co. grocers, 26 High street 

Edger Edward (E. & Co.) ; h 26 High street 

Edger Mrs Gratiana, Pilton 

Edmonds Rev John (Brethren), South street, Newport 

Edwards Mrs Mary, lodgings, Pilton 

Eland Rev Richard (Wesleyan), 12 Ebberly terrace 

Ellacott James, clerk, 3 Pulchrass street 

Elliott John, butcher and game dealer, 74 High street 

Elliott Mr William, 7 Alexandra place 

EUocott William, carpenter, Newport 

Essery Mr Henry, Pilton 

Essery Henry, victualler, Poltimore Inn, and cabinet 

maker, Boutport street 
Evans James, saddler, 58 Boutport street 
EvansRev Jno.Marks (Independent, retired), 3Ebberly Iwn 
Exeter and l^lynwuth Gazette (branch office), 53 Boutport 

street ; John Cummings, agent 
Falconar Mr James, Pilton 
Farleigh John, grocer, 19 & 22 High street, and Instow; 

h 22 High street 
Farleigh Richard, secretary to North Devon Freehold Land 

Society, Lansdown villas, Lynton road; and grocer, 

Ilfracombe, Appledore, and Budc 
Fathom Mrs Frances Jane, 6 Ebberly lawn 
Ferneres Miss Selina Susannah, Boutport street 
Fernie Andrew, M.R.C.S. L.S.A. surgeon, surgeon to North 

Devon Dispensary, and vaccinator. 111 Boutport street 
Fewings William, bootmaker, 92 Boutport street 
Ffinch John Parkinson, solicitor (Chanter, F. & Chanter), 

and commissioner in all the courts and of the Irish 

courts ; h Newport terrace, Newport 
Fisher John Thomas, Esq. J.P., Longstone, Pilton 
Fisher Miss Sarah, Victoria terrace, Victoria road 
Fisher William, farmer, Pottingdon, Pilton 
Fisher Mr William, Rumsom, Newport 
Fisher Wm. cabinet maker and upholsterer. Trinity street 
Fish Market, The Quay 

Fishwick John, master mariner, Cooney bridge 
Fishwick Misses Mary Ann & Emma, milliners and dress- 
makers, Cooney bridge 
Fleming Edwin, painter, glazier, and glass and china 

dealer, 45 Boutport street 
Fleming Miss Sarah, 55 Boutport street 
Fletcher Captain Thomas, 3 Portland villas, Victoria road 
Fletcher Mr William, Trafalgar lawn 
Folland John, house decorator & brush & oil dlr. Newport 
Ford Charles, watchmaker and jeweller, 89 Higli street 
Ford Frederick James (Samuel & Sons) ; h Litchdon st 
Ford John Richard (Samuel & Sons) ; h Litchdon street 
Ford Samuel & Sons, tailors and drapers, Litchdon street 
Forester Henry, M.D. physician, 46 High street 
Forrest Charles James Newman, wine, spirit, ale and 

porter merchant, 60 Boutport street 
Forrest Mr Richard, Forest house, Victoria road 
Fowler Thomas, bootmaker, 6 Pulchrass street 
Free School, Silver street ; Thomas D. Hiorns, master 
French George, baker and confectioner, Litchdon street 
French William, tailor's manager, Richmond street 
Froud Mrs Mary, Taw Vale parade 

Fuller Misses Margaret & Elizabeth, Clarence pi. Newport 
Furse ,John, grocer and millwright, Pilton 
Furse Wm. basket maker and seedsman, Bradiford, Pilton 
Gabriel Mr Abraham, Trinity street 
Gabriel Mark, lodgings, 17 Ebberly lawn 
Gabriel Richard Henry, bootmaker, 80 Boutport street 
Gale George, gimmaker, 20 Joy street 
Gale John Romilly, Custom House examing. officr. Alma ter 
Galliford Henry, joiner and builder. Trinity street 



136 



Sai:-iistaplej 



Gamble Chas. Hanlen, Ksq. J.P., M.E.C.S., L.S.A. surgeon I 
to North Devon Infirmary., and to Admiralty, certifying 
factory surgeon, and surgeon to North Devon Yeomanry 
Cavalry, Litchdon terrace, Litchdon street j 

Gammon Mrs Elizabeth Ann, dressmaker, Pilton 
Gammon Mr Thomas, Pilton 
Gammon William, carpenter, Union street 
Gammon William, timber merchant (Rawle, G. & Co.) ; h 

Ebberly lawn 
Gardener Mrs Ann, laundress, 4 Higher Maudlin street 
Gardner Philip, overlooker, 2 Vicarage ter. Vicarage st 
Garland John, victualler. Curriers' Arms, Vicarage street 
Garland William, victualler, Eising Sun, and mason and 

builder, 88 Boutport street 
Garrett John Apscy, tailor's manager, 1 Eichmond street 
Gas Offices, The tjquare ; William C. Eafarel, manager ; 

Eichard Ashton, secretary 
Gasson Miss Elizabeth, Wesleyan schlmistress. Vicarage st 
Gaydon Mrs Elizabeth, The Quay 
Gaydon Mrs Elizabetli, South street, Newport 
Gaydon George Tytc, grocer, corn factor, and fruiterer, 

85 Boutport street 
Gaydon John, watchmaker and jeweller, 99 High street 
Gaydon John, wine mrcht. (Cotton & Co.) ; h 1 Nelson ter 
Gaydon Eobert, lodgings, Castle street 
Gaydon AV. mason. South street, Newport 
Gaydon Wm. Summerwell, eatinghskpr. & corn dlr. Joy st 
Geary William, gardener, Eumsom, Newport 
Geen Mrs Eliza Jane, milliner, 55 High street 
Geen James, ironmonger, plumbr. & tinplte. wkr. 1 6 Joy st 
Geen Samuel Crocker, master mariner, 55 High street 
Geen Thomas, bootmaker, 18 Joy street 
Gennau Miss Eliz, vict. Commercial Inn, 93 Boutport st 
Gent John, dairyman, Newport 
German Lambert, grocer and bootmaker, Pilton 
Gibbings William, coach builder and harness maker, Bear 

street ; h Vicarage street 
Gibbs Miss Elizabeth, iron, coal, grindstone, stone trough, 
roller, & pitch & tar merchant, North walk ; h Square 
Gibbs John, draper's foreman. Trinity street 
Gibbs Mrs Mary, lodgings. The Square 
Giddy William, umbrella maker. Bear street 
Gilford Eev Joseph, M.A. vicar of St. John's, Newport, 
chaplain to Infirmary and Gaol, Newport vicarage, 
Trafalgar lawn 
Gilbert Miss Elizabeth, milliner and straw bonnet maker, 

Silver street 
Gilbert Mr John (Exors. of), 3 Orchard terrace, Newport 
Gilbert William, painter, paperhanger and glazier, Pilton 
Gilbey Henry, head cellarman, 6 Summerland pi. Barbican 
Gildard Mr Eichard Kelley, New villas, Victoria road 
Gill Matthew, farmer, Stone yard, Lynton road 
Glyde George (S. & Son) ; h 101 High street 
Glyde S. &Son, glass and china dealers, 101 High street; 

and Ilfracombe 
Glyde Samuel (S. & Son); h 101 High street 
Goman Henry, bootmaker, Gaydon street 
Gooding Mr William Henry, 127 Boutport street 
Goss Mr John, Pilton 
Goss Samuel, wholesale and retail pharmaceutical chemist, 

1 High street and 32 Boutport street 
Goss William, corn miller, Hale mills, Pilton 
Gould Bros, tailors & linen & woollen drapers, 64 High st 
Gould George Henry (Bros.) ; h 64 High street 
Gould James, shopkeeper. Queen street 
Gould John (G. & Sanders) ; h 23 Joy street 
Gould Miss Phoebe Ann, pawnbkr. & plate dlr. Green lane 
Gould Eichard Davie, architect, surveyor and borough 

surveyor. Castle street 
Gould & Sanders, auctioneers, estate agts. & brewers' agts. 

23 Joy street and 34 High street ; and Ilfracombe 
Gould Wm. slate mercht. Brunswick wharf, Eolle's quay 
Gould William Avery (Bros.) ; h 64 High street 
Govier Peter, cartowner. South street, Newport 



Gower Thomas, manure, corn, seed, and oilcake merchant, 

Tuly street ; and (h) Bramaton 
Graham Miss Katherine, 1 Union place. Union terrace 
Grainger Eichard, inland revenue officer, 16 Alexandra i)l 
Gra)iimar School, Church yd ; Thos. Wainwright, head mstr 
Greek John Le worthy, candle manufacturer, 20 High street 
Greek Miss Mary Ann, 5 Grosvcnor terrace 
Greenslade Miss Sarah J. eatinghouse keeper. Anchor In 
Greenwood William, vict. London Inn, Litchdon street 
Greenwood William, carpenter, Litchdon street 
Gregory Mrs Mary Ann, 6 Taw Vale parade 
Gregory Eobert, manure merchant, 2 Trafalgar lawn 
Gregory William, gardener, Newport terrace, Newport 
Grenney Charles, cutler and umbrella maker. Wells street 
Grenney Edward, cutler & umbrella maker, Litchdon st 
Grenney Henry, hairdresser & umbrella mkr. 4 The Strand 
Gribble Miss Elizabeth, 4 Eichmond terrace 
Gribble John Charles, solicitor, commissioner in all courts, 

and agent for Sun Insurance Company, Castle street 
Gribble Mrs Mary Ann, Pilton 
Gribble Mrs Sarah, day school, Pilton 
Gribble Miss Sarah, Litchdon street 
Griffin George, glass and china dealer, 94 Boutport street 
Guard Eichard, grocer, Silver street 

Guppy Thomas William Matthew Wilks, bank manager, 
and agent for Eoyal Standard & Accident Insurance Com- 
panies, 86 High street ; h Fremington 
Hackadoy Francis, solicitr's elk. 2 Summerland pi. Barbican 
Hake Mr AVilliam, 9 New building 
Hall Townshend M.. F.G.S. The Vicarage, Pilton 
Hall Eev William Cradock, M.A. vicar of Pilton, The 

Vicarage, Pilton 
Hallyer Mr John, Ivy cottage, Tuly street 
Hames John, chemist, Pilton 
Hancock Mrs Ann, Bear street 

Hancock Edwin Edgcombe, hairdresser, 1 1 High street 
Hancock Herbert Jones, town crier and bill poster, 10 

Grosvenor street 
Hancock James, bootmaker, 48 High street 
Hancock Jolm, wood tm^ner, Bradiford, Pilton 
Hancock John Nicholas, joiner, builder & contractor, Pilton 
Hancock Justinian, tailor and draper, 7 Boutport street 
Hancock Mrs Sarah Courtney, dressmaker, Pilton 
Hancock William, coach builder, Litchdon ter. Litchdon st 
Harding Frederick George, outfitter, 8-9 High street 
Harding James Mott, banker (Marshall & H.), and soli- 
citor, Tuly street; h King's close, Newport 
Harding Miss Mary Ann, shopkeeper, Bradiford, Pilton 
Harding Philip, master mariner. Barbican terrace 
^^ Harding Colonel William, J.P., Upcott, Pilton 
Harper Edwin, blacksmith, Newport 
Harper & Jackson, surgeons. Bear street 
Harper Joseph, Esq., J.P., M.E.C.S. Eng., L.E.C.P. Lom 
(H. & Jackson), and surgeon to Infirmary and Dispen- 
sary, Bear street 
Harper Eichard, blacksmith, North walk 
Harper Sydney, btchr. 17-18 Butchers' row ; h Vicarage st 
Harris Enoch, railway inspector, Newport terrace 
Harris Francis James, wood engraver, 65 High street 
Harris Miss Harriet, 10 Ebberly lawn 
Harris Henry, coal merchant, Pilton 
Harris Mr James, 24 Joy street 
* Harris John, farmer, Eoborough, Pilton 
Harris William Thomas, tailor and draper, Holland street 
HartnoU Mr John, 3 Alexandra place 
Hartnoll John (H. & Son) ; h 65 High street 
Hartnoll John James (H. & Son) ; h Winchester 
Hartnoll & Son, builders and undertakers, 65 High street 
Hayman Miss Grace, Eichmond street 
Hayman John, victualler, Fortescuo Tap, Wells street 
Hayman John Gould, pblshr. (Avery & H.) ; h 96 High st 
Heard Eobert, secretary to Water Works Company, Port- 
land cottage, Victoria road 
Hearn Samuel, wine merchant's assistant, Newport 



I 



"Devonshire. 



137 



IT earn William, vine, spirit, ale & porter mert. 92 High st 
Hearson Mrs Emma, Newport 

Hearson Miss Mary, berlin wool, toy & fancy dlr. lOSHigh st 
Hearson Thomas, printer, bookbinder, bookseller and sta- 
tioner, and agent for Scottish Union Ins. Co. 90 High st 
Heathcote Mr John Francis Nugent, South street, Newjwrt 
Heather Charles, L. & S.W. stationraaster, Junction station 
Hedden AYilliam, bootmaker, 92 Boutport street 
Heddon Mr George, Bradiford cottage, Pilton 
Hedgeland Hy. umbrella mkr. Garden court, Queen street 
Helyer Ishmael, victualler. Farmers' Inn, Holland street 
Heunes Eobert, bootmaker, Newington street. Vicarage st 
Hennings Fredk. co-operative store manager, Silver street 
Honnings Thomas, commercial traveller, Kichmond street 
Henson Misses Sarah and Annie, milliners and baby linen 

dealers, 6 High street 
Herapath Mr G eorge, Bradiford, Pilton 
Herd Ki chard, shopkeeper, Green lane 
Hernamon Mr James, Pilton cottage, Pilton 
Hewish Mrs Mildred, 18 Alexandra place 
Hewish William Thorne, farmer, The Quay 
Hewlett Rev Arnold Melville, curate of Holy Trinity church 
Hibbert Col. Hugh Thomas, J.P. Broadgate house, Pilton 
Hickley Mrs Charlotte, Litchdon street 
Hiern Mr John, Pilton 
Hiern Mrs Lucinda, Bear street 

Hill Benjamin, watchmaker and jeweller, 2 Joy street 
Hill Edwin, joiner and builder, Pulchrass street 
Hill Miss Elizabeth, confectioner, 2 Joy street 
Hill John, tailor, Pilton 
Hill Joseph, shopkeeper, Wells street 
Hill Richard, baskotmaker, GI High street 
Hill Samuel, builder and contractor, &c. Bear street 
Hill AVilliam, painter, Pilton 
Hill William, dairyman. Vicarage street 
Hill William, furniture dealer, Silver street 
Hiorns Thos. David, Free school master ; h 11 Newport ter 
Hobbs John, clothes dealer. Paternoster row 
Hockley Major Julius Joseph, Rumsom, Newport 
Hodge Cyrus, tailor, batter and outfitter, 73 High street 
Hodge Thomas Sellick, manager, The Strand 
Hogg Jonathan, rly, goods supt. 2 Victoria ter. Victoria rd 
Hole Miss Louisa, Orchard cottage, Rumsom, Newport 
Holland Miss Mary Jane, dressmaker. South st. Newport 
Holland William, victualler, Exeter Inn, Litchdon street 
Holloway Jas. & Abiezer Cook (H. & Son) ; h The Strand 
Holloway & Son, cabinetmakers & upholsterers, furniture 
dealers and goods' removers, The Strand {See Advert.) 
Holmes James, chimney-sweeper. Belle meadow, Silver st 
Holmes Robert, sliopkeeper, Litchdon street 
Hooper Charles, marine store dealer, Green lane 
Hooper Mrs Elizabeth, Gaydon street 
Hooper James, staircase and hand rail maker, xlbysslnia 

terrace, Newport 
Hooper Mrs Sarah, dressmaker, Gaydon street 
Hopper John, draper, 68 Boutport street 
Hore Rev William Strong, M.xi. vicar of Shebbear ; h 

Penrose villas, Victoria road 
Home Miss Mary Jane, Richmond street 
Home William, mason and builder, 9 Alexandra place 
Horner Mrs Maria, Portland villas, Victoria road 
Hortop Henry, draper (H. & Pettcr) and accountant and 

registrar of l)irths and deaths, 39 High street 
Hortop & Petter, drapers, 39 High street 
Hoskings Nicholas, farmer. Pill farm, Nev^ort 
Hough Mrs Lilly, lodgings, 3 Ebberly terrace 
How Alfred, saw mill proprietor, timber, manure, corn, 
salt, coal and nail merchant, wood turner, gilder, japan- 
ner and corn miller, Rolle's quay ; h Lauderdale villa, 
Victoria road 
Howard William Henry, baker & confectioner, 100 Highst 
Howell Mrs Mary, teacher of music, 23 Joy street 
Howell Mrs Susannah Millward, day and boarding school, 
and teacher of music, Newport 



Hughes Mr Robert, 70 High street 

Hunt Miss Annie Georgiana Harvey, Littabourne, Pilton 
Hunt George (W. & G.); h 35-6 High street 
Hunt Harry Parnell, watchmaker and jeweller, 1 -I Highst 
Hunt W. &; G. furnishing and general ironmongers and 
agricultural implement agents and smiths, 35-6 High st 
Hunt William (W. & G.) ; h 35-6 High street 
Hunter Thomas, photographer. Anchor lane 
Hussell Miss Julia, dressmaker, 2 Richmond street 
Hussell William, butcher, 29 Butchers' row ; h Bear street 
Hutchings Mrs Ann, Silver street 
Hutchings Mr John, Bear street 
Hutchings John, jun. (W. & J.) ; h Princes street 
Hutchings Miss Mary Ann, hosier. Bear street 
Hutchings AV. & J.fellmongers, woolstaplers and seed and 

corn merchants, Princes street and Bear street 
Hutchings William (W. & J.) ; h Bear street 
Huxtable Mrs Elizabeth, 8 Newport terrace, Newport 
Huxtable Misses Elizabeth & Susan, berlin wool and fancy 

and toy dealers, 76 High street 
Huxtable George, dairyman, Littabourne, Pilton 
Huxtable Jas. foreman marble mason, Littabourne, Pilton 
Huxtable John, foreman, Sowden, Victoria road 
Huxtable John, bootmaker. Trinity street 
Huxtable Mrs Mary, South street, Newport 
Huxtable Wm. solicitor's clerk, & secretary to Co-opera- 
tive Society (lim.), 4 Vicarage terrace, Vicarage street 
Inland Bevenue Office, Bridge chambers. The Strand ; John 

Parker, chief clerk 
Ireland John, nurseryman and florist, Raleigh, Pilton 
Ireland William, nurseryman, Pilton 
Ireland William, saddler. The Sqiiare 
Irish & Son, seed, manure and wool merchants, Tuly st 
Irish Thomas Braund (I. & Son) ; h Rumsom, Pilton 
Isaac James, butcher's manager, Pilton 
Isaac John, tailor. South street, Newport 
Isaac John, shopkeeper, Holland street 
Isaac Mrs Mary Jane, laundress, Church street 
Isaac Mrs Sarah Ann, dressmaker, Newport 
Isaac Thos. butcher, 31-2 Butchers' row; h 3 Richmond st 
Isaac Wm. butcher, 16 Butchers' row ; h Higher Maudlin st 
Jackmau Josiah, greengrocer, 51 i High street 
Jackson Henry, M.R.O.S. Eng., L.S.A. Lond,, surgeon 
(Harper & J.), medical officer for 2nd and 4th districts 
of Barnstaple union and for ] st district of the union, and 
surgeon to Dispensar}^ 6 Alexandra place 
Jackson Captain Philip, Prospect place, Newport 
Janes William Parkin, foreman of Gas Works, Alma ter 
Jarman John Combes, greengrocer. Trinity street 
Jarratt Rev Fred, curate of parish church and chaplain 

to union. Bear street 
Jarvis Henry, vict. North Country Inn, 128 Boutport st 
Jeffery William, shopkeeper, Princes street 
Jervis William, tailor and draper, 68 High street 
Jewell Samuel, lodgings, 4 Alexandra place 
Joce Mrs Ann, South street, Newport 
Joce Thomas, ale and porter merchant, and agent for City 
of Glasgow & Scottish Commercial Insurance Compa- 
nies, 54-6 Boutport street 
Joce Thomas ( W. B. & T.) ; h 63 High street 
Joce W. B. & T. wine, spirit, ale & porter merts. 63 High st 
Joce William Burden (W. B. & T.), 63 High street 
Johnson Sergcant-Major Alfred (retired) ; h Pulchrass st 
Johnson Mrs Fanny, South street, Newport 
Joint Thomas, confectioner and game and provision dealer, 

104 Boutport street 
Joint William, provision dealer, Hardaway Head 
Jolliffo Orlando, bootmaker. Silver street 
JoUyman Mrs Elizabeth Smith, 5 Ebberly terrace 
Jones Miss Bessie, dressmaker, Queen street 
Jones Mrs Frances, dyer and cleaner, 55 High street 
Jones John Beer, printer, publisher and proprietor Barn- 
staple Times and Devo7i Post, and patent medicine 
vendor, Boutport street 



138 



Bani»-»taple, 



Jones Jno. & Co. publishers and proprietors of North 

Bcvoot Advertiser, Boutport street 
Jones Nicholas, cabinet maker, Vicarage street 
Jones Robert, sexton and lodge keeper, Lynton road 
Jones William, bootmaker, Holland street 
Jones William, glass and china dealer. Trinity street 
Jones William Britton, foreman printer. Queen street 
Jones William Moncrieif, clerk, 1 7 Alexandra place 
Jordan Patrick, woolstapler, Pilton 
Judd John travelling tea dealer, Bradford row 
Keall Edward Skinner, dentist. Cross street ; and Bideford 
I^eirle James iShoplands, temperance hotel, agent for Colo- 
nial, Commercial Guarantee, and London and County 
Plate Grlass Insurance Companies, 69 High street 
Kelland Mrs Harriet, 4 Portland villas, Victoria road 
Kelly John, shopkeeper, Lower Maudlin street 
Kemp Miss Fanny, National schoolmistress, 129 Boutport st 
Kemp Thomas, victualler. Salutation, Castle street 
Kenner William Henry, master ^of St. Mary Magdalene 

schools ; h Kichmond street 
Kent Mr John, Westaway house, Pilton 
Kerswell Thomas, grocer, Pilton 
Kiell John Peter, ironmonger, stove grate manufacturer, 

plumber, tinplate worker, &c. 103 High street 
King Mrs Elizabeth, seamstress, Bear street 
King Mrs Emma, milliner and dressmaker. Bear street 
King James, dairyman, 9 Kichmond street 
King Mrs Mary Jane, dressmaker, Litchdon street 
King Thomas, market gardener, Victoria road 
King Thomas, vict. Shipwrights' Arms, The Square 
Kingdon Misses Ann and Panny, furriers, 49 High street 
Kingdon Mr James, 49 High street 
Kingdon Thomas, foreman, Bear street 
Kingson Mrs Katherine, 39 Boutport street 
Knight Henry, draper and milliner, 93 High street 
Knill Frederick, post office mail guard, Pilton 
Knill John, victualler, Keform Inn, maltster, mason and 

builder, Pilton 
Knill John Inch, printer and registrar of marriages, 46 

Boutport street 
Knill Miss Mary, laundress, Barbican road 
Knill Samuel Inch, bank cashier, 8 Barbican terrace 
Knill Mr William, Pilton 

Knill William, librarian, Literary Institution, 42 High st 
Knill Wm. Thos. vict. Unicorn Inn, and butcher, Pilton 
Lake Bros, iron and brass founders, Newport 
Lake Chas. plumber and tinplate worker, 89 Boutport st 
Lake Edwin (Bros.) ; h South street, Newport 
Lake Thomas (Bros.) ; h Newport 
Lake Mr Thomas, Higher Maudlin street 
Lake William (Bros.) ; h Newport 
Lake William, tailor and draper, 86 Boutport street 
Lambett Mrs Rebecca, victualler. Bear Inn, Green lane 
Lancey Richard, ironmonger, 17 High st ; h 4 Park villas 
Langdon Mrs Kitty, 3 Grosvenor terrace 
Lanyon Miss Mary Jane, 13 Newport terrace, Newport 
Lapthorn John, keeper Assembly rooms, Boutport street 
Laramy Miss Matilda, dressmaker, 48 High street 
Laramy William, seedsman, 24 Joy street 
Latham Richard, victualler. New Inn, Silver street 
Lauder Alexander (L. & Smith), and architect and sur- 
veyor, 47 High street 
Lauder Mrs Mary, Poddington, Rolle's quay 
Lauder & Smitli, lime and manure merchants, 47 High 

street ; and Braunton 
Laverconibe Charles, dairyman. South street, Newport 
Law Arthur John, wine merchant (Cotton & Co.) ; h 6 

Union terrace 
Law Mrs Charlotte, Bear street 
Law & Gamble, surgeons, Litchdon street 
Law Miss Phillis, 2 Litchdon terrace, Litchdon street 
" Law Thomas Hooper, solicitor, clerk to Barnstaple Turn- 
pike Trust, and to county magistrates for Braunton 
division, Litclidon street 



Law Thomas Shephard, Esq. J.P., F.R.C.S., L.S.A. (L. & 
Gamble), and consulting surgeon to Nortli Devon Infir- 
mary ; h Riversdale, Litchdon street 
Law William Edward, solicitor and clerk to School Board, 

Litchdon street 
Lawday Edward, baker and confectioner, Vicarage street 
Lawrence Robert Arthur, printer and publisher of North 
Devon Herald, lOG High st ; h Pilton {See Advertisement) 
Leach Mr Charles, Bradiford, Pilton 
Leach & Co. coal merchants and commission and general 

agents. Taw Vale parade 
Leach William Comyns (L, & Co.); h Prospect place, 

Newport 
Lee Thomas, grocer, mason and builder. Vicarage street 
Lee William, dairyman, Pilton 
Leigh James, teacher of music, 1 Salem terrace 
Leman Mrs Catherine, 5 Clarence place, Newport 
Lethaby Richard Pyle, gilder's foreman, 2 Ebberly lawn 
Lewin Mr James and Miss Martha, Cedar cottage, Bradi- 
ford, Pilton 
Lewis Charles Henry (L. & Sons) ; h Silver street 
Lewis Edward (L. & Sons) ; h Barbican terrace 
Lewis Henry, cab proprietor and livery stable keeper, 

North walk 
Lewis Samuel, marine store dealer. Lower Church street 
Lewis & Sons, cabinet makers. Silver street 
Lewis William, bootmaker, Holland street 
Lewis William, victualler, Barnstaple Inn, Trinity street 
Ley John, carver, gilder, and picture dealer, The Square 
Ley William Henry, supervisor of inland revenue, Pros- 
pect place, Newport 
Lile Alfred, railway clerk, Victoria terrace, Victoria road 
Linton Mrs Ann, 10 Orchard terrace, Newport 
List William John, paper manufacturer. The Quay 
Literary ^ Scientific Institiution, 42 High street ; William 

Knill, librarian 
Liverton John, foreman, Poddington, Rolle's quay 
Liverton William, foreman, Rolle's quay 
Lock Charles, grocer and wine merchant, 28 Boutport st 
Lock Mrs Elizabeth, Cross street 
Lock Henry, victualler. Railway Hotel, and teacher of 

music, 42 Boutport street 
Lock Miss Sophia, milliner, Queen street 
Lock Thomas, land agent. Bridge chambers. The Strand ; 

h In stow 
Lock Thomas, bootmaker, The Square 
Lock William (W. & Son); h Orchard terrace, Newport 
Lock Wm.jun. (W. & Son), and agent for United Kingdom 
Temperance & General Provident Institution, 3 High st 
Lock William & Son, bootmakers, 3 High street 
London & Devon Biscuit Co. The Strand; Thomas 

Hodge, manager 
Longhurst George, superintendent of borough police, Fal 

field cottage. Barbican road 
Lord Mrs Ann, dressmaker, Pilton 
Loveband Rev A. Wm., M.A. (Episc.) Pilton Abbey,Pilt 
Lovering Mrs Elizabeth Emma, 4 Grosvenor terrace 
Lowis Miss Mary Paulina, 6 Orchard terrace, Newport 
Luxmoore Miss Emma, Pilton 
Luxmore, Mrs Eliza, 7 Grosvenor terrace 
McDermott Mr Richard, o Pulchrass street 
Macdonald Rev Alex. (Baptist), Boutport street 
McEvoy Mr Richard, Gaydon street 
Mackrell Mr Thomas, o Union terrace 
McLeish Archibald Gilmer, tailor and draper, 43 High st 
Madge Richard Gould (Exors. of), victualler, Ilfracombe 

Hotel, High street 
Magridge John, dairyman. Trinity street 
Majendie Rev Hy. W., M.xi. vicar of HolyTrinity, Barbican 
Maldram Charles, grocer and baker, Holland street 
Maldram James, wool dealer, Vicarage street 
Mallett William, foreman, Victoria terrace, Victoria road 
Manning Benjamin (M. & Son) ; h Joy street 
Manning John Gribble, cattle dealer, Elmfiold cot. Newport 



I>evoiisli.ire. 



iim 



Manning & Son, victuallers,Barnstaple Bodega, wine, spirit, 

ale, and porter merchants and auctioneers, Joy street 
Manning William (M. & Son), and cab proprietor, 

(Seldon & M.); li Joy street 
March John, glass and china dealer. Higher Maudlin st 
.Marks Bros, printers, stationers & bookslrs. 107 High st 
Marks Charles James (Bros.) ; h 107 High street 
Marks|Fras. Goldney (Bros.) ; h 3 Litchdon ter. Litchdon st 
Marks' Mrs Mary Jace, 3 Litchdon terrace, Litchdon st 
.Maries Wm. bootmkr. shopkpr. & markt. gardr. Princes st 
Marquiss Mrs Elizabeth, Barbican 
Marquiss William, farmer, Rumsom, Newport 
3tarsh Mrs Ann, vict. Golden Lion, 62 Boutport street 
Marsh Mrs Ann, 3 Salem terrace 
jMarsh John Hartnoll, bank cashier, Newport 
Marsh S, N. & Co. wine and spirit merchants. Cross st 
Marsh Sydney Northcote (S.N. & Co.),and agent for Phoenix 

and Railway Passengers Insurance Companies, Cross st 
Marshall & Harding (See Barnstaple Old Bank) 
Marshall Mrs Mary Ann, Newport 

Martin Edwd. auctioneer, land surveyor & farmer. Bear st 
Martin James, auctioneer, upholsterer, house agent and 

musical instrument dealer, Cross street 
Mason Mrs Mary Ann Lloyd, 13 Alexandra place 
Masonic Hall, The Quay 
Matta Richard, H.M. assistant inspector of schools. Taw 

View cottage, Newport 
Maunder Sml. Gilbert, Wesleyan schoolmstr. 1 lEbberly lawn 
May Mr Samuel William, Newport terrace, Newport 
May Thomas, land agent, Castle street ; h Fremington 
Mew John, draper, 52 High street 
Michael William, printer, stationer, bookseller, and fancy 

repository, 95 High street 
Michenmore Miss Rebecca, 1 Grosvenor terrace 
Miller Alfred Henry (Bros.); h Pilton 
Miller Bros, lace manufacturers, Vicarage street 
* Miller Jno. May, Esq. J.P. (Bros.) ; h Raleigh hs. Pilton 
Miller Thomas, butcher, 30 Butchers' row; h Leary, 

Chittlehampton 
Miller William Walter (Bros.); h Nottingham 
Mills John, plumber and tinplate worker, Queen street 
Milroy Mr Alexander, 114 Boutport street 
Milroy Mr John, 43 Boutport street 
Milton John, shopkeeper, Vicarage street 
Milton Miss Mary, Holy Trinity schoolmistress, Barbican 
Mitchell Wm. inspector of county police, Rumsom, Newport 
Moon James, pawnbroker (and plate), Page's lane ; and 

ironmonger ; h 76 High street ; and South Molton 
Moore Albert Croydon, victualler, Railway Bell Hotel, 

carriage proprietor and day waiter, The Quay 
Moore Miss Ann, dressmaker, Pilton 
Moore Henry, bootmaker and refreshment rooms, 32 

Boutport street 
Moore James, manure merchant, Tuly street ; and farmer ; 

h Bishop's Tawton 
Moore John, bootmaker, Pilton 
Morris Edward Elliott, grocer & wine and spirit merchant, 

84 High street 
Mori-ison Robert Paul, surgeon dentist, 44 High street 
Morrison Thos. watchmkr. silversmith & jewllr. 4 High st 
Mortimer Mr John, Burlington villa, Newport 
Mortimer Mrs Mary Gertrude, 6 Grosvenor terrace 
Moseley Mrs Frances Maria, 9 Ebberly lawn 
Mott Miss Mary Ann, 116 Boutport street 
Moule Robert, butcher, 8-9 Butchers' row ; h Fremington 
Mountjoy & Hancock, brushhandle manufacturers and 

wood turners, Bradiford mills, Pilton 
Moxham Dan, grocer and agent for Prudential Assurance 

Society, Silver street 
Mugford Bros, wine, spirit, ale and porter merchants, 

Boutport street 
Mugford Edward (Bros,); h Boutport street 
MuUins William, fish dealer, Higher Maudlin street 
Munro Mrs, Broadgate vilia, Pilton 



Murch Thomas, ironmonger and pianoforte tuner; Bear st 
Muxworthy William, victualler. Bee Hive, Green lane 
Muxworthy William & Mrs Ann, master and matron. 

Union Workhouse 
National Provincial Bank of England, 86 High street ; 

Thomas W. M. W. Guppy, manager 
Neck Mrs Jane, Newport 

Newcombe Miss Lizzie, confectioner, 1 7 Joy street 
Nibloe James, travelling draper, 114 Boutport street 
NicholLs Mrs Elizabeth, Newport 
Nicholls William, bootmaker. Cross street 
Nicklin Oliver Joseph, music seller and pianoforte dealer, 

The Square 
Nickolls Arthur, toy dealer, 91 Boutport street 
Nickolls Arthur, grocer and farmer, Newport 
Norman Christopher, wine, spirit, ale and porter mer- 
chant, 95 Boutport street, and farmer, Goodleigh 
Northcote Charles Edward, land surveyor and agent, 

Bridge chambers, The Strand ; h South street, Newport 
Northcote Miss Emily, toll collector, Lynton road 
North Devon Advertiser, Boutport street ; John Jones & 

Co. publishers and proprietors 
North Devon Herald, 106 High street ; Robert A.Lawrence, 

publisher {See Advertisement) . 

North Devon Infirmary, Litchdon street; Miss Susan 

Williams, matron 
North Devon Journal, 95 High street; Avery & Hayman, 

publishers and proprietors {See Advert Isemei/t) 
Nott Mrs, Lynton road 

Nuthall Miss Mary Jane, Clarence place, Newport 
Nutt Anthony, edge tool maker, Bear street ; and Pilton 
Oatway Charles, joiner, builder & contractor. Bear street 
Oatway George, beerhouse, Hardaway Head 
Oatway Mrs Mary, grocer and baker, Gaydon street 
Oatway Thomas, baker, Pilton 
Okes Mrs Augusta (Exors. of), 3 L^nion terrace 
Oliver Mrs Betsey, grocer, Silver street 
Oliver James, joiner and builder. Cross street 
Oliver James Broom, blacksmith. Queen street 
Oliver William Clement, architect and surveyor. Cross st 
Osborne John Henry, plumber, tinplate worker and oil and 

lamp dealer, Newport 
Ovey George, bootmaker. Union strept 
Page Chas. cigar merchant, chemist & druggist, 94 High st 
Page George, victualler, Bristol Inn, Litchdon street 
Palmer Cadwallader Edwards, solicitor, notary public, 

commissioner for taking oaths in High Court of Justice, 

deputy registrar of Barnstaple archdeaconry, and clerk 

to commissioners of taxes for Braunton, Fremington and 

Sherwell districts. Cross street 
Palmer Francis Western, saddler, 33 High street 
Parish Mrs Elizabeth, carrier. Trinity street 
Parker Jno. chief clerk of inland revenue, 15 Alexandra pi 
Parker John, bootmaker and fruiterer, Anchor lane 
Parker John, postmaster, Cross street 
Parkey Misses Amelia & Lucretia, 5 Vicarage terrace, 

Vicarage street 
Parkin Charles, bootmaker, Azes lane 
Parkin George, butcher, 19 Butchers' row ; h Queen street 
Parkin John, victualler, Golden Fleece, Tuly street 
Parkin William, hairdresser & tobacconist, 57 Boutport st 
Parkinson Mrs Arabella Emily, South street, Newport 
Parks James, wine and spirit merchant, 72 High street 
Parminter John, victualler. Angel Inn, and mason and 

builder. The Quay 
Parminter Mrs Mary, Pilton 

Partridge James, chemist and druggist, 75 High street 
Pascoe — , rope manufacturer, Newport 
Pasmore Mrs Ann, grocer. Reform street 
Pavey Samuel, chimney-sweeper. Princes street 
Payne Thomas, draper, 67 High street 
Peacock Mrs Agnes Holdin, Clarence place, Newport 
Peake Edward, draper, 19 Joy street 
Pearce Mrs Elizabeth, Boutport street 



140 



Sai-nHta/ple, 



I 



Pearco Thomas Arthur, bakor, Newport 

Pearse George, milliner and draper, &c. 106 High street ; 

h 3 Barbican terrace 
Pearse George Blake, harbour master, shlpbroker and 

shipping agent, The Quay 
Pearse Mr James, 11 Taw Vale parade 
Pedler Thomas, confectioner, Vicarage street 
Peel Mrs Emily, 7 Orchard terrace, Newport 
Pelling John, milliner, 18 and (h) 91 High street 
Pengelly Mrs Mary Ann, watchmaker and silversmith, 

7 High street 
Penhale William, M.E.C.V.S. inspector Barnstaple district. 

The Square ; h Litchdon street 
Porkin James, mason, builder, house agent and agent for 

Scottish National Ass. Co. Higher Maudlin street 
Perrien John Henry, victualler, Park Hotel, and emigration 

agent, Cooney bridge 
Perryman Mr William, 4 Summerland place. Barbican 
Peters Miss Grace, Bear street 
Petter Charles Henry, bookkeeper. Bear street 
Petter Mrs Charlotte, 112 Boutport street 
Petter Edwin, maltster and corn, manure and seed mer- 
chant, 6 Boutport street 
Petter Hy. cabinetmaker (Shapland & P.) ; hEbberly lawn 
Petter Miss Martha, 5 Alexandra place 
Pettle Henry, coachbuilder, The Square ; and Queen street 
Phillips George, butcher, 30 Boutport street 
Phillips James, tailor, Holland street 
Phillips Mrs Jane, grocer. Trinity street 
Phillips Mrs Susan, grocer. Vicarage street 
Phillips William, painter and paperhanger. Bear street 
Pick Mr James Milford, 2 Orchard terrace, Newport 
Pickard Mr Eobert, E.N., South street, Newport 
Pickford & Co. railway carriers, 28 Joy street ; Seldou & 

Mannings agents 
Pike Eobert, joiner and builder, 61 High street 
Pile William Webber, tailor and draper. Bear street 
Pincombe Arthur, bootmaker, 48 Boutport street 
Pinkett Mr Edward, M.A., Boutport street 
Pitman James, toll collector. Mere Top gate, Pilton 
Pitney Alfred, toy dealer, 44 Boutport street 
Pitowsky Arnold, surgeon-dentist, 8 Boutport street ; h 

Green close, Newport 
Ponsford Mrs Mary, Pilton 
Pope Joseph, mining engineer. Park villas 
Popham Mrs Eliza, baker, A'icarage street 
Popham Miss Susan, milliner, Azes lane 
Porrin John, gardener, Eichmond street 
Porter John, fishmongr. fruiterer & comsn. agent. Cross st 
Porter Mr William, Pilton 

Powning Thomas & Co. dyers and cleaners, 66 Hiijh street 
Pratt Edward, chemist and oil and seed merchant, 85 

High street ; and Cross street 
Prendergast Miss Maria, dayschool, o Orchard ter. Newport 
Prideaux George, timber merchant's manager, Holland 

house, Holland street 
Prideaux John, bootmaker, Pilton 
Prideaux William, tailor and draper, o3 High street 
Pridham William, coach and cab proprietor, Jivery stable 

keeper & town carrier for L. & S. W. Ely. Co. 25 Joy st 
Priest Eichard, bootmaker, Newington street 
Puddicombe Miss Caroline Warren, teacher of languages, 

music and dancing, Eichmond street 
Puddicombe Mr Samuel Warren, Eichmond street 
Pugsley Charles, carrier, Litchdon street 
Pugsley Mrs Mary Ann, shopkeeper, Pilton 
Pulsford John, builder and contractor, marble mason and 

agent for Western Provident Association, 8 Ebberly ter 
Purchase John, poulterer, Litchdon street 
Pyke Mrs Susan, victualler. Green Dragon, 130 Boutport st 
Quartly Mr James, 1 Newport terrace, Newport 
Quick Mrs Elizabeth, grocer, 102 High street 
Quick Mrs Mary, The Quay 
Quick William, dairyman, Trinity street 



Quick William Hean & Co. nurserymen, seed growers and 
manure merchants, 3 Cross street ; & Broadwood Kelly 
Eadford Joseph, cooper. South street, Newport 
Eafarel Henry, gas rate collector, and agent for Norwich 
and London Accidental Ins. Co. 3 Sunderland pi. Barbican 
Eafarel William Claude, gasworks manager, Victoria road 
Eafarel Mr William Joseph, Bear street 
Eatcliflfe Edward, grocer and carpenter, Newport 
Eatcliffe J. & Co. grocers and wine and spirit merchan 

41 High street 
Eatcliflfe James (J. & Co.) ; h 41 High street 
Eawle, Gammon & Co. timber merchants, Eolle's quay 
Eawle Samuel (E., Gammon & Co.), and victualler, Eolle's 

Quay Inn, Eolle's quay ~ 

Eeader Frederick, shopkeeper, Gaydon street 
Eedmore Miss Mary Ann, dressmaker. Bear street 
Eeed Miss Harriet, dairykeeper, Eeform street 
Eeed William Gore, collector of inland revenue, N< 

villas, Victoria road 
Eeeve John, schoolmaster, Pilton 

Eew Charles, travelling draper and tailor, Litchdon str 
Eice Andrew Steele, coach painter. Green In. ; h Vicarage 
Eice Joshua Snell, wire worker and Venetian blind manu 

facturer, 40 Boutport street 
Eice Mrs Maria, Newport 

Eice William Edward, clerk. South street, Newport 
Eichards John, brewery manager, Newport road 
Eichards Mrs Susan, victualler. Grapes, 7 Joy street 
Eidd John, shopkeeper, Bradiford, Pilton 
Eidd Miss Mary Frances, Eoman Catholic schoolmistress, 

Church street 
Eidd Thomas, farmer. Cross park, Pilton 
Eidd William, butcher, 25 Butchers' row ; h Swimbridge, 
Eidd William, bootmaker, Newport 
Eobins Francis, shopkeeper, Pilton 
Eock Jno. Boyle, commercial traveller, 8 Boutport street 
Eock Miss Mary Eliz. teacher of music, 8 Boutport street 
Eockhey John Fry, draper, 87 High street 
Eouse Mrs Elizabeth, 1 3 Ebberly lawn 
Eouse Miss Isabella, day & boarding schl. 13 Ebberly lawn 
Eowe James, fishing tackle manufacturer, 62 High street 
Eowe Mrs Mary, 2 Alexandra place 
Eowe Mr William, 35 Boutport street 
Eudall Edward, commercial traveller, Holland street 
Eudall Henry, grocer, Trinity street 
Eush Arthur & Co. milliners, tailors, & linen & -woollei 

drapers, 9-10 Joy street 
Eussell Eichard Bury,.J)auk manager, Swimbridge 
Eussell Eev Thos. M.A. day & boarding school, Newpor 
Eutty Eev. John (Congregational), 3 Newport terrace 

'Nevrpovt 

Sampson John, nurseryman (W.H.Quick& Co.); h Newpo 
Sanders Mrs Ann Verney, grocer, Queen street 
Sanders Henry, bootmaker, Litchdon street 
Sanders Mrs Mary Ann, butcher, 22-3 Butchers' row 

Gaydon street 
Sanders Samuel, carpenter, Holland street 
Sanders William, watchmaker & jeweller, 33 Boutport s 
Sanders William, brushmaker, 5 The Strand 
Sanders Wm. painter & paperhanger. Diamond street 
Satterley Charles Hy., Blue Coat school master, North wall 
Saunders John, butcher, 33 Butchers' row; h Lovacot 

Fremington 
Saunders Mrs Mary Ann, butcher, Butchers' row ; h 

Gaydon street 
Saunders Mr Eobert, Newport 
Saxon Nathaniel, victualler, Eoyal & Fortescue Hob 

and posting house, 61 Boutport street {See Advert.) 
Scamp John, blacksmith, Lower Maudlin street 
Scamp Eobert, tailor. Bear street 
Scott Henry, painter, glazier, paperhanger, and oil, varnis 

and colour merchant. Cross street 
Seager Mrs Ann, Pilton 
Searle Mrs Mary Ann, milliner, Tuly street 



lad 

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13 evoiishii*^. 



141 



Se;irle S. & Co. printers, stationers, & bookbinders, 15 

High street 
Searle Samuel (S. & Co.) ; li 15 High street 
Seklon Miss Albertina, victualler, Horse & Grroom, 41 

J3outport street 
Seldon Edwin, victualler, Globe Inn, Queen street 
Scldon Miss Ellen Lavinia, dressmaker, Newport 
Seldon James, dairyman, Holland street 
Seldon John, cab proprietor (S. & Manning) and grocer 

and Italian warehouseman, 21 Joy street 
Seldon & Manning, cab proprietors & agents for Pickford 

& Co., &c. 28 Joy street 
Seldon Miss Mary, shopkeeper, Trinity street 
Seldon Mrs Susan, vict. Carpenters' Arms, Vicarage street 
Seldon Thomas Prescott, wine, spirit, ale, and porter 

merchant and maltster, 108 Boutport street 
Seldon William, lodgings, 125 Boutport street 
Seldon William, grocer and bootmaker, Newport 
Seldon Wm. Henry, currier & leather merchant, Queen st. 
Sellick John, eating house, 59 Boutport street 
Sellick John, watchmaker, Holland st. ; h Pago's lane 
Serge Mrs Eosina, umbrella maker, Queen street 
Sewell Rev James, Victoria road 

Sexon John, butcher, 5-6 Butchers' row ; and (h) Newport 
Seymour Eev Albert Eden, M.A. vicar, Vicarage street 
Shaddick John, postmaster, Newport 
Shaddick Philip, rope maker, Gaydon street 
Shaddick Richard, shopkeeper, Green lane 
Shapland Miss Emma, dressmaker, Litchdon street 
Shapland Mr George, Broad meadow, Newport 
Shapland Henry (S. & Petter) ; h Raleigh, Pilton 
Shapland John, M.R.C.V.S., veterinary surgeon, The Quay 
Shapland John, medical assistant, Magdala cottage, 

Barbican road 
Shapland John Griffiths, grocer, Trinity street 
Shapland Miss Mary Ann, 8 New buildings 
Shapland & Petter, cabinet makers, and mahogany, veneer, 

and fancy wood merchants, Raleigh, Pilton 
Sheep market, Castle street 
Shore John & Son, butchers, farmers, and dairymen, and 

agents for Sutton and Co. 26 Boutport street 
Shorland Mrs Ann, 2 Union terrace 

Sillifant Henry, joiner and builder. Higher Maudlin street 
Skinner Miss Ann, Newport 
Skinner John, dairyman, 5 Salem terrace 
Sleath Mr William James, Cott house, Newport 
Slee William, baker, Holland street 
Slocombe Mrs Mary Ann, vict. Swan Inn, Holland street 
Sloman Geo. baker, confectioner, & flour dealer, 27 Joy st. 
Smale William Henry, shopkeeper, Azes lane 
Smalldon Mrs Maria, Alma terrace 
Smalldon Miss Maria, day school. Alma terrace 
Smallridge Samuel, poulterer, 87 Boutport street 
Smitli Bros, tanners, Boutport street and Swimbridge 
Smith James Lancaster, cabinet maker, South st. Newport 
Smith John (Bros.); h Swimbridge 
Smith William (Bros.) ; h Swimbridge 
Smith William Otter, lime merchant (Lauder & S.); h 

Well close, Lj'nton road 
Smith W. H. & Son, booksellers, The Quay, and London; 

J. W. Cockrell, agent 
Smyth Miss Susan, schoolmistress, Pilton 
Smyth William, tailor, draper, hatter, and outfitter, 25 & 

81-2 High street; h 1 Orchard terrace. Newport 
Smyth Zachariah, coach builder, auctioneer, mining, and 
estate agent, manure merchant, and district manager for 
Great Britain Ins. Co. 63 High street ; and Tuly street 
Snook Francis, decorator and sign writer, Bedford row 
Snow Mr Charles, 8 Alexandra place 
I Snow Mrs Elizabeth, corset manufacturer, 12 High street 
\ Snow Mrs Mary (Exors, of), shopkeeper, Bear street 
i Somerfield Richard, telegraph clerk, Gaydon street 
I Somerfield William, victualler, Stag's Head, Bear street 
\ Spurway Miss Elizabeth, hosier, Pilton 



Spurway George, dairyman, Pilton 

Spurway Henry (H. & W.) ; h Bradiford, Pilton 

Spurway H. & W, woolstaplers and fellmongers, Lady well 

yard, Pilton 
Spurway William (H. & W.) ; h Bradiford, Pilton 
Squire David, blacksmith. Diamond street 
Squire Miss Priscilla, mistress Brethern school; h 4 

Grosvenor street 
Squires Daniel, clothes dealer, Holland street 
Stamp Office, Cross street; Henry K. Thome, distributor 
Stark Mrs Alicia, 14 Ebberly lawn 
Stephenson Rev William (Wesleyan), 4 Nelson terrace 
Stevens James, hatter and agent for British Workman 

Assurance Company, 4 Higher Maudlin street 
Stevens John, baker, 8 1 Boutport street 
Stevens Rev Richard (Baptist, retired), 3 Nelson street 
Stevens Robert, marine store dealer. Queen street 
Stevens Samuel, tailor, Holland street 
Stevens Thomas, greengrocer and fruiterer, Newport 
Stevens Mr Thomas Howell, 5 Trafalgar lawn 
Steward Mr George, Bradiford, Pilton 
Stewart Chas. bank clerk, Newport terrace, Newport 
Stewart John & David, woollen drapers, 36 Boutport st 
Stiif Mrs Charlotte, Litchdon street 
Stone Fredk. butcher, 4 Butchers' row ; h Hardaway Head 
Stone Mr Richard, Newport 

Stone Wm. vict. Red Cow, and dairyman, Holland street 
Stoneman Mr John, 10 Pulchrass street 
Stout Miss Ellen Hebden, 1 Richmond terrace 
Stoyle James, victualler, Stafford Arms, Trinity street 
Stoyle John, travelling draper, Littabourne, Pilton 
Strewin Miss Elizabeth, Richmond street 
Stribling John, master mariner, Holland street 
Stri])ling Thomas, bootmaker, The Square 
Summerfield James, grocer and victualler, Windsor Hotel, 

Bradiford, Pilton 
Summers Thomas, baker, Queen street 
Summers William, baker, Queen street 
Sutton Mr Thomas, Rosebank, Rumsom, Newport 
Swift Captain George, Portland villas, Victoria road 
Symons Chas. timber & coal mert. Mallett's row, Queen st 
Symons Fredk. auctioneer (S. & Son) ; h 37 Boutport st 
Symons George, carpenter, Gaydon street 
Symons John, foreman, 6 The Strand 
Symons John, rope mfr. (S. & Son), & tailor. Bear street 
Symons Richard, grocer and coal dealer, Vicarage street 
Symons Robert Spicer, grocer & carpntr. 1 Alexandra pi. 
Symons Samuel, solicitor's managing clerk, Pilton 
Symons & Son, auctioneers, house agents, cabinetmakers, 

and upholsterers, 37 Boutport street 
Symons & Son, rope & twine manufacturers. Bear street 
Symons Stephen, vict. George Hotel, 77 Boutport street 
I Symons Thomas, foreman, Trinity street 
i Symons Thomas, timber merchant's manager 
! Symons Wm. rope, »&c. mfr. (S. & Son) ; h Bear street 
I Symons Wm., F.C.S., pharmaceutical chemist, 26 Joy st 
I Tamlyn Miss Elizabeth, Pilton 
I Tamplyn Mrs Margaret, Bear street 
I Tanner Misses Elizabeth & Charlotte, Newport ter.Newport 

Tanner John, tailor and draper, Newport 
I Tanner William, saddler, Pilton 
Tarr William, victualler, King's Arms (commercial and 

agricultural) Hotel, 30 High street 
Taylor Richard, butcher, 3 Butchers' row ; h Vicarage st 
Thomas Miss Ann, Pilton 
Thomas Frederick, hatter, 79 High street, and Plymouth 

and (h) Exeter 
Thomas George, builder's manager, Pilton 
Thomas John Davey, postmaster &joiner & builder, Pilton 
Thomas William, foreman, Alma terrace 
Thorn Richard, clerk, Inland Revenue office, Bridge 

chambers. Strand 
ThornbyMrs Susan, confctnr.& sugar boiler, 66 Boutport st 
Thorne Charles, foreman wood turner, Barbican 



1¥2 



13a.i:*nRta.ple, 



Thorne David, victualler, Nag's Head, Anclior lane 

Thorno Mr George van Straubenzee, Newport 

Thorne Hy. King, stamp distributor, high bailiff of County 

Court, boro' treasunsr, & agt. for Koyal Ins. Co., Cross st 
Thorne John Arnold, solicitor, clerk to Barnstaple District 

Highway Board, toMorthoe School Board, and to Lynton 

Local Board, and commissioner in all courts, Castle st 
Thorno Miss Mary (Exors. of), Pilton 
Thorne Richard, blacksmith, Bradiford, Pilton 
Thorne Richard (T. & Woolway) ; h Rolle's quay 
Thorne Thos. butcher, Butchers' row; h South st. Newport 
Thorne & Woolway, coach builders, Green lane 
Toller John Heni-y (T. & Sou), and deputy coroner for the 

county, jvnd clerk of the peace for the borough, 26 

Barbican terrace 
Toller & Son, solicitors, secretaries to Devon and Exeter 

Savings Bank, & agts. forLondon Ass. Co.,5Boutportst 
Toller William Henry (T.& Son), and superintendent regis- 
trar, clerk to Guardians and Taw and Torridge Fishery 

Conservancy Board ; h 4 Boutport street 
Toms Samuel, shopkeeper, Lower Church street 
Tozer Bononid, farmer. Pit farm, Pilton 
Trehane Miss Priscilla Hannah Moyes, 4Ebberly lawn 
Tremeer John Joseph, chemist and druggist, and oil and 

colour man, 65 Boutport street 
Trestam John, glass and china dealer, Joy street 
Tripe Francis William, draper, 32 High street 
Tucker Edward, fruiterer, Vicai-age street 
Tucker Miss Elizabeth, farmer, Maidenford, Lynton road 
Tucker Ephraim John, boot factor and Great Western 

Railway station master, 63 Boutport street 
Tucker Miss May, lodgings, 7 Ebberly terrace 
Tucker Mr Philip, Reform street 
Tucker Pitts John Tom, solicitor, Bridge chambers ; h 

Square terrace, The Square 
Tucker Stephen, wheelwright, Bradiford, Pilton 
Turner Frederick, bootmaker, Pilton 
Turner Mrs Jane, grocer, Silver street 
Turner John, cabinet maker & upholsterer, 129 Boutport st 
Turner John Coham, secretary and dispenser, Dispensary, 

Boutport street 
Turner Mr John Thorne, Littabourne, Pilton 
Tyle Bros, drapers and silk mercers, 6 Joy street 
Tyle Mrs Mary, dressmaker, 14 Boutport street 
Tyle Samuel (Bros.) ; h 14 Boutport street 
Tyle Thomas (Bros.) ; h 6 Joy street 
Unio7i Workhouse, Alexandra place ; William and Mrs A. 

Muxworthy, master and matron 
Yellacott Humphrey, draper, 21 High street 
Vellacott Mr AVilliam, 2 Ebbei'ly terrace 
Venning Thomas, victualler, Ebberly Arras, Bear street 
Verney John Palmer, baker, confectioner and refreshment 

room, 105 High street ; h Hfracombe 
Veysey Mrs Priscilla, 1 1 Pulchrass street 
Vicary George Henry, fish, fruit and game dealer and 

commission agent, 69 Boutport street 
Vicary John, confectioner, 38 High st., & builder, Pilton 
Vicary Richard, relieving officer for Ilfracome district and 

registrar of births and deaths for Braunton district, and 

collector for guardians. Rose hill, Pilton 
A^ickery Christopher, waterworks turncock, Reservoir 

house, Pilton 
Vickery George, baker, Belle meadow. Silver street 
Vickery Geo. Andrew, grocer & elk. of works. Vicarage st 
Vickery Jas. Dallyn, photographer, Victoria hs. The Strand 
Vickery Richard, currier and leather mercliant, Cross st 
Vile John, victualler. Golden Anchor, Holland street 
Vile William Pinkham, vict. King's Head, 31 Boutport st 
Wadham Thomas, grocer and bootmaker, Litchdon street 
Wagner Mr John Henry, 7 Taw Vale parade 
Wainwright Thomas, head master. Grammar school ; h 8 

Ebberly lawn 
Waldon George, teacher of music, Trinity street 
Wall William, chair maker, Cross street 



] 

i.st 

•5t 



Ward James, blacksmith and belUianger, Joy street 
Warren Misses Emma & Sarah, lodgings, Quay ho 

The Quay 
Warren John, clerk, 7 Pulchrass street 
Watts Misses Eliza & Ellen, dressmkrs. Bradiford, Pilton 
Watts Henry, butcher, 12 Butchers' row; h Goodleigh 
Watts John, grocer, Boutport street 
Watts Thomas, butcher, 15 Butchers' row ; h Reform st 
Webb Cornelius Edwd. inland revenue officer, Pulchrass st 
AVebb Edward, assistant overseer, Grosvenor street 
Webb Mrs Julia, lodgings, 6 Alexandra place 
Webber Mr James, 13 New buildings 
Webber James Ambrose, tailor and draper. Cross street 
Webber Richard and Mrs Annie, governor and matro; 

Borough Prison, Castle street 
Webber William, bootmaker, Reform street 
AVebster Charles, hairdresser. Queen street 
AVeeks Miss Mary Ann, National schoolmistress. North w] 
Welch William, chimney-sweep & umbrella mkr. Queen .st 
Wescombe Misses Mary & Jane, ladies' day schl. Bear st 
Wescombe Mr Thomas, Bear street 
Westacott Misses Betsey and Sally, milliners. The Squa] 
Westacott John (AV. & Sons) ; li 2 Taw A^ale parade 
AVestacott John, clothier. Queen street , 
AVestacott John, blacksmith, Litchdon street 
AVestacott Mrs Sarah, baker & confcctionr. Paternoster row 
Westacott & Sons, shipbuilders and saw mill proprietors, 

Bridge wharf, Barnstaple junction 
AVestacott AVilliam (W. & Sons) ; h 4 Taw A^ale parade 
Westacott William (W. & Sons) ; h Newport 
AVestacott William, shopkeeper, Belle meadow, Silver st 
West of England and South Wales District Bank, The 

Square and Bristol (draw on Glyn, Mills & Co.) ; 

Richard Bury Russell, manager 
AVhaites James, supt. Prudential Ass. Co. 4 Pulchrass st 
Whitchelo Henry, medical assistant. 111 Boutport street 
Whitchurch Mr Frederick, Trafalgar lawn 
Wliite George, bootmaker, 105 Boutport street 
W^hite Miss Harriet, Pilton 
White John Lee, bootmaker, 88 High street 
White Richard, collector. Custom house ; h Instow 
AVhitefield Mrs Frances, 109 Boutport street 
AVilkie George, shopkeeper, Garden court. Queen street 
AVilkins George, hatter's manager, Grosvenor ;Street 
Wilkins Mrs Mary Ann, lodgings, Bear street 
Williams Benjamin, monumental mason, Queen street 
Williams Charles Henry, Esq. J.P. Pilton house, Pilton 
AVilliams Edwin, district manager for Royal Liver Frien " 

Society, Pilton 
AVilliams Airs Eliza, 4 Ebberly lawn 
AVilliams Hy. Rcdmore, furnishing & general ironmon 

sewing machine agt. & agricl. implement dlr. lOHig] 
Williams Miss Susan, matron, North Devon Infirmary 
Williams Mr Thomas, Gaydon street 
Willmets Robert Perry, ironmonger's asst. 1 New buildi 
Wills Mr John, Hawley, Alctoria road 
AVills AVilliam, draper, 109 High street 
AVills Mr William Henry Pearce, 2 New buildings 
AVillshire Charles Sweet, wholesale ironmonger and i 

and l)rass founder, Barnstaple foimdry, Newport ; h 

Nelson terrace, Newport 
AVilson Mrs, 4 Orchard terrace, Newport 
Winter William, brush & mop manufacturer, 1 The Q 
Wivell Richard, vict. Brewery Tap, Taw Vale parade 
WoUen Francis, watchmaker, Anclior In. & (h) Holland st 
AVood James, toll collector, Bradiford, Pilton 
AVooIacott Miss, refreshment room proprietor, Barnstaple 

junction station ; h High street 
AVooIacott Mrs Jane Lovering, Castle street 
AVoolway John, coach bldr. (Thorne & AV.) ; h Rolle's qiiay 
Worth William, grocer, 23 Joy street 
AVreford George, agricultural implement manfr. Newport 
Wright Mrs Mary, shopkeeper, AVells street 
Yates Mr John, Pilton 



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r>evoiisliii"e4 



143 



Yeo, Dennis & Co. grocers, wine, spirit, ale & porter merts. 

& agts. for Liverpool & London &Globe Ins. Co. The Quay 
Yeo George, grocer & boro' inspector of nuisances, Newport 
Yeo Henry, corn merchant, 2 Salem terrace 
Yeo James, tailor and draper, Boutport street 
Yeo Miss Mary Ann, 3 Kichmond terrace 
Yeo Samuel, brewer and maltster, 113 Boutport street 
Yeo William (Y., Dennis & Co.) ; h Tawstock 
Yeo "William, butcher, 7 Butchers' row ; h Vicarage street 
Youatt James, grocer, Gaydon street, and butcher, 24 

Butchers' row 
Youings James, sexton of parish church. Anchor lane 
Youings "William (Wm. & Sons), fancy and toy dealer, and 

servants register office, 64 High street 
Youings William & Sons, monumental masons and stone 

cutters. Bear street 
Young Miss Charlotte, 12 Barbican terrace 
Young John Dennis (J. D. & Son) ; h 9 Taw Vale parade 



Young J. D. & Son, iron and brass founders, bar iron and 
steel merchants, plumbers, ironmongers, agricultural 
implement raanufs. and agents for Gen. In. Co. Silver st 

Young William (J. D. & Son) ; h 9 Taw Vale parade 

CABRIEBS. 

BiDEFORD, Parish, The Square, daily 

Bratton Fleming, Parkin, White Horse, Tues. & Friday 

Braunton, Gammon, Tuesday, Thursday, Friday, & Sat 

CoMBMARTiN, Willis, King's Arms, Tuesday and Friday 

Fremington, Parish, The Square, daily 

Hatherleigh, Bowman, Shipwrights' Arms, Tues. & Fri 

Instow, Parish, The Square, daily 

Parracombk, Seymour, Barley Mow Inn, Tues. and Friday 

South Molton, Gould, Bell Inn, daily ; and Manning, Bell 

Inn, Tuesday and Friday 
Stratton, Guest, Bell Inn, Friday 
West Buckland, Perrin, White Horse, Tuesday & Friday 



BEAFORD, a parish and pleasant village on the eastern acclivity of the Torridge valley^ 5 miles S.E. 
of Great Torrington, is in Torrington union, county court district and deanery, Great Torrington petty 
sessional division, Torrington polling district of North Devon, Shebbear hundred, and Barnstaple arch- 
deaconry. It had 619 inhabitants (282 males, 337 females) in 1871, living in 12/> houses on 3203 acres of land. 
The parish includes Abbots Hill, Woolleigh, and Upcott. The Rev. C. W. Furse is lord of the manor, but 
Woolly or Woolleigh Barton is a separate manor, 2 miles from the village, belonging to Sir T. D. Acland, 
and on this estate are remains of an ancient chapel. Upcott Farm, the property and residence of Thomas 
W. Snell, Esq., had anciently a chapel attached, but no traces of it are now to be seen. The Church (St. 
George) is an ancient structure in various styles of architecture, and is about to be restored. The south aisle 
has a fine old carved roof. The tower, with spire, is on the north side, and contains three bells. The font 
is Norman. The living, a rectory, valued in K.B. at £11 15.5. 7|c?., and now at £300, is in the patronage of 
the Rev. C. Wood, B. A., and incumbency of the Rev. IT. J. Marshall, who has a residence, built in 1853. 
The tithes are commuted at £244 a year, and there are 75 acres of glebe. The Baptists and Bible 
Christians have small chapels here. A Church School, with teacher's residence, was erected in 1870, on 
a site given by Miss Arnold, and has an average attendance of 80 pupils. The parish clerk has the free use 
of a house and six acres of land. 

Post and Money Order Office and Savings Bank at Mr. .John Westcott's. Letters are received at 
45 a.m., and despatched at 6.45 p.m. 



Arnold George, yeoman, North Hare 
' , path 

'Ashplant William, shoemaker 
Ashton John (Thomas & Son) 
Ashton Thos.& Son, tailors & drapers 
Chammings James, farmer, Coombe 
Cornelius Richard, ironmonger and 

glass and china dealer 
Friend William, farmer and chandler 
Heard Arthur, oil and lamp dealer and 

builder 
Heard John, blacksmith 
Heard Silas, blacksmith 
Heard William, vict. Gunsmiths' Arms 
Hearn Mr James, Green Warren 
Hearn Thomas, farmer. Green Warren 



Hooper Rowland, farmer, RamsclifF 
Isaac Thomas, boot and shoe maker 
Jury Robert, wheelwright 
Knapman Miss Agnes Arnold, draper 

and grocer 
Leverton William, yeoman, Woodleigh 
Luxton Robert, farmer, Canns Down 
Lyiie John & Son, farmers, Scriggings 
Marke William, yeoman, Abbotts hill 
Marshall Rev Henry James, rector. 

The Rectory 
Pickard Jas. farmer, Mount Pleasant 
Pincombe John, farmer and miller, 

Woodleigh mill 
Puddicombe Robert, farmer, Trevilla 
Quick Thomas, farmer, Bedford moor 



Shearm Thomas, yeoman South 
Hare path 

Snell John, farmer and landowner, 
Brealeys 

Snell Thomas Webber, farmer and 
landowner, Upcott Barton 

Snell William & John, millers, far- 
mers and maltsters, Beaford mill 

Trick William & Henry, farmers, 
Handford Towell 

Weeks John & Henry, farmers, Hole 

Westcott Geo. maltster &vict. Globe 

Westcott John draper, grocer, post- 
master and parish clerk 

AVinser Thomas Holman, National 
school master 



BEAWORTHY, a village and parish among the hills, 8 miles S.W. of Hatherleigh, is in Okehampton 
union, county court district, and rural deanery, Hatherleigh petty sessional division, Southern division ot the 
county, Black Torrington hundred, a,nd Totnes archdeaconry. It had 284 inhabitants (145 males, 139 females) 
in 1871, living in 48 houses, on 3086 acres of land. Most of the soil belongs to Sir William Molesworth, 
but part to the Ven. Archdeacon Woollcombe, S. Asser, Esq., and others. The South Western Railway line 
from Okehampton to Holdsworthy will pass through this parish. The Church (St. Alban) is a small antique 
structure, in the Early English style, consisting of chancel, nave, and tower containing three bells. The 
church was thoroughly restored in 1871, at a cost of nearly £500, defrayed by subscription, when the ediiice 
was newly roofed, and a good part of the fabric itself rebuilt. The register dates from 1759. The rectory, 
Talued in K.B. at £6 6s., is in the patronage and incumbency of the Rev. Frederick A. Willis, D.l)., who 
has a residence, built in 1846, and a glebe of 68 acres of poor land. The tithes are commuted for £150 a year. 
The Bible Christians have a commodious chapel here. A School Board for the united district of Hal- 
•well and Beaworthy was formed on April 23, 1875. (See Halwell.) The Board built a school in 1876-7 at 
a cost of £350, borrowed from Government. 

Letters via Exbourne. Hatherleigh is the nearest Money Order Office. There is a Wall Letter Box 
at Beaworthy town, cleared at 12 noon week days only. Ashbury is the nearest Railway Station. 



144 

Bailey Richard & "Walter, farmers, 

Boawortliy town 
Glass Hy. farmer, Weeks-in-the-Moor 
Harris Miss Mary Ann, Board school- 
mistress 
Harry John, mason and shopkeeper, 

Patcheeott 
Harry John, farmer, Patcheeott 
Harry John, farmer, Hole 
Harry Josiah, farmer, Madworthy 
Harry Robert, farmer and parish 

clerk, Tuchenor 
Harry Thomas, farmer, Madworthy 

BEER. (See Seaton.) 



B ea>voi:*tliy , 

Horn Mrs Mary, farmer and miller, 

Beaworthy mill 
Hatchings Danl. farmer, Beaworthy tn 
James Richard, farmer, Coxwall 
Jordan William, carpenter, Polehays 
Lashhrook Benj. carpenter, Polehays 
Palmer Roger, farmer, Venn Barton 
Ross John, farmer, Beaworthy town 
iSleeman Samuel, blacksmith, Bea- 
worthy town 
.Symons Oliver, farmer, Beaworthy tn 
Tickle Evan, farmer, manure mer- 
chant & implement dlr. Patchacott 



Tickle Thomas, farmer and 

merchant, Prestacott 
Voaden Mrs Joanna, farmer, Burdon 
Wakeham John, vict. Broadbury Hoti 
Wakeham Thomas, farmer, Mansditci 
Warren Mrs Matilda, shopkeepe; 

Beaworthy town 
Westlake Mrs Susannah, miller, Wig- 
don mill 
White Marwood, carpenter, Summer 

town 
Willis Rev Frederick Augustus, D 
rector, The Rectory 



1 



BEERFERRIS, or Bereferrers, is a parish on the western bank of the navigable river Tavy, 2 miles 
above the confluence of the estuary of the Taraar, 8 miles N. by W. of Plymouth, and 9|- miles S. of Tavis- 
tock. Its parish, which is in Tavistock unioD, county court district, rural deanery, and petty sessional 
division, in the Southern division of the county, Roborough hundred, and Totnes archdeaconry, had 2050 
inhabitants (1951 males, 1009 females) in 1871, living in 4o7 houses, on 6038 acres, inclusive of 950 acres 
of water. It is bounded on the east and west by the tidal waters of the Tamar and Tavy, terminating in a 
point at their confluence, and includes the village of Beerferris, or, as it is commonly called Beertown, and 
the ancient disfranchised borough of Beer Alston. The parish is noted for producing immense quantities of 
apples, cherries, strawberries, gooseberries, currants, &c., and the finest cider ; and at Gawton is a large tree 
which, in a good season, has borne 1000 lbs. weight of cherries. At Weir Quay are extensive smelting works, 
and in the neighbourhood are several lead and tin mines, yielding a large portion of silver. The manor of 
Beerferris was given by the Conqueror to Alenson, from whom Beer Alston took the latter part of its name ; 
but in the reign of Henry II. it belonged to the ancient family of Ferrers. In 1337, Sir William de Ferrers 
had a licence to castellate the manor house, in which the Lords Willoughby de Broke afterwards resided, and 
had a park here. The Earl of Mount Edgcumbe is now lord of the manor, and owner of a great part of the 
parish. The manor of Ley or Legh, was long held by the Ley family, but now belongs to Sir T. T. F. E. 
Drake, Bart., and part of the parish belongs to a few smaller freeholders. The Church (St. Andrew) is an 
ancient structure, mostly in the Decorated style, with later additions, consisting of nave, chancel, north and 
south transepts, south aisle to nave and chancel, and an embattled tower, containing six bells. It was 
thoroughly restored in 1871. The old oak benches, with carved ends, in a very good state of preservation, 
were retained to form seats in the nave and aisle ; there is also part of a decorated screen, probably the rood- 
screen, now separating the chancel. The church contains some antique monuments of the Ferrers and 
Champernownes, and others of more modern date ; one is a beautiful doubk-recessed Easter sepulchre, with 
effigies of Sir John Ferrers and his lady. The rectory, valued in K.B. at £24 Is. O^f/., and in 1831 at £800, 
is in the patronage of the Earl of Mount Edgcumbe, and incumbency of the Rev. Frederic T. W. Wintle, 
who has 148a. 3r. Ir, of glebe, and a large and handsome rectory house, built in 1837 by the late Rev. Sir 
Frederick Shelley, Bart., in the Elizabethan style. The tithes are commuted for £750 a year. Twelve houses 
and gardens, worth £60 a year, have been long vested for the repairs, &c. of the church. The Wesleyans 
have two chapels here, and the W^esleyan Reformers, Independej^ts and Bible Christians one each. 

Beer Alstox, a small ancient town and disfranchised borough, in the parish of Beerferris, is plea- 
santly situated on a gentle eminence, overlooking the vales of the Tamar and Tavy, on the east and west, and 
distant about 3 miles N. of the parish church, and 6^- miles S. of Tavistock. It first sent two members to 
Parliament in the 27th of Elizabeth, and was disffanchised by the Reform Act of 1832. The right of elec- 
tion was in those who had land in the borough and paid 3f7. acknowledgment to the lord of the manor, who 
varied the number of electors at his pleasure, by granting burgage- tenures to as many of his own partisans 
as might be necessary. The^e newly made burgage-tenures were usually resigned as soon as the election was 
over. The portreeve, elected annually at the lord's court, was the returning officer. In the neighbourhood 
are the Tamar, the East and Soutli Tamar, and the Valletort Consols lea^ mines, and two large smelting 
works, which yield a profitable proportion of silver. The lead mines here are said to have yielded 16 cwt. of 
silver during three years in the reign of Edward I. The market is now only held on Saturday evenings, for 
the sale of provisions, &c. In or about 1294, Beer Alston had a grant for a market every Wednesday, and a 
fair at the festival of St. Andrew, but they have long been obsolete. A chapel, built here in the reign of 
Edward III. was afterwards used as the parish workhouse, and is now a coal store. A neat Chapel or Ease. 
to Beerferris, was erected, here in the Early English style, in 1848, by the Earl of Mount Edgcumbe, in 
which service is performed twice on Sundays. The Rev. S. T, Serle is the curate. The Independents have 
a small chapel, built in 1809; and there is one belonging to the Wesleyans. The parish Free School, 
for 16 poor children, was founded in the 17th century by Sir John Maynard, law-serjeant to Cromwell and 
Charles II., who endowed it with a house and garden for the master, and with 5 acres of land, worth about 
£21 a year. This school has lately been enlarged and rebuilt to accommodate 210 girls and infants, at a cost 
of £700 ; and there is a separate Boys' School, built in 1853, as a Church of England School. At Bere 
Town is a small National School. Schools are attached to each of the three chapels, and here is a small 
parochial library. 

Letters through Roborough to Beer Town. Tavistock is the neirest Money Order Office. There is a 
Wall Letter Box, cleared at 3.20 p.m. week days only. Post Office, Beer Alston, at Mr. James 



iDevoiJLsliire . 



145 



Kichard's. Letters are received from Roboroiigh at 8.50 a.m., and despatched at 3.20 p.m. Tavistock is the 
nearest Money Order Office. 



Ball Henry, farmer, Beer Alston 

Ball Mr John, Beer Alston 

Ball Samuel, carrier, Hole's hole, Beer 

Alston 
Ball Wm. farmer, Barn, Beer Alston 
Barrett William H. master of Boys' 

school. Beer Alston 
Bloye James, farmer, Hallowell 
Boaor Miss Henrietta 
Bray Samuel, baker. Beer Alston 
Bray Thos. frmr. Battens, Beer Alston 
Brealey Samuel, wheelwright 
Brighton Geo. farmer, Buttspill, Beer 

Alston 
Brighton Henry, forester to the Earl 

of Mount Edgcumbe, Grold street 

cottage. Beer Alston 
Brighton Henry Nelson, fai*mer, Col- 
lins, Beer Alston. 
Brown Mrs Eliz. shpkpr. Beer Alston 
Channon Sampson, farmer, Lockeridge, 

Beer Alston 
Clifton William, farmer, Collytown 
Clifton William, farmer, New house 
Cobbett Mr William, Tamar house. 

Beer Alston 
Cole Thos. shopkeeper & shoemaker, 

Beer Alston 
Creber Richd. farmer, Little Gawton, 

Beer Alston 
Cudlip John, baker 
Cudlip Robert, baker and carrier 
Dawe Thomas, farmer and carrier, 

Tuckermarsh, Beer Alston 
Dennis Jas. shpkpr. Cotts, Beer Alston 
Dodd John, farmer, Hell well, Eum- 

leigh. Beer Alston 
Dodd Wm. farmer, Eumleigh, Beer 

Alston 
Down James, shoemaker. Beer Alston 
Eastwick William, carpenter & shop- 
keeper, Beer Alston 
?oot Mr Jacob, Beer Alston 
?rise Mrs Sophia, shopkeeper & vict. 

Commercial Inn, Beer Alston 
?uge James, victualler, Plough Inn 
Juge William, mason. Beer Alston 
?uge William, butcher 
Tale John, farmer, Gnattam 
lerman William, farmer. North Ward, 

Beer Alston 
jHll Mr Reginald Butler Edgcumbe, 
\ Ward house, Beer Alston 
I loss William, farmer, Anderton 
Hreet John, shoemaker 
Iribben Mrs Elizabeth, victualler, 

Victoria Inn, Beer Alston 
ruest George, market gardener, Grove 

cottage, Beer Alston 
lamley Charles Baskerville, timber 

merchant 
lamlyn Mrs, farmer, B launders, 
; Beer Alston 

' ilill Rev William (Independent), Beer 
1 Alston 
Jackson John, yeoman, Clamock 



James Henry, miller, Denhambridge, 
Beer Alston 

James William, victualler, Passage 
Inn, Beer Alston 

Jasper Mrs Mary, farmer, Warren, 
Beer Alston 

Jenkin Miss Catherine, schoolmistress 

Kingdom William, farmer, Under- 
ways, Beer Alston 

Knill Thomas, gardener and parish 
clerk, Well 

Lane William, farmer. Lower Rum- 
leigh. Beer Alston 

Langman Mrs Ann, farmer and iron- 
monger. Beer Alston 

Langman James, farmer and l)utcher, 
Beer Alston 

Langman James, jun. shopkeeper, 
Beer Alston 

Langman Nicholas,butcher,BeerAlston 

Langman Robt.frmr. Ley, Beer Alston 

Langman William, farmer, Slymeford, 
Beer Alston 

Langman William, farmer, Furse hill. 
Beer Alston 

Lillicrapp Jno. blacksmth. Beer Alston 

LuxmoreMissMary,shpkpr.BeerAlston 

Maddeford Richard, tailor, mercer, &c. 
Beer Alston 

Martin Richard, farmer, Rumleigh, 
Beer Alston 

Matters Richard, farmer, Wollacombe, 
Beer Alston 

Matthews, Mrs Jane, farmer, South 
Birch, Beer Alston 

Matthews Robert, farmer, Down 

Maynard Miss Thomazine Toll, haber- 
dasher, Beer Alston 

Mill Edward, farmer, Cleve 

Nascent Copper Works Co. (lim.), 
Ware quay, Beer Alston 

Norrish John, M.R.C.S., LS.A., sur- 
geon and medical officer of health, 
Beer Alston 

Northcott Mrs A. National school- 
mistress. Beer Town 

Oliver George, farmer, New park 

Paul Joseph, shopkeeper, Beer Alston 

Parker Mrs Catherine, Gix'ls' day 
school. Beer Alston 

Parker John, farmer, Beer Alston 

Pascoe Mrs Dinah, shpkpr. Beer Alston 

Paynter William, shopkeeper 

Pengelly John.victualler, TamarHotel, 
Hole's hole, Beer Alston 

Perkins George, surveyor, Hewton, 
Beer Alston 

Perry Mrs Ann, shpkpr. Beer Alston 

Procter Joseph, shopkeeper 

Procter Oliver, tax collector & assist- 
ant overseer 

Reddecliffe Jas. shpkpr. Beer Alston 

Redstone William, carrier, Tucker- 
marsh, Beer Alston 

Rich John, farmer, Easonage, Beer 
Alston 



Richards James, blacksmith, shop- 
keeper, & postmaster. Beer Alston 
Richards John, carpenter. Beer Alston 
Richards John basket maker, Hole's 

hole. Beer Alston 
Roberts Mrs Catherine, Infant school- 
mistress 
Roberts Mrs Priscilla, farmer,Hewton, 

Beer Alston 
Roseyoare John Williams, farmer, 

Shutcombe 
Rowe Mrs Betsey, Rose cottage, Beer 

Alston 
Rowe & Co. grocers, Beer Alston 
Rowe Oliver Martyn, farmer, Hel- 

stone. Beer Alston 
Rowe Richd. frmr. Philley, Beer Alston 
Rowe Richard, farmer, Beer Alston 
Rule Richard, farmer. Beer Alston 
Saunders Samuel, shopkeeper 
Serle Rev Samuel Thomas, curate. 

Beer Alston 
Skewes Samuel Dawe, grocer and 

druggist. Beer Alston 
Sleep James, shoemaker. Beer Alston 
Sleep John, shoemaker. Beer Alston 
Smith Mrs Mary, victualler, Edg- 
cumbe Arms, Beer Alston 
Sobey Hy. haberdasher, Beer Alston 
Sprague Chas. seedsman. Beer Alston 
Spurr Richard, farmer. Hole 
Spurrell Henry, tailor. Beer Alston 
Spurrell Mrs Mary Ann, draper, Beer 

Alston 
Toll Mr Edward Mill, Beer Alston 
Toll Mrs Emma Sophia, Beer Alston 
Toll Mr John, Parsonage farm 
Trevethan John, farmer. Stone 
Trevethan Jph. farmer, Beer Barton 
Vicary Lawrence, farmer, Hallowell 

cottage 
Walters Richard, blacksmith 
Waycott John, nurseryman, Hewton, 

Beer Alston 
Westlake Isaiah, blacksmith 
Westlake Thomas, brickmaker, Rum- 
leigh, Beer Alston ; and Calstock, 
Cornwall 
Westlake Wm. carpenter, Beer Alston 
White Christopher, victualler, Cornish 

Arms, Beer Alston 
Wilcocks John, farmer, Whitsom, 

Beer Alston 
Wilcocks Mrs Mary, shopkeeper. Beer 

Alston 
Wills Mrs Martha, farmer. Birch 

Beer Alston 
Wintle Rev Frederic Thomas William 
M.A., rector, The Rectory 

Carriers. — To Tavistock, William 
Redstone, Friday; Thomas Dawe, 
Tuesday and Friday. 

Market Boats to Devonport, Tues- 
day, Thursday, and Saturday 



BELSTON, or Belstone, is a parish and small villap:e picturesquely seated 2^ miles S.E. of Oke- 
ampton, at the northern extremity of Dartmoor Forest, between and near the sources of the rivers Taw 
id East Okement, where there are many rocky tors and highly interesting Druidical remains. Its parish, 
hich is in Okehampton union, county court district, and rural deanery, Hatherleigh petty sessional division, 



146 Belfsitoii, 



Southern division of the county, Black Torrington hundred, Totnes archdeaconry, had 134 inhabitants (63 
males, 71 females), living in 3/ houses on 1500 acres of land. The parish includes 784 acres of open com- 
mons and wastes, and the hamlet of Frestacott. The parishioners enjoy the right of pasturing cattle and 
sheep, and cutting turf, &;c., in the forest, on the payment of a small acknowledgment to the Duchy of 
Cornwall, under the name of Venville (or Fenfield) money, as noticed at page 40. The name of Belston is 
supposed to bo derived from BeVs-ton, the town of Bel or Belus, where the Druids had a temple for the 
worship of the sun ; or from Belstone, or Bel-tor y the rock of Belus. In support of the latter derivation, 
there is in the adjacent part of the forest a large logan stone. In support of the former derivation, there is 
upon Watchet Hill a small idol temple, formed of a double circle of erect stones, the inner one referring to 
the phases of the moon, and the outer to the sun. The river Taw, which rises in the northern part of the 
forest, derives its name from a deity of the Druids, called Ta-autos, or the thunderer. The old Eoman road, 
between Exeter and Launceston, passed through this parish, entering it at the ford, near the serge mills, and 
leaving it by the steep hill, west of Sticklepath. The manor of Belstone belonged to an ancient family of its 
own name till the reign of Henry III., when their three co-heiresses married into the families of Specot, 
Chamborlayne, and Fulford. Two-thirds of the manor now belong to the Hon. Mark liolle, and the other 
third to the present rector. The CnuECH (Virgin Mary) is a small but interesting specimen of Anglo-Saxon 
architecture, and has a tower and five bells. It is built of granite, and an ancient cross formerly belonging 
10 it is now placed in the wall of an adjacent stable. A very antique stone, bearing a circle and cross, was 
found in 1861, while pulling down the steps leading to the ancient vestry, and placed in the rector's garden. 
In the interior are some ancient oak seats, with carved ends, as well as a finely carved old oak screem The 
east window was filled with painted glass in 1876. The church was restored in 1877. The Register dates 
from 1553. The living, a rectory, valued in K.B. at £9 Os. Id.y has £110 in lieu of tithes pursuant to a 
commutation in 1841, and is in the patronage of the executors of the Eev. Thomas Roberts, and incum- 
bency of the Rev. Arthur Whipham. The glebe is 75 acres. There is a small chapel in the parish, used by 
Baptists and Wesleyans. A Reading and Recreation room was built in 1877 by Mrs Lefevre, by whom it 
is supplied with newspapers, and who intends presenting a library to the same. 

Letters by foot post at 8 a.m. via Okehampton, which is the nearest Money Order Office. There is a 
Wall Letter Box cleared at 5.10 p.m. week days only. 

Belstone (Jopi)er Mine; James Neill, Gillard Miss Martha, day school 
resident agent Gillard William, farmer, Bircliey Lake 

Glanfield George, farmer, West Lake 
Hirtzel George, solicitor, Barton ; and 

Exeter 
James Miss Margaret 
Langmead John, farmer, Lopasas 
Lefevre Mrs Anastasia, Geistcot 
Muggeridge Simon, farmer, Presticott 



Bowden John, blacksmith 
' Brock Richard, farmer, East Lake 
Brock William, Anctualler, New Inn 
Brookland John, farmer, Greenhill 
Ellis Wm. farmer. Higher Sticklepath 
Endacott Edward, farmer. Ferryman 
Endacott Edward, farmer 
Finch Isaac, farmer 



Neill James, resident agent, Belstone 

copper mine 
Reddaway John, farmer. Lees 
Reddaway Robt. farmer, Town Living 
Roberts Rev Thomas, M.A (Exors. of) 
Vailance George, road contractor 
Westaway Henry, farmer, Presticott 
Whipham Rev Arthur, rector. The 

Rectory 



BERRYNARBOR, a parish and pleasant village, surrounded by beautiful woodland scenery, is on an 
eminence near the sea-coast, overlooking Watennouth Cove, 3 miles east of Ilfracombe Railway Station. 
It is in Barnstaple imion and county court district, Braunton petty sessional division, Ilfracombe 
polling district of North Devon, Braunton hundred, Barnstaple archdeaconry, and Sherwell rural deanery. 
It had 751 inhabitants (392 males, 359 females) in 1871, living in 159 houses, on 4958 acres of land, 
including a range of hills in which lime and other stone are obtained. Westcote says it was originally called 
Bury, and afterwards Bury Herbert, from the family who held it some centuries ago. John de Lidford 
William Beckleigh, and Henry Annet held these lands in the time of King John, and in the following reign 
the manor belonged to Ralph de Biry or Berry, in whose family it remained until the male line became 
extinct in 1708. The property being sold by order of the Court of Chancery in 1712, was purchased by 
one of the Bassett family. The last male of this family dying without issue, the property descended to his 
nephew, Mr. Joseph Davie, who assumed the name of Bassett. He was succeeded by his son, the Rev. 
A. 0. Bassett, the present owner. East Hagginton and Woolscott are manors in this parish and anciently 
belonged to the Punchardons of Heanton, from whom they passed to the Coffins. One of the last familj 
sold them in the beginning of the present century to J. Davie Bassett, Esq., father of the present owner. 
The Rev. A. 0. Bassett, Sir P. B. Chichester, and the executors of the late Charles Cutcliff'e are the principal 
owners of the soil. Watermouth Castle, the seat of the Bassett family, and now occupied on lease by 
Fredk. Williams, Esq., R.N., is a large and castellated mansion, near Watermouth Cove, and was erected in the 
early part of the present century. The Manor House stands near the church, and was formerly a handsome 
mansion in the Elizabethan style, but is now in a dilapidated condition. The parish has its annual feast or 
revel on the first Sunday after St. Peter's day. The Church (St. Peter), an ancient structure in the Norman 
and Early English styles, consists of nave, chancel, south 'aisle, and a handsome tower at the west end, con- 
taining six bells, and a small gallery. The building contains some ancient monuments of the Berry family, 
In the aisle is a beautiful modern memorial to several members of the Bassett family ; and in the chancel ' 
a marble tablet to the Rev. S. F. Gully. M.A., a former rector, who died in 1860. The east windo%v 
triplet, is filled with rich stained glass. The entire roof of the church was restored in 1850 ; and the churc: 
has recently been reseated at a cost of £250. The Register dates from 1540. The rectory, valued in K.B. a « 
£34 15s. ibd., and now at £750, is in the successive patronage of the Bishop of Exeter, the Rev. A. C 
Bassett, the Rev. Edward Fursdon, and others. The Rev. John M. Hawker, M. A., treasurer and prebendar; 
of Exeter Cathedral, is the incumbent. A good residence, standing in its grounds of about 3 acres, wa 



I> evoiishire- 



147 



erected in 1860 at a cost of more than £2000, defrayed by the late rector, the Rev. W. Fursdon, aided by a 
grant of £1000 from Q.A.B. The tithes are commuted at £560 a year ; and there is a glebe of 126^ acres, 
including 50 acres of common. The Independents have a small chapel, built about 50 years ago, which 
will seat 150 persons. The National School, erected in 1848, was recently enlarged and improved at an 
expense of £100. Three houses and gardens have been long invested for the repairs of the churcli ; but the 
church house was given by John Berry in 1697 for the residence of poor parishioners. John Jewel, Bishop 
of Salisbury, was a native of this parish, and the house called Bowden or Buden, in which he was born in 
1522, is still standing. He was educated at Barnstaple and Oxford. He was appointed Bishop of Salisbury 
by Queen Elizabeth in 1559, and died in 1591. 

Post Office at Mr. William Hicks'. Letters are despatched at 5 p.m. week days only, via Ilfracombe, 
which is the nearest Money Order Office. 



Allin Joseph, shopkeeper and black- 
smith, Berry Down cross 
Bassett Kev Arthur Crawfurth, 

Watermouth 
Berry John, farmer, Stowford Barton 
Berry William, farmer, Bodstone 
Bidgood John, police officer 
Beaven Wm. farmer. Lower Newberry 
Bowden Joseph, farmer, Eoso farm 
Boyles John, farmer, Hodges farm 
Bray William, carpenter 
Chugg Thomas, farmer, Brinseott 
Clark Thomas, farmer, Kuggaton 
Clatworthy Eichard, farmer, Lee 
Corney William, farmer 
Ciitcliife Charles, farmer, Woolscott 
Darch John, farmer, IndiknoU 
Edwards Miss, schoolmistress 
Fursdon Mrs Sarah Ann, The Court 

cottage 
Gammon James, victualler, Globe 



Gear Benjamin, farmer, Heustridge 
Harding Eich, bootmkr. &mkt. gardnr 
Harding Thomas, blacksmith and mar- 
ket gardener 
Harding Thomas, victualler, Unicorn 
Hawker Eev John Manley, M.A., rec- 
tor, and treasurer and prebendary 
of Exeter Cathedral, The Eectory 
Hicks William, tailor, draper, post- 
master and parish clerk 
Huxtable Mrs Ann, shopkeeper 
Huxtable James, farmei', Well 
Huxtable Jno. farmer, Bowden 
Huxtable Joseph, blacksmith. Berry 

Down cross 
Huxtable William, farmer, Euggaton 
Huxtable William, market gardener 
Jewell John, corn miller 
Lancey E. tailor and draper 
Leworthy John, blacksmith 
Le-worthy Thomas, market gardener. 
Manor house 



Ley Thomas, carpenter 

Lock John, farmer 

Millman John, farmer, Thornland 

Perrin Thomas, farmer. Hill farm 

Pile James, toll collector, Berry 

Down cross 
Pugsley Thomas, bootmaker 
Quance Enoch, farmer, Yellaton 
Eichards Benjamin, farmer 
Eichards Thos. farmer,East Hagginton 
Eichards William, farmer, Newberry 
Smith Eichard, farm bailiff, Home 

Barton 
Toms Frank, farmer, Yetland 
White John, farmer, Hemstor 
White Eichard, farmer, Hemstor 
White Eichard, jun. farmer, Hemstor 
Williams Mr Frederick, E.N., Water- 
mouth castle 
Willis Thomas, farmer, Lee 



BERRY POMEROY, a parish 1^ mile E. of Totnes Railway Station, has a village of its own name, 
and a hamlet called Bridgetown, which forms a handsome suburb of Totnes, with which it is connected by a 
good bridge over the Dart. Berry Pomeroy parish is in Totnes union, county court district, archdeaconry, and 
rural deanery, Stanborough and Coleridge petty sessional division, Paignton polling district of East Devon, 
and Haytor hundred. It had 1090 inhabitants (514 males and 576 females) in 1871, living in 209 houses, on 
4525 acres of land ; including Bridgetowu, which had 605 inhabitants (266 males and 339 females), living 
in 126 houses. The Duke of Somerset is lord of the manor, and owner of most of the soil. William the 
Conqueror gave the manor of Bury or Berry to Ralph de Pomerai, who built Berry Pomeroy Castle, 
which for 500 j^ears was the stately residence of the Poraeroys. The extensive and magnificent ruins of this 
once formidable castle are situated on a rocky eminence, thickly covered with wood, and rising above a 
pellucid brook, two and a half miles N.E. of Totnes. It was dismantled during the civil wars of the 17th 
century. The approach to it is through a thick wood, extending along the slope of a range of hills that 
entirely intercept any prospect to the south ; and on the opposite side is a steep rocky ridge, covered with oak. 
The fortress appears, from the ruins, to have been originally quadrangular, having only one entrance, which 
was on the south, between two hexagonal towers, through a double gateway : the first machicolated, and 
further strengthened by angular bastions. Over this gateway the arms of the Pomeroys are still to be seen. 
The eastern tower commands a fine prospect of the adjacent country, and the room over the gateway appears 
to have been the chapel. The ruins in the quadrangle, or court, are much more modern than the rest, as they 
belonged to a mansion, commenced by the Seymours, in the 16th century, at the cost of £20,000, but never 
completed. What was finished is thus described by Prince : — ' Before the door of the Great Hall was a noble 
work, whose length was the full breadth of the court, arched over with curiously carved freestone, supported 
in the fore part by several stately pillars of the Corinthian order, standing on pedestals, having cornices and 



friezes finely wrought. The apartments within were very splendid, especially the dinin< 



and many of 



the other rooms were well adorned with mouldings and fret-work, some of whose marble clavils were so 
delicately fine, that they would reflect an object from a great distance. Notwithstanding which, it is now 
demolished, and all this glory lyeth in the dust ; there being nothing standing but a few broken walls, which 
' seem to mourn their own approaching funerals.' The great gate, the walls of the south front, the north 
• wing of the quadrangle, some apartments on the west side, and a turret or two, are the principal remains j 
; and they are so finely overhung with branches of trees and shrubs, which grow close to the walls, so beauti- 
fully mantled with ivy, and so richly encrusted with moss, that they constitute the most picturesque objects that 
' can be imagined. The last of the Pomeroys who occupied Berry Pomeroy Castle was deeply concerned in the 
: rebellion of 1549, and is said to have saved his life by making over the manor and castle to Edward Seymour, 
Duke of Somerset, whose successors have since held them, and formerly resided here. The present Duke's 
principal seats are Maiden Bradley House, Bath ; Bulstrode Park, Gerrard's Cross, Bucks, and Stover Lodge, 
Devonshire. Berry Pomeroy CiiURcn (Virgin Mary) is an ancient structure, with a tower and four bells, 
j and contains an elaborate alabaster monument to the memory of Lord Edward Sevmour, and his son, and 
! Jv2 " 



148 



Berry Fomeroy, 



son's wife, whose effigies are represented lying* on three steps, in very constrained positions. The building is 
mostly in the Perpendicular style, and the nave and chancel are divided by a finely carved screen. The church 
was restored in 1878 at a cost of about £2000; the improvements include new inside roof, tiling, windows, 
vestry, heating apparatus, seating, repair of rood-screen, and other necessary renovations. The Duke of 
Somerset is impropriator of the rectory, and patron of the vicarage, valued in K.B. at £18 Ids. Id., and in 
1831 at £3G0, and now in the incumbency of the Ilev. A. J. Everett, M.A., who has a good residence, which, 
with the garden and orchards, occupies 2^ acres of land. Bhidgetown Desckiption and Directory are 
included in Totnes. 

Letters are received at 8 a.m. via Totnes, which is the nearest Money Order Office. There is a Letter 
Box, cleared at G p.m., week days only. 



Angel Pliilip, farmer, Shadrack 

Avery Kicliard, parish clerk 

Bow Philip, woodman and keeper of 

Castle ruins 
Bow Samuel, sexton 
Bryant John,Llksmth.Longcoml:)e cross 
Callard John Pedrick, accountant 
Crook John, miller, Castle mills 
Cudlip Greorge, carpenter 
Distin Henry, farmer, Afton 
Dugdale Geo. frmr. Middle Longcombe 
Eardley-WilmotAdmiralArthurParry, 

C.B. Eardley villa 
Endle John, farmer, Lower Weston 
Everett Eev Arthur Joseph, M. A. vicar 
Fletcher Henry & Charles, thatchers. 

Lodge 



Ford Mr Hugh Harris, True Street hs 
Fortescue Mathew, Esq. J.P. County 

Court judge, Weston house 
Furneaux Arthur, farmer, Higher 

Weekaborough 
Grills William Gidley, farmer. Higher 

Bourton 
LongMrsCharlotte,Parochialschlmstrs 
Michelmore Jeifery, land agent, steward 
to Duke of Somerset, agent for Nor- 
wich Union, and Norwich and Lon- 
don Accident Ins. Cos. and district 
agent for Law's manures 
Mortimer Wm. farmer, Berry Barton 
Moysey Philip,frmr. Lower Longcombe 
Parrott George, farmer, Weston 
Pethybridge Moses, frmr. Wildwoods 



Pinhay John (R. & J.) ; h Netherton 
Pinhay Richard (R. & J.) ; h Netherton 
Pinhay R. & J. farmers, Netherton 
Quint Geo. farmer. Higher Longcombe 
Rogers Christopher, carpenter 
Sandford Samuel, miller, Fleet mill 
Searle James Dymond, farmer, Tracey's 

Longcombe 
Turpin George (T. & Welch) ; h Great 

Court farm 
Turpin & Welch, frmrs.Great Court fm 
Webber Chas. shopkeeper & shoemkr 
Welch Richard, farmer (Turpin & 

W.) ; h Great Court farm 
"VViddicombe James, farmer. Lower 

We ekaborough 
Widdi combe Thos. farmer, Loventor 



BICKINGTON is a parish in Newton Abbot union, Newton Abbot and Torquay county court 
district, Teignbridge petty sessional division and hundred. Eastern division of the county, Totnes arch- 
deaconry and Moreton rural deanery. It had 263 inhabitants (128 males, 135 females) in 1871, living in 
oG houses, on 1375 acres of land. The name of the parish was anciently written Bichentone or Buketon. 
The village is seated on the banks of the Lemon rivulet, and on the Exeter Road, 3 miles N. of Ash- 
burton, and 4 miles from Newton Abbot. In the reign of Edward the Confessor, the manor belonged to 
Brictric, the son of Algar, and was granted by the Conqueror to Queen Matilda, on whose death it reverted 
to the Crown. Henry II. bestowed" it upon Sir Joel Giffiard, who assumed the name of Bickington. The 
heiress of Sir Joel Bickington, in the reign of Edward III., took the manor to the Marwoods, and a co-heiress 
of this family took it, in the reign of Elizabeth, to the Wichalses, but the manor was dismembered many 
years ago, perhaps in the middle of the 16th century. The soil belongs to various freeholders ,• the Wrigwell 
estate has been held by the Bickford family for more than 600 years. The Church (St. Mary) consists 
of chancel, nave, north aisle, south porch, and west tower containing three bells. The church is in th^Hj 
Perpendicular style, and had formerly a parclose, and also a Galilee chapel. In the interior are monumentaH 
of the Bickford family. The Register commences in 1603. The living, a vicarage, was formerly united to 
that of Ashburton, but was separated therefrom in 1861, by the patrons, the Dean and Chapter of Exeter. 
The Rev. "William Smith is the incumbent. There is neither glebe nor parsonage house. The tithes are 
commuted — the vicarial for £222, and the rectorial for £115. The Dean and Chapter of Exeter are the 
appropriators of the latter, and Mr. Richard Skinner is the lessee. The Wesleya:n"s have a small chape" 
here. The Chtjrch School was built in 1848, by the Rev. R. P. Cornish, late curate of this parisl 
The poor have £2 a year from Plymouth Corporation, as the gift of Benjamin Baron j and a small gift 
T^'' ' Skinner's Gift,' administered by. the Charity Commissioners. 



105., 



Post through Newton Abbot. 

Barber Thomas, farmer, Chipley 
Beavis George, shopkeeper 
Bickford John, farmer, Wrigwell 
Bickford Mr John, Barton 
Bickford John William F. farmer, 

Coombe 
Christophers Henry, blacksmith and 

wheelwright 
Christophers Thomas, farmer and 

victualler. Jolly Sailor 
Christophers William, stonemason 
Counter Thomas, vict. Halfway House 



Damerel Miss — , Parochial school- 
mistress 
Daw William, miller, Lemonford mills 
Fall William, timber merchant 
Harris John, farmer. Burn 
Loveys Thomas, baker and shopkeeper 
Mitchell John W. farmer. Higher 

Herebere 
Moalle John, farmer. Love Lane farm 
Murch Henry, farmer. Lower Herebere 
Northway James, rag and bone dealer 



Nosworthy John, farmer, Farlecombc 
Pickford Miss Eliza, farmer 
Rowell John, farmer, Yeo 
Shilston George, farmer, Lurcombe 
Smerdon John, shoemaker 
Smerdon William, shoemaker 
Smith Rev William, M.A. vicar 
Wheaton & Whitmarsh, flock mer- 
chants : and Exeter 
White William, farmer, Gale 
Willcocks James, carpenter 



BICKINGTON (HIGH). (See High Bickington.) 



BICKLEIGH, a parish and village, 4 miles S. of Tiverton, and 10 miles N. of Exeter, is in Tiverton 
union, and county court district, Cullompton petty sessional division, Tiverton polling district of North Devon, 
Hayridge hundred, Exeter archdeaconry, and East Tiverton rural deanery. It had 284 inhabitants (140 
males, 144 females) in 1871, living in 58 houses, on 1835 acres of land, including Chederleigh hamlet. The 



Devonshire. 



149 




monly called King of the Beggars, was the son of the Eev. Theodore Carew, rector of Bickleigh. He was 
horn here in 1690, and, after his extraordinary adventures, spent the two last years of his eventful life in his 
native village, and was huried in the church in 1758. Here also was buried Major John Gabriel Stedman, who 
published the History of Surinam, and died in 1797. The Church (St. Mary), was mostly rebuilt in 1848, 
at the cost of £1400, and has a tower and five bells. It contains several monuments of the Oarew family, 
one of which has recumbent effigies of a knight and lady. The east window is tilled with painted glass, by 
Wailes, in memory of the late Eev. Thomas Carew, rector of the parish, and his wife Hoi way Carew. 
The rectory, valued in K.B. at £18 4.s. 9^d., and now at £444, is in the patronage of the Misses Carew, and 
incumbency of the Eev. Eobert B. Carew, M.A., who has a good residence and 50 acres of glebe. The 
tithes were commuted in 1842, for £359 per annum. The National School was built in 1841 at a cost of 
£245, defrayed by subscription, aided by grants from the National Society and the Committee of Council on 
Education. In 1708, £95 poor's money was laid out in the purchase of 4 acres of land, called Ware Park, 
now let for £10 10s. per annum. There is also £100 3 per Cent. Stock, purchased with money which arose 
from the sale of timber felled on the said land. The annual income (£13 10s.) is distributed about 
Christmas among the most deserving poor ; as also is about £15, arising from three-fourths of the rent of 
two cottages and 1^ acre of land at Tiverton, left by John Lovell. (See Tiverton.) 

Post Office at Mr. Francis Baker's. Letters are received at 8 a.m., and despatched at 5.2o p.m. via 
Tiverton, which is the nearest Money Order Office and Eailway Station. 



Baker Francis, tailor and postmaster 
Baker John, tailor 
Bam say Joseph, mason 
Bennett William, dairyman 
Bevin Miss Mary, schoolmistress 
Bond Alfred, farmer, Lower Burne 
Carew Eev Eobert Baker, M.A. rector. 
The Eectory 



Chatty Humplirey, farmer, Exe land 
Drew George, grocer 
Elston William, farmer, Millhayes 
Gill John, farmer, Chedderleigh 
Goddard William, farmer, Burnhayes 
Gold Jas. wheelwright & parish clerk 
Hosegood John, blacksmith 
Martyn Thos. farmr. Higher Brithayes 



Merson Prank, farmer, Bickleigh 

Court farm 
Perham John, farmer, Henbere 
Eowe George, dairyman 
Sellick Geo. blacksmith, Chedderleigh 
Strong Eichard, baker and victualler, 

New Inn. Bickleigh bridge 
Webber John, bootmaker 



BICKLEIGH is a parish and small village, on the western side of the river Plym, in the picturesque 
vale to which it gives name. It is in Plympton St. Mary union, East Stonehouse county court district, 
Midland Eoborough petty sessional division. Southern division of the county, Eoborough hundred, Totnes 
archdeaconry, and Plympton rural deanery. Its parish, which includes the village of lioborough, had 384 
inhabitants (202 males, 182 females) in 1871, living in 63 houses, on 2365 acres. Bickleigh Vale is much 
resorted to by anglers and the lovers of woodland scenery. The Plymouth and Devonport leats, and the 
Dartmoor Eailway cross this parish. The manor was long held by Buckland Abbey, and afterwards by the 
Slannings, Modyfords, and Heywoods, the latter of whom sold it to the Lopes family in 1798. Sir Massey 
Lopes, Bart., is now lord of the manor, and sole owner of the soil. The Church was, except the tower, 
which contains six bells^ rebuilt by Sir E. Lopes in 1839 : it was restored by Sir M. Lopes, M.P., in 1861. 
The living is a vicarage, valued in K.B. at £11 7s. Ad., and in 1831 at £300. Sir Massey Lopes is patron 
of the benefice, and impropriator of the rectory. The Eev. George Eichard Scobell is the incumbent, and 
has a good residence. The poor have £100 Three per Cent. Consols, purchased with the gifts of Elizabeth 
Modyford and John Herring. Sir Massey Lopes, Bart., erected Almshouses in 1873 to the memory of Lady 
Lopes ; and in 1862 he built the National Schools, which are supported by subscription. 

Post Office at Mr. Eichard FoUand's, Eoborough. Letters are received at 5.45 a.m., and despatched at 
6 p.m. via Plymouth, which is the nearest Money Order Office. 



Barnes Thos. National schoolmaster 
Beer Frederick, farmer, Coombe farm 
Cole John, shopkeeper and farmer 
Fairweather William, road surveyor, 

Eoborough 
Folland Richd. postmaster, Eoborough 
Gemmell John, farmer, Woolwell 
Gregory Eichard, farmer, Leigh Beer 
Gullop William, farmer. Ham farm 
Halls James, sexton 
HamWm.Bassett,wheelwriglit& smith 
Hamley Wm. butcher, Eoborough 
Hamlyn George, farmer, Greenover, 

Shaugh bridge 
^Hamlyn Joseph, blacksmith 



King James, farmer, Hatshill 
King John, farmer, Lower Upperton 
Luscombe Henry, victualler, Lopes' 

Arms, Eoborough 
Metters Thos. farmer, Higher Leigh 
Parnell John Jas. saddler & harness 
maker, Eoborough ; and (h) Ply- 
mouth 
Pengelly James, carpenter 
Scobell Eev George Eichard, vicar 
Spurrell John, baker and shopkeeper, 

Eoborough 
Spurrell Thos. miller, Eoborough mills 
Smith John, saddler, Eoborough 



Symons John, farmer and assistant 

overseer, Coombe park 
Trounce Henry, farmer, Hele Barton 
Watts Jno. gamekeeper to Sir Massey 

Lopes, Bickleigh lodge 
Webber Eichard, station master 
AVeeks Mr Wm. Eolestone, Eoborough 
Westlake Wm. frmr. Higher Upperton 
Westlake William, boot & shoe makex', 

Eoborough 
Wotten Mrs Eachel, Dartlako 
Wotten William, farmer, Dartlake 

Eailway— (L. & S. W. & G. W.) ; 
Mr Eichard Webber, station master 



BICTON is a parish and village on the west side of the river Otter, 4 miles W.S.W. of Sidmouth and 11 
miles E.S.E. of Exeter, and is in St. Thomas's union, Exeter connty court district, Woodbury petty sessional 




living in 32 houses, on 1294 acres of land. BicToif is the seat of Lady 

Jlolle, who died without issue in 1842, in the 92nd year of his age. At Domesday Survey, this manor was 



150 



Bieton, 



held by William Portitor, by the service of keeping the kinj^'s gaol for the county of Devon. After passing 
to various families, it was purchased in the 16th century of the Coplestons by Sir Robert Dennis, who rebuilt 
the old mansion, enclosed a deer park, and made it his chief residence. His grand-daughter carried Bicton 
in marriage to Sir Henry Eolle, ancestor of the late Lord Rolle. The county gaol was removed from Bicton 
to Exeter in 1/)18, but it was not until 1787 that the lord of Bicton was exonerated from the custody of the 
prisoners. The KoUes have another seat at Stevenstone, and were for a long time a numerous, wealthy, and 
distinguished family. Sir Samuel and Sir Henry Eolle were firm supporters of the Parliamentary cause? 
during the war of the 17th century. The latter was appointed chief justice in 1648 and died in 1656. Sir 
.Tohn Eolle, K.B., was a zealous friend of Charles II., and made him large remittances during his exile. He < 
was created K.B. at the Eestoration. His grandson, John Eolle, Esq., was offered an earldom in the reign of 
Queen Anne, but refused it. The property now belongs to the Hon. Mark Eolle, nephew of the late Lord 
Eolle. Bicton CnuKcn was erected in 1851 by Lady Eolle. In the old church, which was taken down on 
the completion of this, was an elegant monument of Dennis Eolle, Esq., with effigies of himself and lady in 
statuary marble, richly habited. He died in 1638, aged 24, and was celebrated for his ready wit and the 
generosity of his disposition, and is noticed in a poetical epitaph written by Dr. Fuller, author of ' The 
Worthies.' The rectory, valued in K.B. at £12 13s. 4d., and now at about £250, is in the patronage of Lady 
Eolle, and incumbency of the Eev. Gr. H. Kempe, M.A., who has a neat residence, commanding a line view of 
the coast and the ocean. The glebe is 50 acres, and the tithes were commuted in 1844 for £170 16«. lid. 
per annum. At Yettington is a Voluntary Elementary School, built in 1847 by Lady Eolle, in the Swisa^ 
styleof architecture. _ _ _ "^1 



The nearest Post Office is at East Budleigh. 



Alfred George, head gardener 
Hallett John, farmer 
Halse Abraham, farmer 
Hart Thomas, farmer 



Hart William, parish clerk 
Kempe Eev Greorge Henry, 

rector 
Pyne John, farmer 



M.A. 



Eolle Eight Hon. Lady Louisa, Bicton 

house 
Sanders Philip Salter, farm bailiff to 

Hon. Mark Eolle 



BIDEFOED, a parish, a pleasant, well-built market town, municipal borough, and seaport, is 9 miles 
S.W. of Barnstaple, 7 miles N. by W. of Great Torrington, 52 miles N. of Plymouth, 42 miles N.W. of 
Exeter, and 200 miles W. by S. of London. The parish is the head of a large Poor Law union, count}^ court 
district, petty sessional division, polling district of North Devon, and is in Barnstaple archdeaconry, Hart- 
land rural deanery, and Shebbear hundred. The parish, which is coextensive with the municipal borough, 
had 2987 inhabitants in 1801, 3244 in 1811, 4053 in 1821, 4846 in 1831, 6211 in 1841, 5775 in 1851, 5742 
in 1861, and 6969 (3224 males, 3745 females) in 1871. 1675 families or separate occupiers were returned in 
1871 as living in 1355 houses, on 3196 acres of land : this return includes 88 paupers in the union workhouse. 
The town is mostly situated on the western side of the river Torridge, and being on bold acclivities, and within 
three miles of the sea, it is highly salubrious, and the streets are clean and well drained. The river is crossed 
by a good stone bridge of twenty-four arches, and 677 feet in length. The river is navigable to Wear Clifford ; 
and below the town it expands into a broad estuary which falls intoBideford or Barnstaple Bay with that of the 
Taw, about three miles below. The name of Bideford is a corruption of its original appellation — By-the-ford. 
The manor was settled by William the Conqueror on his consort Matilda, and was given by William Eufus 
to Sir Eichard de Grenville, whose descendants resided here and at Kilkhampton, in Cornwall, for many 
generations ; and three of them represented Devon in Parliament. After the death of thd last Earl of Bath, 
of the Granville family, in 1711, their Devonshire estates were divided. The manor of Bideford was pur- 
chased in 1750 by John Cleveland, Esq., and it now belongs to W. L. Christie, Esq., M.P. ; but a great part 
of the parish belongs to Sir George S. Stucley, Bart., the Bridge feoffees, and the executors of the late W. 
Langton, Esq., and others. Moeeton House, pleasantly situated in a spacious and well- wooded lawn, about 
a mile S.W. of the town, is the residence of Mrs. Buck, widow of the late L. W. Buck, Esq., who formerly 
represented North Devon in Parliament. Early in 1643, a fort was erected on each side of the river, and a 
small one at Appledore, A Parliamentary garrison was then placed at Bideford, but it surrendered to Colonel 
Digby in September. Chudleigh Fort, on the eastern acclivity of the valley, is said to have been built by 
order of Major-General Chudleigh, and its site is now enclosed by a stone wall. 

Bideford is called a borough in ancient records, but it does not appear to have ever returned members to 
Parliament, except twice, in the reigns of Edward I. and II. A market day on Monday, and a fair for five 
days at the festival of St. Margaret, were granted to Eichard Grenville in 1271. The gallant Sir Eichard 
Grenville procured a charter from Queen Elizabeth, which incorporated the town, made it a free borough, 
confirmed the market and fair, and granted two other fairs. This charter was confirmed and extended by 
other charters, in the 7th and 16th of James 1. Under these charters, the government of the borough was 
vested in a mayor, four aldermen, and 10 capital burgesses ; with a recorder, town clerk, two sergeants-at- 
mace, and other officers. By the Municipal Act of 1835, the government is vested in a mayor, four alder- 
men, twelve councillors, a recorder, and several borough magistrates. The borough has a separate court of 
quarter sessions ; and petty sessions are held in the Town Hall on the first and third Monday in every month. 
The receipts of the Corporation in 1877 amounted to £500^ of which about £400 was derived from borough 
rates, and £100 from rent of properties. 



{For Members of Town Council, cfr., see ncx' l)cigc). 



Devonsliire. 151 



TOWN COUNCIL, 1877-8. 

Mayor — James Joce, Esq. 

Eecoeder — Jerome Murch, Esq. 

Aldermen — William L. Vellacott, Edward M. White, James Joce, and Jolin W. Narraway. 

)TJNCiLLORS — Thomas Pollard, J. S. Burrow, William Vinson, G. W. Vincent, Eohert T. Hookway, T. T. 

Wickham, Thomas Trewin, H. M. Eestarick, Edw. Dingle, E. H. Down, John Squire, and Thos. Murphy. 



Town Clerk — Charles W. Hole, Esq. 

Clerk of the Peace — James Kooker, Esq. 

Auditors — Messrs. H. L. Hutching-s & Geo. Pollard. 



Treasurer — W. B. Davie, Esq. 
Coroner — John Thompson, Esq., M.D. 
Assessors — Messrs. W. Abbott & Kobt. Barrow. 



Inspector oe Weights and Measures and Head Constable — Kobert Chipman. 
Beadle and Crier — Mr. J. W. Major. 

Borough Magistrates — James Joce, Esq. (Mayor), Thomas Trewin, Esq. (ex-Mayor), and John How, 
John Thompson, M.D,, W. H. Ackland, M.D., W. Turner, and Henry Tardrew, Esq. Charles William Hole, 
Esq., is their clerk. 

The Guildhall, where the Town Council meet, and where the courts are held, was formerly an old, incon- 
venient, Elizabethan building, but the new hall and prison were erected in 1850-1, at the cost of about £1500. 

Gas Works were constructed about 1835, at the cost of :£2800, raised in £10 shares, Mr. James Joce 
is the secretary. 

A large reservoir was constructed in 1871 on Gammanton Moor, sufficient to supply the whole of the 
inhabitants with an unceasing supply of water ; and about the same time an efficient system of drainage was 
inaugurated ; the cost of both being £25,000. 

Trade. — In consequence of the patronage of the Grenville family, a trade with Virginia and Carolina, 
then recently discovered, was established at Bideford in the reign of Elizabeth, and the town continued to 
enjoy a considerable share of American commerce till the breaking out of the war, which ended in the inde- 
pendence of the United States. In the reign of Charles I., the merchants here imported large quantities of 
wool from Spain ; and afterwards, besides their commerce with France, Holland, and the Mediterranean, 
had so large a share of the Newfoundland trade that in 1699 they sent out more ships than any port in 
England, except London and Topsham. In some years of last century, Bideford imported more tobacco 
than London. The trade of this port is still very considerable ; large quantities of timber, hemp, tallow, &c., 
are imported from the Baltic and America ; wines, fruits, &c., from the Mediterranean ; cattle, &c., from 
Ireland; coal, culm, iron, flag- stones, &c., from Wales; and marble and slate from Cornwall. The New- 
foundland trade is again revived, and bids fair to equal its former impprtance. The port of Bideford includes 
Appledore, Clovelly, Hartland, and all the north coast of Devon, extending westward from the estuary of the 
Taw and Torridge. The Quay was constructed in 1663, and belongs to the lord of the manor. Ships of 500 
tons burden may lie safely at the quay, and those of 300 tons can get up to the bridge. The amount of 
customs received here in "^ 1840 was £5648 ; and in 1847, £3750. The value of the Total Imports of 
Foreign and Colonial merchandise of Bideford was £12,085 in 1872 ; £13,310 in 1873 ; £4792 in 1874 ; 
£2645 in 1875 : and £5676 in 1876. The gross amount of Customs Revenue received was £2711 in 1872 ; 
£2603 in 1873 • £2950 in 1874 ; £2860 in 1875 ; and £2851 in 1876. The value of the total exports was 
£645 in 1872 ; £736 in 1873 ; £915 in 1874 ; and tiil in 1875 and 1876. The number and tonnage of sailing 
and steam vessels (including their repeated voyages) that entered and cleared during the year 1876 was : — 
Coastwise — entered, with cargoes, 885 sailers, 38,783 tons ; 55 steamers, 3681 tons — total 940 vessels, 
42,464 tons : in ballast, 63 sailers, 5812 tons ; 4 steamers, 370 tons — total 70 vessels, 7635 tons : cleared, 
ivith cargoes, 155 sailers, 5419 tons ; 53 steamers, 3549 tons — total, 208 vessels, 8968 tons : in ballast, 813 
sailers, 43,670 tons ; 4 steamers, 370 tons— total, 833 vessels, 46,590 tons. British Possessions and Foreign 
Countries — entered, loith cargoes, 6 sailers, 1545 tons ; in ballast, 3 sailers, 1453 tons : cleared, in ballast, 
13 sailers, 3560 tons. The total number of registered vessels under the Merchant Shipping Acts on 
December 31, 1876, was 99 sailers, having a tonnage of 6649 tons. The total number of registered boats 
under the Sea Fisheries Act, 1868, on the same date was 149, having a tonnage of 359 tons. 

The number of vessels built at Bideford in 1876 was 11 wood sailers, having a tonnage of 1314 tons. Ship- 
building is carried on here to a considerable extent ; and during the late war several frigates, bombs, and gun 
brigs, were built here for the royal navy. Steam and sailing vessels ply to Bristol, in connection with 
steamers to Liverpool, London, &c. Here are large potteries, which employ many hands in the manufacture 
of coarse earthenware. Here are also several malt-houses, breweries, a number of lime-kilns, and two iron- 
foundries, two collar factories, and a ropery. Brown and grey paint and mineral black are got in the neigh- 
bourhood. The Market, held ever}^ Tuesday and Saturday, is well supplied with meat, vegetables, fruit, &c. ; 
and on the former day with corn, cattle, swine, &c. Here are great markets for cattle, &c., on the second 
Tuesday in March, the last Tuesday in April, and the third Tuesday in September. Fairs for cattle are 
held on February 14 and 15, July 18, and November 13. There is a spacious Market-place in the centre of 
the town, but much business is done on the quay. 

Bideford Union comprises 17 parishes, &c.,has an area of 62,944 acres (including 1690 acres of water), 
and in 1871 had a population of 19,362 persons (9062 males, 10,300 females), living in 3934 houses ; besides 
which, there were 260 houses uninhabited, and 62 building. The Registration District also includes Lundy 
Island, having 144 inhabitants (110 males, 34 females), living in 10 houses, on 920 acres of land; and there 
were 33 houses uninhabited and 4 building. There were in the union 16 persons blind, of whom 4 were 
blind from birth ; 15 were deaf and dumb ; 29 idiots or imbeciles ; lunatics ; and 88 paupers in the Union 
AVorkhouse. The total average yearly expenditure of the parishes during the three years preceding the 



152 



Bidolora, 



formation of the Union was £73.3.'i, but in 1838 it was only £o225, and in 1849-50 £0428, in 1874 £10,408, 
1875 £10,240, and for the year ended Lady-day, 1870, £10,422. The total receipts for the last-named year 
were £10,720, £10,234 beinj^ raised by rate. The workhouse was erected in 1835-0, and has room for 200 
paupers. Charles Wm. Hole, l*]sq., is clerk to the f^uardians, and superintendent-registrar; the Kev. llog-er 
Glanville, chaplain ; Mr. and Mrs. Eastman, master and matron of the workhouse ; Miss Emma Ogable, 
schoolmistress ; and Mr. Henry Milsom, porter. Dr. John Thompson is union medical officer. The Relii]VIN(; 
Officers are Mr. James Lee for Eastern district, and Mr. Richard Braund for Western district. The Regis- 
trars OF Births and Deaths are Mr. James Lee for Bideford district; Mr. Henry Williams for Northam 
district ; Mr. Humphrey Dayman for Parkham district ; Mr. Thomas Harris for Bradworthy district ; and 
Mr. Richard Braund for Ilaitland district. The Registrars of Marriages are Mr. James Lee for Eastern 
district, and Mr. Richard Braund for Western district. 

The following enumeration of the parishes shows their territorial extent, and the inhabited houses and 
population in 1871, and present rateable value : — 



Parishes 



2 Abbotsham 

3 Alwington 



Bideford 
Buckland Brewer 
Bulkworthy 
Clovelly . 
East Putford 
Hartland 
Landcross . 
Littleham . 
Monkleigh . 
Parkham 
Northam 

Newton St. Petrock 
West Putford 
Welcombe . 
■Woolfardisworthy 

Total 



Acres 



1,768 
2,655 
3,196 
6,157 
1,115 
3,502 
2,380 
16,700 
331 
1,250 
2,177 
5,808 
4,190 
1,556 
2,620 
1,751 
5,798 



62,944 



Inhabited 



62 

76 

1,355 

175 
22 

188 
31 

394 
22 
78 

124 

191 

924 
44 
61 
39 

148 



3.934 



Fopulation 



421 
353 

6,969 
814 
114 
759 
157 

1,871 
115 
394 
604 
936 

4,330 
254 
290 
232 
749 



19,362 



Present 
Rateable Value 



£ s. d. 

2,264 

1,807 7 6 

15,166 17 6 

3,894 6 8 

617 7 6 
2,102 4 6 

955 5 
9,281 

516 2 6 
1,655 13 
2,154 11 
3,881 11 
11,293 12 
1,050 12 
1,479 5 
1,044 17 
2,933 5 



£62,097 19 11 



Notes, &c. — Lundy Island, which is in No 4 sub-district, is not in any union. Marked 1 are in Bideford sub- 
registration district ; 2 in Northam sub-district ; 3 in Parkham sub-district ; 4 in Hartland sub-district ; 5 in Brad- 
worthy sub-district. 

The County Court is held monthly at the Guildhall for the parishes, except Welcombe, in Bideford 
union, and for the parishes of Horwood, Instow and Westleigh. Mr. Serjeant Petersdorif is judge; S. L. 
Rooker, Esq., registrar and clerk of this court. 

The Church (St. Mary) is supposed to have been originally erected in the 14th century, and to have 
been cruciform in shape ; but was, with the exception of the tower, rebuilt in 1805, and now consists of nave, 
chancel, aisles, and a tower containing six bells, and a clock with chimes which play every four hours. The 
font is of granite, and of Norman date ; it has a cable rudely carved round the exterior of the bowl. The 
organ, by Willis, is a very fine instrument, having three manuals, twenty-eight stops, and 1202 pipes. The 
east window, of five lights, is filled with stained glass, executed by Gibbs, and representing in the centre the 
Crucifixion. The west window contains representations of the Four Evangelists, by Wailes, and is the gift 
of Captain and Mrs. Rudd. In the south aisle are two stained glass windows in memory of the Buck family, 
and two in the north aisle given by the Corporation. Among the monuments is one in memory of John 
Strange, a benevolent merchant, whose humanity and fortitude were remarkably displayed during a visitation 
of the plague in 1040, when ' the mayor deserted the town through fear.' The names of 229 who died of 
that malad}^ are inserted in the parish Register, and among them is that of Mr. Strange, whose bust is placed 
in a niche on the upper part of the monument, which is said to have been erected by a sea captain through 
gratitude for relief afforded after shipwreck. There is also a monument to Sir Thomas Graynfylde, Knight, 
patron of the church, who died in 1514, besides memorials of the Stucley and Buck families. The living is 
a rectory, valued in K.B. at £27 7s. Oc?., in the patronage of Sir G. Stucley, Bart., and incumbency of the 
Rev. Roger Granville, who has a good residence, standing in pleasant grounds at the top of High Street, and 
00 acres of glebe. The tithes are commuted for £019. The Independents, Wesleyans, and Bible 
Christians have chapels here. The Independent Chapel is called the Great Meeting House, and is a 
spacious building, erected in 1090 by a congregation formed by the Rev. Walter Bartlett and his son, the 
Rev. John Bartlett, who were ejected from the benefices of Bideford and Fremington for nonconformity in 
1002. The Rev. James Hervey was curate of this parish in 1738-9, and while here wrote a great part of 
his Meditations. In 1841 the feoffees of the Bridge trust appropriated a field of 1^ acre as a public cemetery, 
half of which is consecrated. 

Bideford School Board was formed on January 10, 1871, and now consists of Messrs. J. W. Narraway 
(chairman), Christopher Pedler (vice-chairman), J. S. Burrow, Joshua Heywood, Robert Dymond, and R. T. 
Ilookway. C. W. Hole, Esq., is their clerk. The Board have purchased and improved the British and National 



r>evoiisliire. 153 

Schools, besides erecting a new school, the cost of the whole being £1413. There is accommodation in the 
Board Schools for about 600 children. 

The Grammar School is held in a room which belongs to the Bridge Trust, and is kept in repair by the 
feoffees. In 1689 Susannah Stucley left £200, to be laid out in lands for the support of a Grammar School 
in Bideford, provided the town would raise £400 more for the same purpose. Towards the latter sum £100 
was left by John Thomas. The money thus raised was laid out in the purchase of an estate, called Bushton, 
in West Buckland parish, consisting of a farm of 57 acres, now let for £50 per annum ; and a wood of about 
20^ acres, which is in the hands of the trustees. Falls of timber in this wood yielded to the charity £204 
in 1799, and £439 in 1813. The trustees, in 1817, laid out £420 in the purchase of a house in Bridgeland 
Street, for the residence of the schoolmaster, for a term of 99 years. The property belonging to the 
Grammar School was sold in 1875 for about £2400, and a new school built. A new scheme has recently 
been issued for the management of the school. 

A Free Library and Newsroom was established in 1877, under the ' Free Libraries' Act,' and is held 
in a room in Bridgland street. It is well supplied with newspapers, and a library has been formed. Mr. 
Thomas Tittle is the librarian. The Music Hall, in Bridgeland street, was erected in 1869 at a cost of £2170, 
raised in £5 shares ; the front was completed in 1875 at a further cost of £600. Mr. R. D. Gould was the 
architect, and Mr. E. M. White the builder. The principal room, which is 90 feet long and 36 feet wide, 
will seat 600 people. The Hall is let for concerts, theatrical performances and other entertainments. Mr. 
Robert Dymond is secretary and manager. The Alexander Hall on the Quay was built in 1874, and will 
hold 400 persons. 

Bideford Infirmary and Dispensary was established in 1873, and occupies a large house on the Quay. 
It contains four beds for males and four for females, and is supported by subscription. Dr. Ackland is 
physician ; Messrs. E. Rouse, E. Cox, and Sinclair Thompson are surgeons ; and Mrs. Mary Kingdon, matron. 

The Bridge Trust comprises property which yields a yearly income of more than £500, and has been 
vested with feoffees from an early period for the reparation of the Bridge, and other public and charitable uses 
in the parish of Bideford. The property comprises houses, and other buildings and lands in the parish and 
neighbourhood, let for about £500 a year. There is also belonging to the charity £819 4s. 6d. Three per 
Cent. Consols, purchased with savings of income. In 1810, the feoffees expended above £2500 in repairing 
and widening the bridge, and rebuilding the parapet walls. After providing for the repairs of the bridge, 
the large surplus income is applicable for ' charitable, necessary, and reasonable uses and purposes ; ' and is 
consequently applied in supporting a school, relieving the poor, repairing the Guildhall, Bridge Hall, &c., 
and in paying small salaries to the bridge-wardens, hall-keeper, &c. In 1848, the feoffees contributed largely 
towards the improvement of Meddon street. The Bridge Hall was built for the use of the feofiees, in 1758, 
and the bridge is said to have been built and endowed by Sir Theobald Grenville, in the early part of the 
14th century. The bridge was widened and improved at a cost of £6000 in 1865, under the direction of Mr. 
Page, C.E., the builder of Westminster Bridge, London. 

Benefactions. — The poor parishioners have the rent of 2a. 2r. 23p. of land, left by John Andrew in 
1605, and now let for £10, They have a yearly rent-charge of 20.s., left by John Andrew, out of property 
held by the Corporation. The Poor's Stock, consisting of £300 Three per Cent. Reduced Annuities, arose 
from various benefactions, and the dividends are applied in relieving the poor and schooling poor children. 
In 1681, George Baron left a yearly rent-charge of £6 out of an estate caDed the Commons, for the relief of 
poor old seamen or their widows. The same estate was charged by William Pawley, in 1728, with the 
yearly payments of 21s. for the poor, and 2ls. for the rector for preaching a sermon on St. Paul's day. The 
poor have a yearly rent-charge of ISs. Ad., left by Alexander Arundell, in 1627, out of land at West Mor- 
chard ; this is not now paid. Henry Young, in 1789, left £100 for the minister and poor of the congregation 
of the Dissenting Meeting-house in Bridgeland street. This legacy nows forms part of a larger sum of New 
Three per Cent. Stock, purchased with this and other gifts to the said Meeting-house. lu 1810. Margaret 
Newcommen left in trust with the dissenting ministers of Bideford, Barnstaple, Tavistock, and Appledore, 
£1000 and £200 (after payment of Legacy Duty, invested in £960 l^s. 6d. New Three per Cents,, and £176 
15*". 7c?. of the same stock), to apply the dividends of the former in relieving the poor and education of the 
young, and of the latter in schooling poor children of this and other parishes. 

Strange's Almshouses, in Meddon street, form a row of nine tenements for the residence of nine poor 
families, placed in them by the trustees. They were founded in 1646 by the before-named John Strange. 
The almspeople have each a small garden. These houses were rebuilt a few years ago by Mr. James 
Haycraft, a native of the town. Amory's Almshouses, in Old Town, consist of six small dwellings, occupied 
by poor families, placed in them by the parish officers. They are said to have been given by Henry Amory, 
in 1663, for the reception of the widows of seamen. Small gardens are attached to each dwelling, but there 
is no endowment. The Amory Almshouses are about to be pulled down, and the property is likely to be sold. 

Worthies. — Sir Richard Grenville, of Bideford, distinguished himself in the reign of Elizabeth, as an 
adventuring navigator, and was, with Sir Walter Raleigh, the joint discoverer of Virginia and Carolina, of 
which he published an account. In 1521, being then Vice-Admiral of England, he sustained, with his single 
ship, the most glorious but unequal conflict that is recorded in naval history, against the whole fleet of the 
enemy ; and after having repulsed them fifteen times, yielded not till his powder was all spent. He died of 
his wounds two days afterwards, on board the Spanish Admiral's vessel. His own ship, reduced to a hulk, 
sunk before it could be got into port. His great-grandson, Sir John, who first wrote his name Granville, is 
well known for the active share he had in bringing about the restoration of Charles II., who, in 1661, 
created him Baron Granville of Bideford, Earl of Bath, &c. After the death of the last Earl of Bath of the 
Granville family, in 1711, their Devonshire estates were divided. Dr. John Shebbeare, author of the 
* Practice of Physic,' but better known for his political writings, for which he was sentenced to stand in the 
pillory in 1758, and was afterwards pensioned, was born at Bideford in 1709. He was put in the pillory, but 



154. 



Bidefovd, 



was attended by a servant who held an umbrella over his head, and the sheriff was prosecuted for not 
enforcing the sentence. Mr. Abraham Down and his brother Benjamin, both ingenious mathematicians, and 
the latter the publislier of maps of Cornwall and Devon, were natives of this town. Young is said to have 
written his 'Night Thoughts' here. 

Post, INIoney Oiider, and Telegraph Ofeice, High Street, William Cadd, postmaster. Letters are 
delivered at 7.15 a.m., 11.50 a.m., and 4.30 p.m. week days, and 7.15 a.m. Sundays, and are despatched at 
a.m. ; to the North at 2.10 p.m. London and all parts at 7.15 p.m. ; week days and Sundays at 5.45 p.m. to 
all parts. 

Kailway. — John Geoghegan, station master. 



ALbott & Co. iron, brass, and bell founders, New road 
Abbott Henry (A. & Son) ; h Allhalland street 
Abbott John (A. & Co.) & (W. & J.) ; h Bridgeland street 
Abbott & Son, cabinetmsikers, upholsterers, and under- 
takers, Allhalland street 
Abbott Wm. (A. & Son); h Allhalland street 
Abbott William (W. & J.) ; h Monkleigh 
Abbott W. & J. ironmongers, High street 
Ackland Wm. Hy. Esq., M.D., J.P. Bridgeland street 
Adams Miss Mary Ann, Cowper street 
Adams Kichd. victualler. Union Inn, Mill street 
Allen Mrs Ann, grocer, High street 
Allin Samuel John, tailor, Cliingswell street 
Andrews Thos. sec. to Industl. Co.-Op. Soc. (lim.), High st 
Andrews Wm. Jno, customs examining officer, Bridgeland st 
Ascott Henry, victualler. New Inn, Market place 
Austin Joseph, grocer, Torrington lane 
Avery George, grocer, Market place 
Avery George, marine store dealer, Barnstaple street 
Babbage Mrs Mary, draper, High street 
Backhouse Thomas, organist and teacher of music. High st 
Backway John, earthenware manufacturer (Phillips & Co.); 

h Torrington lane 
Bailey John, tailor, Meddon street 
Bainton Kov James (Independent), Lansdowne terrace 
Baker John, marble and stone merchant, New road 
Baker Thomas, victualler. Dolphin, Market place 
Bale James, builder and china dealer. High street 
Balsdon Mr James, Old town 
Balsdon Kichard, farmer, Southcott farm 
Barnacott Mrs Elizabeth, baker. Mill street 
Barrett Mrs Emma, Old town 

Barrow Eobert, maltster and brewer, Torrington street 
Barry William, French polisher. Strand 
Bartholomew Charles George, grocer and tailor, Silver st 
Bartlett Mrs James, Meddon street 
Barton George, coach builder, Queen street 
Batten William, tailor and grocer, Meddon street 
Bazeley Henry Montague, solicitor (Rooker & B,), & notary 

public & commissioner in supreme court ; h Westward Ho 
Belben Stephen, marine store dealer and game dealer, 

Meddon street 
Beer Mr George, Abbotsham road 
Beer Captain George, Bridgeland street 
Beer John, grocer. Bridge street 
Beer John, tailor and woollen draper, Mill street 
Bellew John, corn merchant, Mill sti'eet 
Bennett Samuel, timber merchant's manager, Milton place 
Bernini James, tobacconist, Mill street 
Berry James, basket maker. The Quay 
Berry Wm. Lendon, basket maker & toy dealer. Mill street 
Bkleford Dispensary and Infirmary, The Quay ; Mrs Mary 

Kingdon, matron 
Bideford Gas and Coke Co. (limited) ; James Joce, sec. 
Bideford Gazette, Granville street ; William J. Honey, 

publisher and proprietor 
Bideford Industrial Co-operative Society (limited), High 

street ; Thomas Andrews, secretary 
Bishop Samuel, victualler. Globe, Meddon street 
Bishop Thomas, victualler, Angel, Market place 
Bishop William, carpenter, Gunstone 
Blight John, manager, Barnstaple street 
Blight Mr AVilliam, Meddon street 



Bond Thomas, carver and gilder, Chingswell street 

Bourn Mrs Sarah Ann, High street 

Bowen Mrs Harriet, boot dealer, Lower Gunstono 

Bowen John, tailor, Allhalland street 

Boyle George, draper. High street 

Boyle George, manager. Queen street 

Braddick John Joseph, butcher and grocer. Mill street 

Bragg John, grocer and dyer's agent, Allhalland street 

Braund Charles, grocer and house decorator, Meddon st 

Braund Frederick (B. & Son) ; h Strand 

Braund James S. B. solicitor's clerk. High street 

Braund & Son, drapers. High street 

Braund Mrs Susannah, dressmaker. Mill street 

Braund AVilliam, bootmaker. Mill street 

Bray Samuel, accountant and collector of borough, district 

and water rates, Queen street 
Brayley George B. solicitor. Cold harbour 
Brock John, painter, Bridgeland street 
Brook Mrs Dorothy, Meddon street 
Broom Henry, victualler. Swan, Mill street 
Brown Mrs Jane, Abbotsham ruad 
Brown Joseph, boot and shoe dealer, High street 
Brown Colonel William St. Barbe, Forest hill 
Brownscombe Mrs Prudence, shopkeeper. Higher Gunstone 
Brownstone William, beerhouse, High street 
Buck Mrs Ann, Morton house 

Burnard John, pork butcher & dairyman, Honestono lane 
Burnard William, grocer and draper, Meddon street 
Burrow Henry Marshall, watchmaker. Mill street 
Burrow James Shortlidge, accountant and agent for Royal 

Insurance Company, Meddon street 
Butler William Henry, grocer & shoerakr. Lower Meddon st 
Cadd William, chemist and postmaster. High street 
Cann James, nursery and seedsman, florist and basket 

maker. Mill street 
Cann John, victualler, Joiners' Arms, Market place 
Carter Miss Edith Jane, corn dealer. Mill street 
Carter Geo. cane wkr. & umbrella mkr. Lower Meddon'j 
Caseloy Mrs Ann, Allhalland street 
Cawsey Archibald, builder. Union street 
Cawsey Mrs Mary Ann, vict. White Packhorse, Union 
Cawsey Mrs Sarah, greengrocer, Allhalland street 
Chalk Mrs Mary Ann, farmer & 'bus propr. Allhalland st 
Chanell Mrs Matilda. Bridgeland street 
Chapman Edward, commercial traveller. High street 
Chappie James, butcher. Mill street 
Chappie John, vict. New Ring of Bells, Honestone lan^ 
Ching Richard, farmer. North street 
Chope Walter, harness maker. Butt Garden street 
Clark George, painter, Mill street 
Clarke James Routcliffe, cabinet maker and agent for 

Norwich Union Insurance Company, Butt Garden street 
Clarke John, butcher, Honestone lane 
Clarke John, joiner, Milton place 

Clarke Jno. Coleman, agt. for Prudential Ins. Co. Old town 
Clement Abraham, tailor, outfitter, and agent for United 

Temperance Provident & Prudential Ins. Cos. Market pi 
Clemow Charles E. victualler. Commercial Hotel, New road 
Coaman Thomas, grocer. High street 
Cock Richard, mason, Allhalland street 
Cohen Daniel, M.D. South bank, Northdown lane 
Cole Enoch, bootmaker. Mill street 
Cole George, shopkeeper, Lower Gunstone 



I 

d st 



Devonshire. 



155 



John, farmer, Gammaton 
Mr William, Meddon street 

^ Thomas Case, confectioner, High street 
y John, beerhouse, Cooper street 

ler Misses Elizabeth and Mary, Meddon street 

A ill Mrs Elizabeth, vict. Princess Koyal, Barnstaple st 

. ill Mrs Ellen, High street 

vill Mrs Fanny, day school, Bridgeland street 

i ill Philip, timber merchant & coal dlr. Barnstaple st 
ill Mr Philip, Barnstaple street 

-ill Thomas, bootmaker, Highfield, Meddon street 
^uv>k Robert James, grocer, Granville st. ; h Barnstaple 
Cooper Albert, draper High street 

Oooper John Groves, land agent and surveyor, and agent 
for "West of England and Westminster Insurance Com- 
panies, High street ; h Wear Gifford 
Copp John, victualler, Eoyal Mail, Bridge street 
Copp William, basket maker, Honestone lane; h Old town 
Cornish IVIi's Jane, Meddon street 
CouU Mrs Ann, dressmaker, Mill street 
County Court Office, Bridgeland street ; Samuel L. Eooker, 

clerk, registrar and high bailiff 
Cox Edgar, surgeon, Quay 
Cox John, mason, Allhalland street 
Cox William, painter, Chingswell street 
Craig William, cooper, Allhalland street 
Crang Mrs Isabella, lodgings, High street 
Crang James, maltster, Marine gardens 
Crichton Mr David (Exors. of), Milton place 
Crocker AVilliam Henry, earthenware manufacturer and 

coal dealer, North street ; h The Strand 
Croscombe Mr William, High street 
Cruse Mrs Jane, Market place 
Cruse John, butcher, Allhalland street 
Cruwys Samuel, wine and spirit merchant, High street 
Curtis Mr John, Strand 

Curtis John, game and poultry dealer, Mill street 
Curtis Richard, dairyman and shopkeeper, Meddon street 
Ctistom House, Bridgeland street ; William Andrews, 

examining officer 
Cutcliffe George, tailor, North street 
Dalling William, hairdresser, Mill street 
Dannell Bartholomew, baker. Mill street 
Lannell Edwin & Son (Edwin), hat mfrs. Allhalland st 
Dark James, foreman, Meddon street 
Dark John, victualler, Red Lion, Honestone lano 
Dai-k John, victualler. Swan, Torrington street 
Dark Mrs Mary, shopkeeper, Barnstaple street 
Davey John, victualler, Plough, Honestone lane 
Davey Thomas, butler. Old town 
Davis Misses Mary and Margaret, Abbotsham road 
Davis Thomas, chimney-sweeper, New street 
Davis Thomas, umbrella maker, Market place 
Dawe & Co. clothiers and outfitters. High street and Barn- 
staple ; James Edwards, manager 
Dawe Henry, grocer and wine & spirit merchant. High st 
Dawe Samuel (D. & Co.) ; h Barnstaple 
Delve Mrs Mary, Old town 

Delve Thomas, victualler, Newfoundland Inn, Quay 
Delve Mr Thomas Hockridge, Old town 
Dennis Misses Elizabeth and Susannah, dressmakers and 

milliners, Allhalland street 
Dennis George, earthenware manufacturer, Strand 
Dennis Lewis, farmer, Adjurin 
Dennis Miss Mary, High street 
Devon and Exeter Savings Bank (branch), Bridgeland 

street; George Turner, actuary 
Didham Captain Charles John, Middleton, Northdown hi 
Dingle Edward, grocer. Butt Garden street 
Dodds William, vict. Blacksmiths' Arms, Torrington st 
Doherty George, coal merchant, Torrington street 
Dowel Captain William Montague, R.N. Ton house 
DowTi Edward Hammond, tallow chandler, stationer and 
twine dealer, High street 



Down Edward, tallow chandler and toy and marine store 

dealer, High street 
Duncan Alexander Gregory, linen collar manufacturer 

(Vincent & D.) ; h North street 
Dunhill Mrs Catherine, Quay 

Dunn Richard, watchmaker and draper. Market place 
Dymond Robert, auctioneer, house agent, and agent for 

Sutton & Co. and Lancashire Insurance Co. Mill street 
Dymond Mrs Susan, lace maker. Butt Garden street 
Eastman George and Mrs Ellen, master and matron, 

Workhouse, Meddon street 
Eastman William, blacksmith. High street 
Edwards James, manager. High street - 
Edwards John, nurseryman, seedsman & florist, Meddon st 
Edwards Rev John, Strand 
Elliott Stephen, carpenter, Barnstaple street 
Ellis Edmund, joiner and builder. Mill street 
Ellis Henry, victualler, Peacock, Market place 
Embery John Holloway, joiner, Barnstaple street 
Embery Mr William, Strawberry cottage, Meddon street 
Essery Mrs Mary Ann, dressmaker. Mill street 
Evans Thomas, marine store dealer, Torrington lane 
Facey Miss Mary, ladies' school. Quay 
Fewings John, coal dealer, Lower Gunstone 
Fierville Mr Charles Jaques Marion, Bridgeland street 
Fison & Co. manure manxifacturers, Barnstaple street ; and 

Ipswich ; Frederick Lee, agent 
Fleck Thomas, manager. New street 

Fogaty John Balch, carpenter. Bridge street ; h Meddon st 
Folley William, market gardener. North Town lane 
Ford William, marine store dealer, Old town 
Fowler Hugh, grocer. Old town 

Francis James, victualler, Steam Packet Hotel, Quay 
Frayne John, coachbuilder. North street 
Freeman Mrs Elizabeth, lodgings. Quay 
Friendship Caleb, Temperance Hotel, Honestone lane 
Friendship James, tailor and draper, Chingswell street 
Frost William, bootmaker, Meddon street 
Fry Mrs Eliza, Bridgeland street 
Fry Mrs Elizabeth Ann, Barnstaple street 
Fry Henry, farmer, Warmiugton 

Fulford William, carpenter and undertaker, Honestone In 
Fursman Thomas, market gardener. New road 
Galliver Samuel, blacksmith, Barnstaple street 
Gent William, mason and sexton, Public cemetery. Old 

town 
Geoghegan John, stationmaster, Barnstaple street 
Gibbens William, marine store dealer, Torrington lane 
Giddy William, victualler, Cornish Arms, Bull hill 
Gilbert Mr William, Meddon street 
Gil vary Daniel, baker and confectioner, Mill street 
Grainger William, excise officer, Milton place 
Granville Rev Roger, vicar of St. Mary's 
Green Mrs Ann, china and glass dealer. High street 
Green Thomas, tailor, Lower Gunstone 
Greenoff William, market gardener, Meddon street 
Greenwood John, plumber, Honestone lane 
Gregory Robert, joiner, Chingswell street 
Grigg William, clerk, New road 
Hamlyn John, tailor. Butt Garden street 
Hammett Charles, teacher of music, Barnstaple street 
Hammett Mrs Elizabeth, lodgings, Barnstaple street 
Harden Mr John, Springfield terrace 
Harris Miss Sarah, Church schoolmistress, Honestone lane 
Harwood Miss Eliz. Board schoolmistress. Marine gardens 
Hatherley Miss Henrietta Josepha, Bridgeland street 
Hatherley Mrs Sarah Ann, Quay 
Hawkesley George, grocer, Meddon street 
Haycroft James, bootmaker, Honestone lane 
Headon Mr Thomas, Meddon street 
Heard John, grocer, Allhalland street 
Heard Thomas, shopkeeper & coal dealer, Honestone lane 
Heard William, mason, Florence street 
Hearn George, hairdresser, Allhalland street 



156 



Bidefbrd, 



Heatherley "William Fortescue Wills, solicilor, commis- 
sioner to administer oaths, and agent for London In- 
surance Co. Bridgeland street 
Heywood Charles, grocer and seedsman, Honestone lane 
Heywood Henry (J, & H.) ; h Lansdowne terrace 
Heywood John (J. & H.) ; h GrenA'ille street 
Heywood J. & H. drapers, Grenvillo street 
Hill George, chimney-sweeper & umbrella maker, Silver st 
Hinks John, shopkeeper, Barnstaple street 
Hockaday Mrs Mary, shopkeeper, Mill street 
Hodge John, grocer, Torrington street 
Hogg Thomas, pharmaceutical chemist, New road 
Hole Charles William (H. & Peard), and town clerk, 
clerk to Local Board, Board of Guardians, School Board 
and county and borough magistrates, notary public and 
superintendent registrar, Chingswell street 
Hole & Peard, solicitors, Willett street 
Holloway Mrs Elizabeth, dressmaker, Milton place 
Holloway Henry, (j) joiner, Old town 
Holloway Michael, blcksmth. Honestone In ; h Marine gdns 
Holman Daniel, painter, dairyman and carriage proprietor, 

Lower Gunstone 
Holman John Fishley, butcher, Allhalland street 
Honey William Jacobs, printer, publisher and proprietor 

of Bideford Gazette, Grenville street 
Hookway Mrs Elizabeth, grocer, Old town 
Hookway Kichard, baker and dairyman, Old town 
Hookway Kobert Taylor, builder and contractor, Quay 
Hooper Mrs Mary Elizabeth, pawnbroker (plate), Quay 
Hopkins Maj. Francis Powell, Eairholme hs, Northtownln 
Hopkins Henry, master mariner. Cooper street 
Hopson Charles, photographer & furniture dlr. Mill street 
Hopson Christopher, ironmonger, Market place 
How John, Esq. J.P. (J. & Co.) ; h Woodville, Northam 
How John & Co. timber merchants. New road 
Howard Mrs Eliza Ann, High street 
Howard John, bootmaker. Lower Meddon street 
Hoyle Mrs Ann, shopkeeper, High street 
Husband John, painter, High street 
Hutchings Mrs Ann, shopkeeper. High street 
Hutchings Henry Lee, auctioneer and coal mert. Mill st 
Huxham Thomas, Local Board surveyor. New road 
Huxtable John, shopkeeper, Barnstaple street 
Irish Thomas Benjamin, manure agent, Barnstaple street 
Ivey William, bootmaker. Mill street 
Jenkins Mrs Elizabeth, shopkeeper, Honestone lane 
Jenkins Henry, victualler, Appledore Inn, Chingswell st 
Jenkins John, beer retailer. Lower Gunstone 
Jenkins Mrs Maria, coal dealer. Higher Gunstone 
Jenkins Thomas, shoeing smith, Old town 
Jenkins William, coal dealer. Old town 
Jennings James, shopkeeper, North street 
Jewell Mrs Mary Ann, laundress, Milton place 
Jewell William, shipping agent, Milton place 
Joce James, chemist and secretary to Bideford Gas Co. 

Grenville street ; h Springfield terrace 
Johns William, vict. Old Ring of Bells, Honestone lane 
Johnson John, shipbuilder, Barnstaple st; h Springfield ter 
Jones Mrs Emma, staymaker. Mill street 
Jones John, agent for Victoria Legal and Commercial Life, 
and Manchester Fire Insurance Companies, New road ; 
h Orchard hill, Northam 
Jones Mrs Mary (J. & Sanders) ; h Butt Garden street 
Jones & Sanders, milliners, Butt Garden street 
Jones Thomas, victualler. Lamb Inn, Honestone lane 
Keall Edward Skinner, dentist. Strand 
Kean Mrs Elizabeth, Lansdowne terrace 
Keats Mrs Susan, Marine gardens 
Kelly John Milton, customs' officer, Milton place 
Kemp Thomas, victualler, King's Arms, Quay 
Kiddle Richard Nellor, chemist and druggist, Quay 
King James, china dealer. Bridge street 
Kingdon Abraham, tea dealer, Butt Garden street 
Kingdon Mrs Mary, matron, Dispensary, The Quay 



KivcU Richard, vict. Railway Inn, Torrington lane 

Lake Samuel, game dealer. Queen street 

Lake Simon, tailor, Silver street 

Lamerton Richard, joiner. High street 

Lamerton Thos. whcelwrght. Higher Gunstone ; h Bridge 

Land John, grocer, High street 

Land Mrs Mary, shopkeeper. High street 

Land William, tailor. High street 

Landbridge John, cabinetmaker, Allhalland street ; 

Lower Gunstone 
Leach Mrs Elizabeth Jane, dressmaker and millinf 

Chingswell street 
Leathby Miss Susannah, lodgings, Strand 
Lee Frederick, agent for Fison & Co., and joiner 

builder, Old town 
Lee James, accountant, registrar of births, deaths 

marriages, & vaccntng. officer for Bideford dist. Bridge st 
Lee James, Temperance Hotel, Market place 
Lee William, shopkeeper. Mill street 
Lee William, watchmaker. Mill street 
Lendon William, whitesmith and bellhanger. Mill streel 
Leonard William, coal dealer, New road 
Lewis Mr Edward, Quay 
Lewis John, lodgings. Quay 

Lewis William, painter and paperhanger, Mill street 
Ley Mrs Ellen, day & boarding school, Bridgeland sti 
Ley John, (j) painter, Cold harbour 
Lightwood Elijah, shopkeeper. Mill street 
Lile John, plumber, brazier & tin plate wrkr. Barnstaple st 
Lind Colonel James Burne, Edge hill, Northdown lane 
Local Government Board Office, Cooper street 
Locke George, joiner. High street 
Louttid Mr William Alfred, Bridgeland street 
Lovering Georgfe, vict. Castle Inn, Allhalland street 
Lugg John, foreman. Old town 

Lythaby Miss Lydia, milliner and draper. Mill street 
McBryde & Orr, linen collar manufacturers, New street 

and London ; Thomas Fleck, manager 
MacDonald Ewen, travelling draper, Meddon street 
MacKenzie Misses Prudence & Selina, day school. Quay 
Maine Misses Frances and Sarah Maria, High street 
Major Miss Elizabeth, Market place 
Majo:? John Willis, auctioneer, town crier and bill post 

Chingswell street 
Makin Rev Robert (Baptist), Bridgeland street 
Martin Miss Mary Ann, Bridgeland street 
Martin Thomas, butcher. Mill street 
Merrifield William, master mariner, Old town 
Metherall John, block maker, Torrington street 
Mills Mr William Jewell, Butt Garden street 
Millson Shapland, clerk. Bridge street 
Mock Mrs Faith, shopkeeper, Torrington lane 
Molesworth George Mill Frederick, Esq., J.P. North' 

down house. Strand 

Monkley Henry, draper and outfitter. Market place 

Monkley Henry, tailor. Market place 

Moore Mr Richard, Old town 

Morton Mr John Simm, Kingsley villa, North Town la 

Mounce James, tailor, Mill street 

Mules John, tailor and newsagent. Silver street 

Murphy Thomas, stamp distributor. Mill street 

Murphy William Charles, photographer, Mill street 

Nance-Kivell James, coachbuilder. Queen street 

Narraway John Whitlock, tanner and currier, Westcombeji 

h Honestone lane 
National Provincial Bank of England (draw on head office, 

London), Quay ; George Todd, manager 
Newcombe Thomas, manager. Quay 
Nichols William, brewer. High street 
Norman Mr Thomas, Strand 
Oatway Alfred, watchmaker, High street 
Oatway Edward Taylor (0. & Son), High street 
Oatway George, hairdresser, High street 
Oatway & Son, tailors, High street 



I 



I>evoiisi»it*e. 



15t 



);itway William Vicary (0. & Son) ; h High street 
)<r;ilbe Miss Emma, schoolmistress, Workhouse, Meddon st 
Palmer Alfred, road contractor, Meddon street • 
L'ahner Mrs Hannah, clothes dealer, Old town 
! 'aimer Mr Ki chard, Old town 

Parker Capt. Robert Lesley, Slade house, Northtown lane 
Parkhouse John, victualler, Barley Mow Inn, Mill street 
Parson Francis, veterinary surgeon, Butt Garden street 
Partridge Edward, land agent and auctioneer, Grrenville 

street ; h Monkleigh 
l^irtridge Mrs Elizabeth, New road 
^jPasker Mr John Gregory, Meddon street 
ilPassmore John, victualler, Maltscoop Inn, Cooper street 
Peai'd Geo. Oliver, solicitor (Hole & P.); h Bridgeland st 
Pc'dler Mr Christopher, Springfield terrace 
Penny Mr Christopher Stephen, York house 
[\n-kin Benjamin, bootmaker, High street 
Pirkin Frederick, painter and bookseller. Mill street 
L\'rkin James, bootmaker, Mill street 
Perry Mrs Mary Ann, dressmaker, High street 
Perry Robert, tailor. High street 

Petherick Miss Sarah Jane, millinr. & dressmkr. Meddon st 
Phillips '& Co. earthenware manufacturers, Torrington lane 
Pliillips Henry (P. & Co.) ; h Old town 
Phillips William, mason, Honestoue lane 
Phillips William, sawyer, Honestone lane 
Phcenix Tea & CoflFee Co. High st ; Richard Yeo, manager 
Pickard Miss Elizabeth, milliner ai.d straw bonnet maker. 

High street 
Pickard John, bootmaker. High streeL 
Pickard Thomas, dairyman, High street 
Pimcombe William, foreman, Barnstaple street 
Pollard George (Thomas & Son), and shipping agent, 

Barnstaple street 
Pollard Thomas, jun. (Thomas & Son) ; h Chapel park 
Pollard Thomas & Son, black paint manfrs. Barnstaple st 
Poole Miss Elizabeth, High bank. North street 
Pound James Rounsfill, house decorator. Mill street 
Pound William, painter, Mill street 

Pow Mrs Sally, dining-room proprietor. Butt Garden s\;reet 
Powe John Heard, manager, S])ringfield terrace 
Powe Miss Mary, shopkeeper, JButt Garden street 
Prance Mr James, Meddon street 
Prance Joseph, fishmonger. Mill street 
Prescott William, victualler, Rising Sun, Gammaton 
Pridham Thomas, saddler, Grenville street 
Pridham William, fanner, Saltern farm 
Prince Thomas, grocer, New street 
Prince William, mariner. Old town 
Prior William, painter and house decorator. Mill street 
Prouse Hugh, bootmaker. Mill street 
Prouse James, bootmaker. Mill streel 
Prust Mrs Elizabeth Susannah, Milton place 
Tuhlic Booms, Bridgeland street ; Robt. Dymond, manager 
Puddiscombe Mrs Jane & Miss Mary, stationers, and music 

and book sellers. High street 
Purchase Mrs Bessie, lodgings, Bridgeland street 
Pyke Captain Benjamin Rogers, Longfield, Northtown lane 
Pyke Mr John, Sunnyside, Northtown lane 
Pyke Mrs, Ton house 
Radcliffe James, earthenware manufacturer (Phillips & 

Co.) : h Torrington lane 
RadclilFe Mr James, Meddon street 
Rendle Mr Jonathan, Lansdowne terrace 
Restarick Henry Morgan, rope manufacturer, Strand 
Riccard Mrs Mary Ann, Mount Pleasant, High street 
Richards George, saddler, High street 
Richards James, shopkeeper, Honestone lane 
Richards John Thomas, clerk, Meddon street 
Rigsby Thomas, grocer. Bridge street 
Risdon Joseph, land agent and surveyor, Bridgeland street 
Robins Nicholas, ironmonger. Marketplace 
Rodgman .George, bootmaker, Mill street 
Rogers Mrs Mary, fancy repository, Mill street 



Rogers Mr William, Old town 
Rook James, marine store dealer, Torrington lane 
Rook Robert, bootmaker, New street 
Rooker & Bazeley, solicitors and agents for Royal Ex- 
change and Law Fire Insurance Cos. Bridgeland street 
Rooker James (R. & Bazeley), and commissioner in all 
courts, clerk of the peace, & deputy-registrar of county 
court, Bridgeland street 
Rooker Samuel Lavington (R. & Bazeley), and clerk, 
registrar, and high bailiff to county court, Bridgeland st 
Roscrute Samuel, inland revenue officer, North street 
Rouse Ezekiel, surgeon, Bridgeland street 
Rowe Mrs, Lansdowne terrace 

Rowe Rev William (Bible Christian), Meddon street 
Salmon Henry, civil engineer and surveyor, Abbotsham rd 
Sanders Miss Bessie, mllnr. (Jones &S.); hButt Garden st 
Sanders John, baker and confectioner. Mill street 
Saunders Miss Fanny, Lansdowne terrace 
Softool of Science and Art, Bridgeland street 
Screens Mr John, Milton place 

Sellick Charles Henry, grocer and wine and spirit mer- 
chant, Market place 
Serjeant Mr Charles John, Old town 
Seward John, foreman, Honestone lane 
Sheeres Mrs Martha, North street 
Short John, corn miller, Upcutt mill 
Sinkins Mr Joseph Nuth, Lansdowne terrace 
Skerratt Rev John (Wesleyan), Bridge street 
Sluman George, victualler. Ship on Launch, Barnstaple st 
Sluman James, shopkeeper, Honestone lane 
Sluman William, victualler, Terminus Inn, Barnstaple st 
Smale Charles, solicitor, commissioner for affidavits in 
Supreme Court, and solicitor to North Devon Building 
Society, Strand 
Smale Miss Dorcas, shopkeeper, Honestone lane 
Smale Thomas, dairyman, Honestone lane 
Smith John, (j) sawyer, Lansdowne terrace 
Spearman Richard, victualler, Three Tuns, Quay 
Squance Mrs Elizabeth, lodgings, Strand 
Squire Bros. (Richard & Caleb), house painters and deco- 
rators. Market hill 
Squire Francis, monumental mason, Barnstaple street 
Squire John (S. & Son) ; h Springfield terrace 
Squire John, grocer. Quay 
Squire Leigh (S. & Son) ; h High street 
Squire Robert (S. & Son) ; h High street 
Squire & Son, watchmakers. High street 
Staite Alfred, wine and spirit merchant, maltster and 

brewer. Mill street 
Stamp Office, Mill street ; Thomas Murphy, distributor 
Stapleton John, bootmaker. Mill street; and Appledore 
Stevens Henry, draper, Grenville street ; h High street 
Stevenson Mrs Ann, grocer, Meddon street 
Stevenson Robert Henry, game dealer, Meddon street 
Stone Alfred, cabinet maker, Allhalland street 
Stone Mrs Ann, Church walk 

Stone Mrs Elizabeth, Town Hall keeper, Allhalland street 
Stone Henry, milliner & straw bonnet maker, Grenville st 
Stone John, furniture dealer, Old town 
Stone Thomas, bootmaker. Mill street 
Sussex William, mason. Bridge street 
Swain John, bootmaker, Barnstaple street 
Sweet John, cabinet maker and upholsterer, Allhalland st 
Symons Miss Annie, schoolmistress. Old town 
Symons Miss Sarah, dressmaker, Meddon street 
Tanton Mrs Sarah, victualler, Tanton's Hotel and posting 

house. New road 
Tapley & Hutchins, solicitors. High street ; & Torrington 
Tardrew Henr^', ironmonger, iron and brass founder and 

agent for County Fire Insurance Company, High street 
Taylor Henry, victualler. Last Out, and mason. Old town 
Tedrake Thomas, photographer, and printer and publisher 

of Western Express, Mill street 
Tepper George, boys' school, Strand 



158 



Bideford, 



Thorn Richard, seed merchant, Butt Garden street 
Thompson John, Esq., J.P,, M.D., F.R.C.8., surgeon, 
coroner for Bideford district, and certifying factory sur- 
geon. Butt Garden street ; h Abbotsham road 
Todd George, bank mantigor, Quay 
Town Hall, Bridge st ; Mrs Elizabeth Stone, hallkeeper 
Trewin Thomas, corn, flour, provision & general merchant, 
and sigent for Atlas Insurance Company, Butt Garden 
street ; h Pill Head fiirm 
Trick Mrs Ann, Bridgeland street 
Trick Mr Charles, High street 
Trick Miss Jane, fancy repository, High street 
Trott Mrs Jemima, lodgings, Lansdowne terrace 
Tucker Frederick, bootmaker, Milton place 
Tucker John, clerk, Honestono lane 
Tucker Mr John, High street 
Tucker John Edward, accountant, Mill street 
Tucker Thomas, vict. Horse & Jockey, Honestone lane 
Turner Alfred, tanner and currier. High street 
Turner Mrs Elizabeth, Mill street 

Turner Miss Eliz, day & boarding school ; h Bridgeland st 
Turner George, solicitor, clerk to Highway Board, actuary 
to Devon and Exeter Savings Bank, and agent for Sun 
Insurance Company, Bridgeland street 
Turner William, Esq. J.P., The Barton 
Underill Misses Ann & Mary, dressmakers, New road 
Union Workhouse, Meddon street ; George and Mrs E. 

Eastman, master and matron 
Vaggers Henry, mason, Honestone lane 
Vanstone Mrs Elizabeth, Market place 
A^ellacott "William Lancey, draper, High street 
A^erren Edwin, victualler, King of Prussia, New street 
Verren John, cabinet maker. Mill street 
Vibert Misses Anna C. & Philippa Grace, milliners, 

Bridgeland street 
Vincent & Duncan, linen collar manufacturers, Westcombe 
Vincent George W. (V. & Duncan) ; h Westcombe 
Vinson William, tailor, draper, and auctioneer, High st 
Wakeley William, bootmaker. Union street 
Walkey William, cattle dealer, Honestone lane 
Walter George, butcher, Old town 
Warmington Philip, brewer and hop dealer. High street 
AVay William, rope manufacturer, Meddon street 
Way William, foreman. Fire Engine Station ; h North st 
Webster Charles, hairdresser. Bridge street 
Webster Miss Elizabeth Ann, Quarryfield 
Wells Charles, farmer, Oldescleve 



Werry Robert, cooper, Lower Meddon street 

West William, wheelwright. North street 

West of England Fire Engine Station, ^Quay ; William 

Way, foreman 
West of England & South Wales District Banking Co., 

High street (draw on Glyn, Mills & Co.); W. B. 

Davie, manager 
Westcott Charles, grocer and baker, Meddon street 
Westcott Miss Esther, day school. Bridge st ; h High st 
Western Express, Mill st ; Thos. Tedrake, printer & publshr 
Whitaker Geo. bootmaker, Grenville st. : h Honestone In 
White Mr Edward Martyn, Bridgeland street 
White Mr William, Strand 
Whitefield William, shipwright, Strand 
Wickham & Co. wine and spirit merchants. High street 
Wickham Thomas Taplin (W. & Co.) ; h High street 
Willcock Stephen Cleverley, wine and spirit merchant; 

High street ; h Fairlea, Northdown lane 
Williams Mrs Elizabeth, grocer, Honestone lane 
Williams Miss Jane Hoare, stationer & bookseller, Higl 
Williams John, ironmonger. High street 
Williams Thomas, grocer, Market place 
Williams William, painter. Butt Garden street 
Wills Mr Samuel, Strand 
Wilson Brothers, printers, stationers, booksellers, 

engravers, Mill street 
Wilson John (Bros.) ; h Mill street 
Wilson Robert (Bros.) ; h Mill street 
Wishart John, Scripture reader, Honestone lane 
Wood Charles, boys' day and boarding school. High st 
Wood Mrs Charlotte, Butt Garden street 
Wood Mrs Elizabeth, Milton place 
Wyatt James, draper, High street 
Yeo The Misses, day and boarding school, Quay 
Yeo Richard, manager, High street 
Y^'oung John, travelling draper, Old town 

CARRIERS. 

Barnstaple, Mrs Elizabeth Parish, daily, from the Quay 
Clovelly, Jeffrey, Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday 

from the Angel ; mail waggonette from Tanton's Hotel, 

daily, 7.15 a.m. 
Fbemington, Mrs Parish, daily, from the Quay 
Habtland, Thomas Colwill, Tuesday, Thursday and 

Saturday from the Quay; mail waggonette from Tanton's 

Hotel, daily, at 7.15 a.m. 
Instow, Mrs Parish, daily, from the Quay 



BIGBUPtY, a parish which includes the village of St. Ann's Chapel, is in Kingsbridge union and 
county court district, Ermington andPlympton petty sessional division, Kingsbridge polling district of South 
Devon, Ermington hundred, Totnes archdeaconry and Woodleigh deanery. It bad 465 inhabitants (229 
males, 23G females) in 1871, living in 99 houses, on 2902 acres of land, and 265 acres of water. Bigbury 
village is about 1-| mile from Bigbury Bay, 4 miles south of Modbury, 6 miles from Kingsbridge, and 8|- 
from Ivybridge, and is situated on an eminence about 400 feet above the level of the sea, open on one side to 
Dartmoor, and on the other to the Channel. It is one of the healthiest in England, and gives its name to 
the magnificent bay lying between the Bolt Tail and Stoke Point, into which the two rivers, the Erme and 
the Avon, fall. On the bay are situated no less than nine parishes, all of them containing fine sites for 
villas, many of them possessing good hard sands, grand cliffs, and other advantages, which will, no doubt, at 
some future period make this part of Devonshire, now almost unknown, as justly celebrated as Torbay or 
Mount Bay. With the exception of the Dart, the Avon is the best salmon stream in South Devon. The 
supply has increased considerably during the last few years, in consequence of the stricter conservancy regu- 
lations, and in course of time under improved regulations, adopted with special reference to the locality, it 
may be confidently expected that the annual take of salmon will be very large. The right of fishing at the 
mouth of the Avon belongs to the lord of Bigbury manor ; it goes with the Court Farm, and is at present 
rented by John Ellis, Esq., of Aveton Giffbrd. The manor was held for nine generations by a family of its 
own name, and afterwards passed to the Chauipernownes, Willoughbys, and Pawlets ; it now belongs to 
the Duke of Cleveland and the Dowager Duchess of Cleveland, and they and J. A. Pearce, Esq., are the 
principal owners of the soil. In the little hamlet of St. Ann's Chapel there still remain traces of the old 
chapel. At Milburgh was an oratory near a spring. At Holwell is yet in existence the holy well, from 
which it is called ; on the island of St. Michael de la Burgh, now known as Borough Island or Burr Island, 
was a fisherman's chapel, dedicated to St. Michael. The Chukch (St. Lawrence), which had become almost 
a ruin, was rebuilt in 1872 at the cost of about £1200, raised by subscription, the lord of the manor giving 



r> e vonsliir e . 



159 



ilOO. It consists of chancel, nave, and side chapel in the Decorated style, and north aisle of Perpendicular 
date. The tower, which contains five bells, is surmounted by a spire. In a mortuary chapel, now used as a 
pew by the holder of Court Farm, is a brass in memory of a member of the Arundel family, and a slate 
monument, with a very quaint inscription in verse, in memory of a husband and wife of the name of Pearce, 
bearing the date of 1582. The living, a rectory valued in K.B. at £28 7s. lid, is in the patronage of Lord 
^Sandwich and the Duke of Cleveland, and incumbency of the Kev. F. Farrer, M.A. The tithes are com- 
muted for a rent-charge of £500; the glebe is 100 acres. The Baptists have a chapel here, built about 12 
} oars ago by Mr. W. ITooppell. The parishes of Bigbury, Ringmore, and Kingston constitute the School 
J >oard district known as the Erme and Avon School Board District. It was formed in 1878, and now 
consists of the Rev. F. Farrer (chairman), and Messrs. J. Wroth, W. S. Wroth, John White, P. Randle, Wm. 
Stidston, and Wm. Hooppell. F. M. Farrer, Esq., is clerk. Existing buildings have been utilised as schools, 
at a nominal rent, in all the three parishes. The three schools will accommodate 200 children, and the 
average attendance is 170. 

Letters are received by foot messenger from Aveton Gifford at 9.30 a.m. There is a Wall Letter 
Box, which is cleared at 3.30 p.m. Modbury is the nearest Money Order Office, and Ivybridge the nearest 
Kail way Station. 



A mm John, blacksmith & parish clerk 
Andrews Eichard, farmer, Houghton; 
Leigh, N. Huish, and Lower Lark- 
liam, Diptford » 

Atril Thomas, farmer, Hingston 
r.ardens Bros, fishing-boat proprietors 

and pilots. The Warren 
ijai'dens Mrs Fanny, victualler. Pil- 
chard Inn, Borough island 
Bardens Jsph. (Bros.) ; h The Warren 
Bardens Simon (Bros.) and master of 
pilchard and mackerel seines, The 
Warren 
l>i'cnd Thomas, victualler. Hare and 

Hounds, St. Ann's Chapel 
Coker George, farmer, Eastou 
Coker John, boot and shoe maker 
Crimp — , farmer, Tuffland 
Cuming Garland, farmer, Higher 
Cumery 



Farrer Frank, clerk to Erme and 

Avon School Board 
Farrer Rev Frederic, M.A. rec5tor 
Foot Joseph, boot and shoe maker 

and victualler. Royal Oak 
Gard Thomas, farmer, Lower Cumery, 

and victualler (h) Modbury 
Hancock John, f;xrmer and carrier 
Hannaford Adams, farmer, Knowle 
Harris Mrs Georgina Maria, Easton 

cottage 
Hooppell Mr Benj. Holwell cottage 
Hooppell Benj.jun. farmer, Hex Down 
Hosking William, farmer, Holwell 
Luckraft Thomas, potato grower, 

Duke's mill 
Narramore Thomas, miller. Duke's mill 
Perraton Henry, farmer 
Roach Nicholas, shopkeeper & carrier 
Steer George, carpenter and shopkper 



Steer Hy. blcksmth. St.Ann's Chapel 

Steer John, shopkeeper 

Steer Simon, carpenter, St. Ann'sChapol 

Steer Thomas, wheelwright 

Taylor James, farmer, Noddon mill 

Terry George, sexton and mason 

Terry Robert, mason 

Wakeliam Jas. potato grower,]srew quay 

White JefFery, farmer, Nodden ; and 
saddler (h) Modbury 

Woodmason William, basket maker 
Duke's mill 

Wroth Edwd. farmer, Bigbury court 

Wroth John, farmer, Combe ; and 
Ayleston, Modbury and Ringmore ; 
h Combe 

Wroth William Shepherd, farmer, 
Mount Folly 

Carriers — John Hancock, and Nich- 
olas Roach to Plymouth, Saturday 



BISHOP'S MORCHARD, or Morchard Bishop, is a parish and village,'6 miles N.W\ by N. of Credi- 
ton, in Crediton union, county court district, hundred and petty sessional division, Northern division of the 
county, Exeter archdeaconry, and Cadbury rural deanery. Its parish, which includes the small hamlets, &c., 
of Oidhorough, Knightstone, Loioertoivn, Middlecott, Woodgate, Frost, Redhill, Leigh, and Woodlanc, had 
1473 inhabitants (734 males, 739 females) in 1871, living in 324 houses, on 7088 acres of land. Henry 
Churchill, Esq., is lord of the manor, which anciently belonged to the Bishops of Exeter, and afterwards 
passed to the Carew, Southcote, Boucher, and other families. Henry Churchill, Esq., T. C. Tucker, Esq., 
the Rev. B. T. Radford, Thomas Bennett, Esq., George Tucker, Esq., W. Leach, Esq., and the Mortimer 
and other families are owners of the soil. A large fair for sheep and cattle is held in the parish on the 
Monday after September 9th. Bartox HorsE, the residence of Henry Churchill, Esq., is a neat house, 
built aiiout 20 years ago. The Church (St. Mary) is a fine antique structure, with a painted east window, 
and a tower containing six bells. The living is a rectory, valued in ll.B. at £36, and now at £1000, in the 
patronage of the Rev. R. Bartholomew, and incumbency of the Rev. .Tames John Rov/e, M.A., who has 
63a. 3r. 5r. of glebe, and a rectory-house, built in 1790. The tithes were commuted in 1831 for £750 a 
year. The Congregational Church was built in 1860 at a cost of about £400, and has 220 sittings; a 
Sunday School has since been added at a further outlay of £150. The Wesletans and Bible Christians 
have also chapels here. The National School, which was erected in 1872 at an outlay of £2000, has 
accommodation for 280 children. The Poor's Land was purchased in 1713 for £250, given by about 20 
donors. It consists of a farm of 50 acres, called Ingoodown, let for about £30 a year, to which is added the 
interest of £100, which arose from the sale of timber, and the interest of about £220, which arose from the 
benefactions of donors named Comyns, Quick, Pridham, &c. The poor parishioners have six yearly rent 
charges, viz., 20s., left by John Quic'ke, in 1660 ; 135. Ad., left by Alexander Arundell, in 1667 ; \0s., left by 
John Chilcott, in 1700; 10s., left by Philip Lane, in 1817; and 20.'?., left by John Quicke, jun., in 1705. 
Mrs. Thoraasine Tucker, in 1733, left a yearly rent charge of £10, out of Wolland Down, at Sandford, to be 
applied as follows : £6 for schooling 16 poor children, and £4 in providing them with blue clothing. She 
also left 24s. a year out of the same estate, to be expended in coats for three poor men. Tlie poor 
parishioners have £10 yearly from Mrs. Tuckfield's Charity. (See Crediton.) In 1809, Abraham Way left 
£100 Three per Cent. Consols, in trust to apply the dividends in providing linen cloth for shirts, to be given 
to poor men of this parish. 

Post, Money Order, and Telegraph Office, and Savings Bank, at Mr. Edward Tolley's. Letters 
are received at 5.40 a.m., and are despatched at 7.40 p.m. 



l60 



Uisliop^ti^ Miorcliard, 



Bennett George, hurdle maker 
Bennett Mr Thos. (Exors. of), Cricket 

cottage 
Bennett Thos. jun. farmer, Wood Bartn 
Brewer John, carpontor 
Brownson George, tailor 
Brovvnson John, poulterer and carrier 
Burrows George, tailor 
Burrows Thomas, shoemaker 
Cann Edwin, farmer. Mere 
Cann James, baker and farmer 
Cann Mr John, The Lodge 
Cann Robert, confectioner 
Cann Roger, piano tuner 
Cann Stephen, miller and farmer, 

Bugbeare mills 
Cheriton William, former, Upcott 
Churchill Henry, farmer and land 

owner, Barton house 
Connabeer Henry, shoemaker 
Connabeer Robert, farmer and carrier 
Cooke Simon, farmer, Beech hill 
Corke Rev Edward (Independent) 
Cornwall John, farmer, Middleleigh 
Cousins Henry, farmer, Oxenpark 
Dadds Lewis, baker 
Davey Henry, tailor 
Davy James, timber hauler 
Delve William, tailor 
Densham Roger, farmer^ Middlecott 
Down John, farmer, Langland 
Drew Henry, carpenter. 
Drew James, carpenter 
Drew Robert, implement maker 
Edwards George, mason 
Edwards John, mason 
Edwards AVm.farmr.Knightstone down 
Ellis Edward, farmer, Lower Venn 
Ford Mrs Fanny, dressmaker 
Frost Henry, thatcher 
Gibbings Thomas, farmer, Browqstone 
Giles Edward, mason 
Grant Robert, butcher and farmer, 

Oldborough 
Greenslade Joseph, miller and farmer, 

Wigham mills 
Gunn George, shopkeeper 
Hall John, farmer, Bishopsleigh 
Hall Samuel, farmer, East Ash 



Hammett John, farmer, Little Brown- 
stone 
Hedgehmd James, poulterer, &c 
Holwill Wm. tallow chandler & farmer 
Horrell Henry, farmer, Moor 
Horrell Mr John, Laurel cottage 
Horwill Benjamin, thatcher 
Horwill James, thatcher 
Horwill AVm. farmer & tallow chandlr 
Howard John, chimney-sweeper 
Howard Richard, chimney-sweeper 
Jerrett James, cooper 
Kingdon Fredk. farmer, Rudge Rew 
Kingdon John. vict. Fountiiin Inn 
Kingdon Mr Silvanus, The Cottage 
Leach Richard Lee, farmer, Lower 

Southcott 
Leach Roger, farmer, Higher Southcott 
Leach William Henry, farmer and 

victualler, London Inn 
Leach Wm. farmer, Mount Pleasant 
Leach William, farmer, W^eek Barton 
Longman James, butcher 
Luxton Richard, machine maker 
Mare Peter, poulterer, &c 
Maunder John, farmer 
Maunder Samuel, farmer. Hill 
Meare William, farmer, Windwhistle 
Mortimer Charles &Frederick,farmers, 

Broadgate 
Mortimer Mrs Elizabeth, Prospect cot 
Mortimer Thomas, farmer, Wigham 
Morris William Cheriton, farmer, 

East Barton 
Page Robert, M.R.C.V.S., farmer and 

veterinary surgeon 
PassmoreSaml. farmer & timber hauler 
Phillips John, shopkeeper 
Pike William, saddler 
Pope William, farmer, Knathorn 
Pullman John Thomas, farmer, Rol- 

stone Barton 
Quick James, plumber, tinner, &c 
Reed George, farmer, Week Barton 
Reed John, wheelwright 
Reed William, blacksmith 
Rice Francis, machine mkr. & shopkpr 
Rice Simon, farmer, Northwood 
Rice William, farmer, Ingodown 



Rice William, poulterer, &c 

Rowe lliiv James John, M.A., rectoj-, 

The Rectory 
Salter John, farmer, Tatepath 
Salter William, shoemaker 
Saunder Edwin and Francis, farmer 

RuJge 
SmalbridgcRev John (Bible Christian i 
Smith Thomas, blacksmith 
Snape Charles, M.D., physician 
Southcott Richard, tailor 
Southcott Robert, shopkeeper 
ToUey Amos, station master 
Tolley Edward, grocer, baker, tailor, 

draper, assistant overseer, collector, 

and postmaster 
Tucker Aaron, farmer. Highland 
Tucker Miss Mary, Whites cottage 
Tucker Peter, farmer, Broadridge 
Tucker Robert, farmer, Westleigh 
Tucker Thomas, farmer, Lane end fl 
Tucker Thomas, farmer, Slade ^ 

Way James, shopkeeper and draper 
Webber George, blacksmith 
Webber John, shoemaker 
Webber Mrs Mary Ann, shopkeeper 
Wellacott William, farmer and re- 
lieving officer 
Wensley Mrs Rachael, dairy keeper, 

Lower town 
White Robt. watchmkr. & photogpher 
Woodman Robert, farmer, Scotland 
Wreford George, carpenter 
Wreford John, farmer & shopkeeper 
Wreford Matthew, farmer, Sidbury 
Wreford Robert, carpenter 
Wreford William, carpenter & sexton 
AVreford Wm. Hy, farmer, Middlecott 
Zeal Mrs Catherine, Nat. schoolmistrs 
Zeal Thomas, National schoolmaster 

and parish clerk, School house 

Railway — More-hard Road Station, 
(Barnstaple and North Devon line), 
Amos Tolley, station master 

Carriers to Exeter, John Brownson 
and Robert Connabeer, Friday 



BISHOP'S NYMPTON is a parish in South Molton union, county court district, petty sessional 
division and rural deanery, Barnstaple archdeaconry, "Witheridge hundred, and South Molton polling 
district of North Devon. The parish had 1155 inhabitants (599 males, 66Q females) in 1871, living in 237 
houses, on 9579 acres of land. The village is seated on a pleasant declivity, 3 miles E.S.E. of South 
Molton, and the parish is skirted on the west by the river Mole, and intersected by several small tributary 
streams. This large parish is hilly and fertile, includes many scattered farm houses, and the hamlets of 
Ash Mill, 1^ mile E. ; Neivton, 1 mile N. ; and Bishop's Mill, or Bish Mill, 1^ mile S.E. of the village. A 
cattle fair is held here on the Wednesday before October 25. The manor belonged from a very early period 
to the Bishops of Exeter, but became vested by Act of Parliament in the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, 
from whom it was purchased, in 1871, by William Keates, Esq., who is now lord of the manor, and 
holds yearly a court leet and baron, of which Arthur Burch, Esq., is steward. The soil is held by numer- 
ous free and copy holders, the largest of whom are William Keates, Esq., Sir W. Throgmorton, the 
Bev. Prebendary W. H. Karslake, the Rev. J. Bawden, Miss Mary Preston, and R. J. Cross, H. Love- 
band, and I. Passmore, Esqrs. A large old farm-house called the Parsonage, now the residence of Mr. 
H. Loveband, is supposed to have been an occasional residence of the Bishops, and its barn has evidently 
been a chapel, from the appearance of its carved ceiling. An old manor-house, called Whitechapel, was 
long held by the Basset, Lear, Gibbins, Pollard, and other families. Mole Mills are occupied as a woollen 
(serge) manufactory. The Rev. Thomas Baker, an eminent mathematician, and author of ' The Geometrical 
Key,' was several years vicar here, and died in 1689. John Loosemore, who built the fine organ in Exeter 
Cathedral, was a native of this parish, and died in 1686. The Church (St. Mary) is a very long building 
of two aisles, with a fine tower. The nave was restored in 1869, at the cost of £1500, and the tower 
in 1877, at an outlay of £318. The church has a fine Norman font. The Register dates from 1558. The 



I> e von shire . 



161 



Ecclesiastical Commissioners are impropriators of the great tithes, which are commuted at £421 ; the small 
tithes are commuted for £379 a year. The living is a vicarage, valued in K.B. at £20 7s. S^d., and now at 
£379, in the patronage of the Bishop of Exeter, and incumbency of the Rev. 0. L. O'Neill, M.A., who has 
7 acres of glebe and a house, built'in 1836 at a cost of £1300. The Independents have a wood building at 
Bish Mill, the Wesleyans a chapel at Newtown, and the Bible Christians have a room in the parish. 
The School Board was formed in November, 1874, and consists of the Rev. 0. L. O'Neill (chairman and 
clerk), and Messrs. E. Passmore (vice-chairman), II. Loveband, R. Crang, and F. Jutsum. The Board 
School, with teachers' residence, was erected in 1877, in the centre of the parish, at a cost of £800, to accom- 
modate seventy children. The old Village School was altered and enlarged at an expense of over £300. The 
poor have the dividends of £480 12s. 5il 3 per Cent. Consols, purchased with £263 left by various benefac- 
tors. They have also 1^ acre of land, left by John Blackmore in 1727. 

Post Office at Mr. William Warren's. Letters are received at 8.15 a.m., and despatched at 5.20 p.m. 
via Southmolton, which is the nearest Money Order Office. 



Arnold George, steward to William 

Keates, Esq. 
Ayre Frederick, farmer, Eeach 
Ayre Gecirge, farmer. East Welland 
Ayre Henry, tax collector & i.ssistant 

overseer. West mill 
Ayre John, farmer, Pillavin 
Ayre Eobert, yeoman, Muckford 
Ayre Mr William, West Welland 
Ayre William, yeoman, West Welland 
B.iker Edward, mason and builder 
Eaker Wm. Kemp, farmer, Bailey head 
Bawden Edward, tailor 
Boundy Amos, grocer, draper & tailor 
Buckingham Wm, yeoman, Burlaford 
Buckingham William, yeoman, Berwill 
Cann Richard, vict. Black Cock Hotel 
Chanter Henry, builder 
Chanter Hugh, baker and builder 
Cock Mr William, New house 
Dockings Wm. miller, Avercombe mills 
Oockram Francis, farmer, Hole park 
dockram William, farmer. Hall 
Dole George, beerhouse, shopkeeper 

and blacksmith, Bish mill 
ilJole Richard, carpenter and wheel- 
wright, Bish mill 
Jole Samuel, farmer, Webbry Moore 
Mwill John Toms, farmer & butcher 
yoneybeer Alfred George, miller and 

farmer, Garliford mill 
popp Hy. farmer, Whitechapel Barton 
;>rang Andrew, farmer and manure 
I merchant. North Hayne 
!rang Richard, yeoman, Drewstone 
'Crispin John, victualler, mason and 
farmer. Red Lion 
rispin William, cooper 
j'rook Charles, blacksmith 
I'arch Wm. farmer, Park House farm 
'avey Albert Edwd. farmr. East wood i 



Dunn Jeremiah, farmer, Broadhill 
German Chas. blacksmith & ironmongr 
German John, wheelwright & shopkpr 
Gough Mrs Harriet, farmer, Bridge end 
Gunn George, grocer and draper 
Hancock James, farmer, Rawstone 
Hancock Thomas, farmer, Bailey head 
Hayes AYiliiam, farmer, Capitol 
Hill Edwd. farmer, Lower East Week 
Hill James, farmer, Crosse 
Hill Thomas, farmer. Park 
Hobbs George, farmer and blacksmith, 

Coombesland 
Hole Walter, station master 
Hollaway William, farmer, Garliford 
Holloway Thomas, farmer, Sheepwash 
Hollway John, blacksmith, Three 

Horse shoes 
Hulland Samuel, farmer, Gorton hill 
Jones Richard, farmer. Lionslake 
JutsumEdwin, farmr. West Avercombe 
Jutsum Fredk. farmr. East Avercombe 
Jutsum Joseph, farmer, Grilston 
Jutsum Richard, relieving officer for 

Witheridge district, Grilston 
Kerslake Thos. blacksmith. Ash mill 
Lake William, farmer. Bridge 
Loveband Henry, yeoman. Parsonage 
Loveband Robert Chorley, farmer. 

Court green 
Manning James, farmer. Higher Week 
Mogford Richard, farmer, Yeo 
Oliver Richard, farmer. East Johnson 
O'Neill Rev Owen Lucas, MA. vicar. 

The Vicarage 
Packer Wm. yeoman. Lower Radley 
Passmore Edmund, farmer, Mornacott 
Passmore John, yeoman, Aller 
Passmore Philip, shoemaker 
Passmore Robert,farmer, West Johnson 
Peagam Thomas, carpenter, Bish mill 



Peagam Thomas, farmer & carpenter 
Peagam Wm. carpntr. Rawstone cross 
Pearce James, farmer, Kippscott 
Peeke Mr Harold, Park house 
Peeke Mrs Sarah, Park house 
Puncher Mrs Jane, higgler 
Redler Mr John, Bish mill 
Redler Thos. John, miller, Bish mill 
Reed John, farmer, Middleport 
Reed Thomas, farmer. South Hayne 
Rendell Henry, National schoolmaster 
Rodd James, shoemaker 
Rodd John, shoemaker & parish clerk 
Rodd William, builder 
Rowcliffe Philip, yeoman. Little Hele 
Russell Thomas, farmer. West Radley 
Sanders Robert, chemist and farrier 
Seatherton George, farmer, Furze hill 
Shapcott Matthew, seedsman 
Shopland George, farmer, Webbrys 
Stanbury John, vict. Masons' Arms 
Tapp William, baker 
Thorne John, farmer, Bicknor 
Toms Mr George Spencer, Stone house 
Toms Mr William, Rock house 
Treble William, farmer, Knowle 
Venner Charles, farmer, Slough 
Venner Jacob, farmer, Kerscott 
Vickery William, builder & contractor 
Waldron John, carpenter 
Waldron Samuel, carpenter 
Waldron Walter, carpenter 
Warren William, tailor & postmaster 
Way Robert, farmer, Waterhouse 
Webber John, farmer, Vereby 
Webber Robert, farmer, Westwood 
Webber William, :^irmer. East Radley 
Westacott George, fai'mer, Hilltown 

Railway (Devon and Somerset line) ; 
AValter Hole, station master 



BISHOP'S TAWTO^ is a parish and village on the east side of the fertile and picturesque valley 
f the river Taw, 2^- miles S. by E. of Barnstaple, in Barnstaple union, archdeaconry and rural deanery, 
Dunty court district, Braunton petty sessional division, Barnstaple polling district of North Devon, and 
authmolton hundred. Its parish, which includes NeivpoH, a suburb of Barnstaple, had 1904 inhabitants 
>j.'j males, 1071 females) in 1871, living in 402 houses, on 4263 acres of land. Newport is a portion ot 
■arnstaple municipal borough, and its description and directory are given at page 132. The Duke of Bedford 
lord of the manor of Bishop's Tawton, which belonged at an early period to the Bishops of Devonshire, 
id was the original Bishop's see ; but Putta, the second bishop, removed the see to Crediton. The manor 
as conveyed by Bishop Veysey, in 1550, to Lord John Russell, afterwards Earl of Bedford, at the request of 
ting, together with other manors. The Bishops had a palace here many years after the see was removed, 
^ is now a farm-house near the churchyard. Ilobert Chichester, Esq., owns Haton, Hall, Pill, W^ellesleigh 
[almeston estates; and Sir B. P. Wrey, Bart., Mrs. My. Babbage, Mrs. Jph. Sanders, and several smaller 
rs have estates in the parish. Mr. Chichester has a large handsome mansion in the Elizabethan style, 
[ing in park-like grounds, and commanding extensive views of the Taw valley, erected in 1846-8 at Hall, 
fwas the ancient seat of a family of that name, whose heiress brought the estate to the Chichester family 
'31. The Church (St. John) is an ancient structure, consisting of a nave, chancel, and north aisle with 

L 



162 



Uisliop'N Ta^vton. 



a tower and spire. In restoring the north aisle in 1849, a series of interesting frescoes in good preservation 
were discovered, covering the whole of the north side, and surrounded by an ornamental border. The 
principal figures in these antique paintings are 10 feet high. The churcli^ was restored in 1860, at a cost of 
.1-1200, when the cliancel, the porch at south entrance, and the vestry were rebuilt, and the church partially 
reseated ; the reseating was completed in 1867. Three windows in the chancel, and one in the nortli aisle, 
are hlled with stained glass, executed by Lavers and Barraud, and the west window of the nave has been 
similarly enriched by Beer, of Exeter. In the churchyard are some remains of the .incient Bishop's palace, 
and of the ancient village cross. The living is a vicarage, valued in K.B. at £'21, in the patronage of the 
Bishop of Exeter, and incumbency of the Rev. H. F. Baker, M.A., who has 26 acres of glebe and a handsome 
Elizabethan residence, erected in 1841 at a cost of about £1800. The rectorial tithes, which belong to the 
Ecclesiastical Commissioners, are commuted at £350, and the vicarial at £445. Albert Brailey, Esq., is 
lessee of the former. The Bible Christians and the Brethrej^ have each a chapel in the village. The 
ScnooL, erected in 1841, was improved in 1874 at a cost of £40; and an infant school was added in 1874 ; 
the former has an attendance of 110, and the latter of 30 children. The Parish Land (4 acres) was purchased 
with £100 left by John Berryman, in 1618, for the poor, who have also the interest of £32, which was 
expended in enlarging the Church House. They have also the following yearly sums : — 265., left by Hugh 
Acland ; and lOs,, left by John Rowley. The vicar has an annuity of 2i^s. 8d., left by Elizabeth Martyn, in 
1663, for catechising the children. 

Post from Barnstaple, which is the nearest Railway Station and Money Order Office. 



Adams Mr SheldonBurrows, Chest wood 
Arseott Mrs Charlotte, victualler, 

Three Pigeons 
Babbage Mrs Mary, Cotton farm 
Baker Eev Henry Fowler, M.A. vicar, 

The Vicarage 
Baker John, farmer, Ycotown 
Blatchford Wm. farmer, Tawton road 
Brailey William, farmer, Downrew 
Brealey John, tailor 
Brewer Alfred Chaplin, national 

schoolmaster 
Buckingham Wm. farmer, Shillstone 
Challacombe Thos. former, Hill farm 
Chichester Chas. Esq. J.P., D.L.,Hall 
Chichester Kobert, Esq. B.A., J.P., 

D.L., Hall 
Colmor Mr James, Downrew house 
Crocker Thomas, farmer, Cross farm 
Darch Kichd. corn miller, Whitemoor 
Darch Richard, farmer, Upeott 
Davie Capt.Geo, Christopher, The Elms 



Delve John, blacksmith 
Downing Miss Mary Ann 
Dunn Samuel, farmer, Newhouse 
Dyer John, butcher, Barnstaple 
Edwards Mr Wm. Hy. King's cottage 
j Florance Richard, vict. Ring of Bells 
Ford Mrs Mary, postmistress 
Gay don Mrs Mary Davie, farmer, 

Cotton farm 
Heslop Mrs Margaret, housekpr. Hall 
Hook away, John, farmer 
Houle George, farmer 
Houle John, farmer, Hiilmstone 
Houle William, farmer, Emmetts 
Hugo Mr Wm. Fredk. Mount San dford 
Joslin Francis, farmer 
Lock Thomas, butler, Hall 
Maynard Mr John 
Moore James, farmer, Overton ; and 

manure merchant, Barnstaple 
Nichols Robert, farmer, Downrew 
Nott Mrs Ann 



Packer George, farmer, Downrew 
Pickford James, tailor 
Pile James, shopkeeper 
Quick Thos. grocer and corn merchant 
Ridd Mr Thomas, Venn cottage 
Robbing Miss Priscilla, infant school- 
mistress 
Rudall William, grocer & accountant 
Sampson John, coal dealer 
Sanders Mr Joseph 
Sanders Robert Bryant, farmer, 

Whitemoor 
Snow Anthony, market gardener 
Snow George, farm bailiff. Higher 

Woolacott 
Stevens Wm. bootmaker & parish clerk 
Thomas George, blacksmith & farmt i- 
Vickery Thomas, corn miller 
Waldon John, farmer and assistant 

overseer, Great Fishertou 
WaldronMrs Eliz. farmer, Court fa 
Westram Mr Thomas 



1 



BISHOP'S TEIGNTON is a parish and village on the north side of the estuary of the river Teign, 2 
miles W. of Teignmouth, and 4 miles E.N.E. of Newton Abbot, and is in Newton Abbot union and county 
court district, Teignbridge petty sessional division, Teignmouth polling district of East Devon, Exminster 
hundred, Exeter archdeaconry, and Kenn rural deanery. It had 1039 inhabitants (504 males, 535 females) 
in 1871, living in 238 houses, on 4748 acres (inclusive of 365 acres of water). The ancient parish includes 
Ltiton ecclesiastical district (noticed at a subsequent page) and the villages of Ashwell and Coombe. In the 
parish are several handsome villas, commanding delightful views of the Teign and its opposite banks down 
to the sea coast. The Rev. G. T. Comyns, of Wood, is lord of the manors of Bishop's Teignton and Rad- 
way ; and he and I. G. J. Templer, Esq., of Lindridge, are the principal owners of the soil. The manor- 
house of Radway was held until 1549 by the Bishops of Exeter, and there are still some remains of the chapel. 
I. G. J. Templer, Esq., resies at Lindridge, which was formerly the seat of Sir Peter Lear. Miss Pidsley 
owns Ware, and several smaller proprietors have estates here. The ruin called 'The old Walls' was, 
according to Polwhele, formerly an hospital for decayed clergymen, built probably by Bishop Grandison about 
1328. The same authority adds, ' An old chapel in Bishop's House was demolished by Thomas Widburn, of 
Ash Hill, who used the materials to his old buildings. And on Venn was a chapel profaned, it is said, by 
Bartholomew Narramore, and now used as a dairy. The above chapel, dedicated to John the Baptist, occurs 
in the Episcopal registers.' The OnuECH (St. John the Baptist) stands in a beautiful churchyard, and is an 
interesting structure, finely covered with ivy, consisting of chancel, nave, north aisle, and Norman tower 
containing six hells and crowned with handsome Gothic minarets. The original style of the edifice was 
Norman of the 12th century, but many additions and alterations have been'made. The doorway at the 
western entrance is a beautiful specimen of Norman work. By degrees, during the present vicar's incum- 
bency, at considerable cost the church has been thoroughly restored ; the galleries have been removed, the 
windows re-opened, and the entire church re-seated in a uniform manner. The ancient arches between the 
nave and north aisle have been divested of their whitewash, and are now repaired, redressed, and restored to 
their original stone. The tracery of these arches is rich in the chevron or zigzag mouldings, interspersed 
Avith the wavy line and triangular frette : they spring from shafts with capitals indented and decorated with 
volutes, leaves, flowers, and fruits of elaborate workmanship. The organ, recently remodelled and enlarged, 
is placed iu a chamber on the north side of the chancel. The windows are all of stained glass — several ol'i 



I> e voMLSliire. 



163 



which are handsome memorial -windows — to the memory of the late vicar, the Kev. John Comyns, the Hon. 
W. II. Gardner, Mrs. Ogle, Captain Rhodes, and Mrs. Hole. The chancel roof is richly painted with sacred 
emblems, and the walls adorned with mural paintings. The altar precincts are decorated with encaustic tiles. 
The churchyard has recently been enlarged. The church was lately re-roofed in a handsome and substantial 
manner at a cost of £600. The total outlay on recent improvements has been about £5000. The living is a 
vicarage, valued in K.B. at £25 8s. (certified value, £48 10s.), in the patronage and incumbency of the Rev. 
W. R. Ogle, M.A., and rural dean, who has a vicarage house, built by the late vicar about 60 years ago. 
The glebe is 8 acres, and the tithes were commuted in 1842, the rectorial for £499, and the vicarial for £217. 
The Rev. ~SV. R. Ogle is also vicar of Luton, a parish formerly included in that of Bi«shop's Teignton. The 
Wesleyans and the Peimitive Methodists have meeting-rooms here. Commodious Schools were erected 
in 1856, and were enlarged in 1876 at a cost of £560. The schools are attended by about 100 children, a 
number of whom are taught free and partly clothed from the rent of a house and i8A. Ik. 27p. of land at 
Bovey Tracey, purchased with £557, of which £400 was left by Christopher Coleman, who built a school in 
1719. The poor have the rent of Broad 3Ieadow (2 acres), which was purchased with £100 left by Sir 
Thomas Lear, in 1705. The Church Houses were built about twenty years ago on land given by the present 
vicar, and have a small endowment for the aged poor, left by the late Mr. Rhodes, of Teign Lawn. 
Post from Teignmouth, which is the nearest Railway Station. 



Barrow Mr William, Hollowmead 
Beer Samuel, coal dealer. Floor 
Berry Richard, wheelwright 
BooneWm. victualler. Commercial Inn 
Boone Wm. sen. shoemaker & shpkpr. 
Brown MichaelLewis,Esq.J.P.,Keittos 
Brown William, Eadway villa 
Burdon Mr George, Higher green 
Chandles Mr John, Cockhaven 
Coombe Henry, stonemason 
Coombe Jph. baker and shopkeeper 
Crute Henry, thatcher 
Be Brett Miss, Clanage cottage 
Fey William, carpenter and joiner 
Fxirse Miss Mary, Westeria cottage 
Gill William, carrier 
Goodman Samuel, beerhouse 
Guerin Col.Edmund Arthur.Delamore 
Harris Christopher Arthur, Esq. J.P. 

Cross house 
Harris Richard, baker & shopkeeper 



Hill David, brewer, farmer & vict. 
Manor Inn 

Hill Samuel & George, coal dealers 

Honywill George, butcher 

Huddleston Mrs Mary Esther, The 
Lodge 

Jackman Albert, tailor 

Johnson John, butcher 

Key worth Mrs, Lower green 

Kimber Chas. West, grocer & draper; 
and Exeter and Topsham 

Lake John, farmer. Ash Hill farm 

Major Henry, blacksmith 

Marshall Miss Ellen, 2 Teign View 
villas 

Martin William, sexton 

Meek Edward, cab proprietor 

Milford William, thatcher 

North James, shoemaker 

Nosworthy Miss Eliz. national school- 
mistress 



Ogle Rev William Reynolds, M.A., 

vicar and rural dean, The Vicarage 
Penny Mr Robert Greenwood, 1 Teign 

View villas 
Pinkham George, coal dealer 
Pook John, postmaster 
Rossiter Mrs Mary, frmr. HigherWare 
Seagell Richard, blacksmith 
Simpson Miss, day school 
Soper James, farmer. Higher Radway 
Soper Thomas John, manager 
Stamp George, nurseryman, seedsman, 

and gardener 
Taylor Thomas, stonemason 
Underbill Henry, farmer, Cockhaven 
Vickery Charles, grocer and draper 
Vincent John, carpenter, joiner, and 

wheelwright 
Vooght Mr Joseph, Myrtle cottage 
Whidborne George, farmer, Shute 
Young Mrs Frances Eliza, Teign lawn 



BITTADON is a small parish, 6 miles N. by W. of Barnstaple, in Barnstaple union, county court dis- 
trict, archdeaconry and rural deanery, Braunton petty sessional division and hundred, and Ilfracombe 
polling district of North Devon. The parish had 5Q inhabitants (25 males, 31 females) in 1871, living in 
10 houses, on 1018 acres of land. W. A. Yeo, Esq., owns most of the land, and is lord of the manor, 
which was successively held by the Lutterell, Chichester, Acland and Barbor families. The Chukch (St. 
Peter) is a small, antique, ivy-mantled fabric, consisting of chancel and nave, and is perhaps one of the 
smallest churches in the county. The living is a rectory, valued in K.B. at £6 2s. 8^d., in the gift of W. A. 
Yeo, Esq., and incumbency of the Rev. Francis Mules, who has 27 acres of glebe and a rectory-house almost 
new. The tithes were commuted in 1841 for £75 a year. Mr. Mules is a lineal descendant from the grand- 
father of William the Conqueror. 

Post through Barnstaple, which is the nearest Money Order Office. Ilfracombe and Barnstaple are the 
aearest Railway Stations. 



Harris Jas. farmer 



Mules Rev Francis, incumbent 



BLACKAWTON (or Blackauton) is a parish in Kingsbridge union and county court district, 
Stanborough and Coleridge petty sessional division, Dartmouth polling district of South Devon, Coleridge 
lundred, Totnes archdeaconry, and Woodleigh rural deanery. The parish includes Blackmvton village, 5 miles 
W. of Dartmouth, the village and chapel of Street, on the coast of Start Bay, more than 4 miles S.S.E. of the 
)arish church, and S.W. of Dartmouth, and the hamlets of Shejilegh-Boiu, Britton, Hutcherley, East iJoivn, 
Borlestone, Millcomhc, and Woodford. It had 1241 inhabitants (6*09 males, 632 females) in 1871, living in 
267 houses, on 5646 acres (including 60 acres of water). A large village called UnderclitF is said to have 
)een destroyed by the encroachments of the sea many years ago. The "barton of Cotterbury has an inde- 
)endent royalty. There are but few resident landowners ; Colonel Ridgway, of Sheplegh Court, is lord of 
he manor of Dallacombe Pruston, and owner of several farms on the north side of the parish, as well as 
and adjoining, in the parishes of Halwell and Slapton. H. L. Toll, Esq., of the Manor House, at Street, 
3 lord of the manor of Treverbyn and owner of a great part of the parish, and the rest belongs to W. 
)imes, Esq., Lieut.-Col. Scale-Hayne, J. Netherton, Esq., and Mrs. Buller ; there are now very few small 
reeholders. Sheplegh Court, which has been in a great measure rebuilt in the Tudor style by the present 
wner, Colonel Ridgway, representative of the ancient famil}^ of Ridgway, of Torrwood and Torr Abbey, 
7as in the 16th century the property of the old Devon family of Culme, now extinct, but represented in the 

l2 



164? 



Blacka^vrton, 



i 



female line by Sir Michael Culnie Seymour. The grounds have during the last quarter of a century be 
greatly improved by judicious plan tmg; so that at the present time, in point of architectural effect and 
picturesque scenery, combined with a large collection of very valuable pictures, and other art treasures, and 
a large library rich in manuscripts of genealogy and county history, Sheplegh may be considered one of 
the principal seats in the south of Devon. In 1567, Hugh Culme sold Sheplegh to Richard Peek, ancestor 
of the present Sir Henry Peek, Bart., and the family continued to reside there for several generations, until 
about the middle of the last century it passed to coheiresses under the will of John Peek, of Exmouth. 
.The manor of Dallacombe Pruston was for many generations the property of the Fortescues, of Pruston, 
which branch subsequently merged its representation and lands in the Fallapit line, until the early part of 
the present century, when the estates passing to two coheiresses, Pruston became eventually the property of 
Elizabeth, only daughter of Mr. Edmund Wells Fortescue, who married the late Kichard Ridgway, Esq., of 
Sheplegh-Bow. 

The Church (St. Michael) is a large antique Perpendicular structure, consisting of chancel, nave, 
aisles, porch, and tower containing six bells. The capitals of the pillars are carved with shields, bearing the 
Torr Abbey arms, part of the estates of which became the property of the Ridgways at the dissolution of 
the monasteries, in the time of Henry VHI. It is possibly in memory of this event, that among the 
valuable paintings at Sheplegh Court is a very fine portrait, by Holbein, of Thomas Cromwell, Earl of 
Essex, Henry's vicar-general, and destroyer of the abbeys. In the chancel are three cinque-foiled sedilia, 
and a handsome double piscina. The nave has a good screen and a fine Norman font. The Register dates 
from 1538. The living is a vicarage, valued in K.B. at £15 Ss. dd., and in 1831 at £118, in the patronage of 
H. Gibbon, Esq., and incumbency of the Rev. Daniel S. Chater, who has a good residence, recently 
repaired at a cost of £300, The glebe is 10^ acres, and the impropriate rent-charge £891. The tithes, 
which formerly belonged to Torr Abbey, are now held by the trustees of the late Abraham Welland, Esq., 
and were commuted in 1841 for £739 6s. 6d. per annum, subject to the vicar's stipend. The tithes, how- 
over, of some of the estates, belonging among others to Mr. Toll and Colonel Ridgway, were purchased at a 
sale held by the trustees some years ago. 

Street Chapel-of-Ease, at the south end of the parish, was built in 1836, and consists of nave and 
low tower containing one bell ; it is proposed to add a chancel. The late Mrs. Augusta Packe left £1000 
toward the endowment of the curacy, which will be met by another £1000 from the Ecclesiastical Com- 
missioners. The assignment of a district to this church is under consideration. There is a small Wesleyan 
Chapel at Blackawton, and another at Street. The vicar has £8 12s. a year, left by William Wootten, in 
1689, out of land at Cullompton. Several rent-charges, left by the Rev. Richard Sparkes in 1699, have been 
exchanged for £257 Three per Cent. Consols. The yearly dividends are distributed in bread among the poor, 
except 30s. for a sermon, and 10s. for the parish clerk. The School Board was formed on August 21, 1874, 
and now consists of Lieutenant-Colonel Ridgway, J.P. (chairman), Mr. Philip Hayman (vice-chairman), 
the Rev. D, S. Chater, Mr. H. Lamble, and Lieutenant-Colonel Madden, J.P. Percy Hockin, Esq., of 
Dartmouth, is clerk to the board. The old parish school has been transferred to the board, and it is 
intended to repair and enlarge it. 

Post Oeeice at Mrs. Eliz. Hambling's. Letters are received at 7 a.m., and despatched at 6.15 p.m 
Totnes. Dartmouth is the nearest Money Order Office and Railway Station. 



Beaven Arthur, Board schoolmaster 
Blake Thos. farmer, Lower "Wadstray 
Bond Benjamin, farmer, Cliston 
Bond Hy. farmer & cattle dlr. Dritton 
Bond William, miller, Millcombe 
Burgoyne John, farmer, West Down 
Bu